Advertisement

Sexueller Kindesmissbrauch und die Nutzung von Missbrauchsabbildungen

  • Laura F. Kuhle
  • Umut Oezdemir
  • Klaus M. Beier
Chapter
Part of the Psychotherapie: Manuale book series (PSMA)

Zusammenfassung

Die sexuelle Ausbeutung von Kindern und Jugendlichen umfasst ein breites Spektrum sexueller Missbrauchshandlungen. Aber auch durch die Verbreitung und Nutzung von Abbildungen dieser Handlungen (sog. Missbrauchsabbildungen) werden Kinder sexuell ausgebeutet. Zur Darstellung kommen Häufigkeiten, strafrechtliche Bewertung und Opferfolgen dieser Handlungen, die zum größten Teil im sog. Dunkelfeld stattfinden, d. h. den Ermittlungsbehörden bzw. der Justiz nicht bekannt werden. Zur Beschreibung dieses fremdschädigenden Verhaltens wird das Konzept der Dissexualität eingeführt sowie ein Einblick in verursacherbezogene Erklärungsmodelle für sexuellen Kindesmissbrauch und die Nutzung von Missbrauchsabbildungen ermöglicht. Hieraus ergibt sich, das sexuelle Interesse an Kindern im Sinne einer Pädophilie bzw. Hebephilie im Rahmen eines multimodalen präventiven Behandlungsansatzes als stabilen Einflussfaktor maßgeblich zu beachten.

Literatur

  1. Abel, G., Becker, J., & Cunningham-Rathner, J. (1984). Complications, consent, and cognitions in sex between children and adults. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 7, 89–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahlers, C .J., Schaefer, G. A., Mundt, I. A., Roll, S., Englert, H., Willich, S., & Beier, K. M. (2011). How unusual are the contents of paraphilias – Prevalence of Paraphilia-Associated Sexual Arousal Patterns (PASAPs) in a community-based sample of men. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 8(5),1362–1370. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.17436109.2009.01597.x.
  3. Alanko, K., Salo, B., Mokros, A., & Santtila, P. (2013). Evidence for heritability of adult men’s sexual interest in youth under age 16 from a population-based extended twin design. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 10(4),1090–1099.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jsm.12067
  4. Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2006). The Psychology of Criminal Conduct (4. Aufl.). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.Google Scholar
  5. Arkowitz, S., & Vess, J. (2003). An evaluation of the Bumby RAPE and MOLEST scales as measures of cognitive distortions with civilly committed sexual of-fenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research & Treatment, 15, 237–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Armbrust, M., & Ehrig, C. (2016). Skillstraining für Patienten mit Borderline-Störung. PPmP – Psychotherapie Psychosomatik·Medizinische Psychologie, 66(07),283–298.Google Scholar
  7. Banse, R. (2013). Sexueller Missbrauch von Kindern. Was sind die Ursachen? Vortrag im Symposium: 5. Internationales Symposium für Forensische Psychiatrie, Zürich. Abgerufen Januar 2018, von http://docplayer.org/45631469-Sexueller-missbrauch-vonkindern-was-sind-die-ursachen.html.
  8. Beier, K. M. (1995). Dissexualität im Lebenslängsschnitt. Theoretische und empirische Untersuchungen zu Phänomenologie und Prognose begutachteter Sexualstraftäter. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  9. Beier, K .M. (1998). Differential typology and prognosis for dissexual behavior – a follow-up study of previously expert-appraised child molesters. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 111(3),133–141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Beier, K. M., Bosinski, H. A. G., & Loewit, K. (2005). Sexualmedizin: Grundlagen und Praxis (2. Aufl.). München: Elsevier, Urban und Fischer.Google Scholar
  11. Beier, K. M., Neutze, J., Mundt, I. A., Ahlers, C .J., Goecker, D., Konrad, A., & Schaefer, G. A. (2009). Encouraging self-identified pedophiles and hebephiles to seek professional help: First results of the Berlin Prevention Project Dunkelfeld (PPD). Child Abuse & Neglect, 33, 545–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beier, K. M., Amelung, T., Grundmann, D., & Kuhle, L. F. (2015). Pädophilie und Hebephilie im Kontext sexuellen Kindesmissbrauchs. Sexuologie, 22(3-4), 127–136.Google Scholar
  13. Bensley, L. S., Van Eenwyk, J., & Simmons, K. W. (2000). Self-reported childhood sexual and physical abuse and adult HIV-risk behaviors and heavy drinking. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 18(2),151–158.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Berthelot, N., Godbout, N., Hébert, M., Goulet, M., & Bergeron, S. (2014). Prevalence and correlates of childhood sexual abuse in adults consulting for sexual problems. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 40(5),434–443. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/0092623X.2013.772548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bieneck S., Stadler L., Pfeiffer C., & Niedersachsen, K. F. (2011) Erster Forschungsbericht zur Repräsentativerhebung Sexueller Missbrauch 2011. Hannover: Kriminologisches Forschungsinstitut Niedersachsen (KFN).Google Scholar
  16. Bischof, G. P., Stith, S. M., & Wilson, S. M. (1992). A comparison of the family systems of adolescent sexual offenders and nonsexual offending delinquents. Family Relations, 41(3)318–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bundeskriminalamt (2017). Polizeiliche Kriminalstatistik Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Berichtsjahr 2016. Wiesbaden. https://www.bka.de/DE/AktuelleInformationen/StatistikenLagebilder/PolizeilicheKriminalstatistik/PKS2016/pks2016_node.html
  18. Bode, H., & Heßling, A. (2015). Jugendsexualität 2015. Die Perspektive der 14- bis 25-Jährigen. Ergebnisse einer aktuellen Repräsentativen Wiederholungsbefragung. Köln: Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung.Google Scholar
  19. Brezo, J., Paris, J., Vitaro, F., Hébert, M., Tremblay, R., & Turecki G. (2008). Predicting suicide attempts in young adults with histories of childhood abuse. The British Journal Of Psychiatry: The Journal Of Mental Science, 193(2),134–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bumby, K. M. (1996). Assessing the cognitive distortions of child molesters and rapists: development and validation of the MOLEST and RAPE scales. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research & Treatment, 8, 37–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bumby, K. M., & Hansen, D. J. (1997). Intimacy deficits, fear of intimacy, and loneliness among sexual offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 24, 315–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chen, L. P., Murad, M. H, Paras, M. L.,Colbenson, K. M.,Sattler, A. L., Goranson, E. N., Elamin, M. B., Seime, R. J., Shinozaki, G., Prokop, L. J., & Zirakzadeh, A. (2010). Sexual abuse and lifetime diagnosis of psychiatric disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 85(7),618–629.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Cortoni, F., & Marshall, W. L. (2001). Sex as a coping strategy and its relationship to juvenile sexual history and intimacy in sexual offenders. Sexual Abuse, 13(1),27–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cougle, J. R., Timpano, K. R., Sachs-Ericsson, N., Keogh, M. E., & Riccardi, C. J. (2010). Examining the unique relationships between anxiety disorders and childhood physical and sexual abuse in the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication. Psychiatry Research, 177(1–2), 150–155.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dennison, S. M., Stough, C., & Birgden, A. (2001). The Big 5 dimension personality ap-proach to understanding sex offenders. Psychology, Crime and Law, 7, 243–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dombert, B., Schmidt, A. F., Banse, R., Briken, P., Hoyer, J., Neutze, J., & Osterheider, M. (2015). How common is men’s selfreported sexual interest in prepubescent children? The Journal of Sex Research, 53, 214–223. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499. 2015.1020108.
  27. Eke, A. W., Seto, M. C., & Williams, J. (2011). Examining the criminal history and future offending of child pornography offenders: an extended prospective follow-up study. Law and Human Behavior, 35(6),466–478. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10979-010-9252-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Elliott, I. A., Beech, A. R., Mandeville-Norden, R., & Hayes, E. (2009). Psychological pro-files of Internet sexual offenders: comparisons with contact sexual offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research & Treatment, 21, 76–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fagan, E. J., Wise, T. N., Schmidt, C. W., Ponticas, Y., Marshall, R. D., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (1991). A comparison of five-factor personality dimensions in males with sexual dys-functions and males with paraphilia. Journal of Personality Assessment, 5, 434–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Faistbauer, S. (2011). Dissexualitätsbehandlung im einzeltherapeutischen Setting zur Prävention sexueller Übergriffe auf Kinder (Dissertationsschrift). Online unter: http://www.diss.fu-berlin.de/diss/receive/FUDISS_thesis_000000020741.
  31. Feelgood, S., Cortoni, F., & Thompson, A. (2005). Sexual coping, general coping and cognitive distortions in incarcerated rapists and child molesters. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 11(2),157–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Finkelhor, D. (1984). Child sexual abuse: New theory and research. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  33. Finkelhor, D. (2009). The prevention of childhood sexual abuse. The Future of Children, 19(2),169–194.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Görgen, T., Rauchert, K., & Fisch, S. (2012). Langfristige Folgen sexuellen Missbrauchs Minderjähriger. Forensische Psychiatrie, Psychologie, Kriminologie, 6(1),3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Grundmann, D., Krupp, J., Scherner, G., Amelung, T., & Beier, K. M. (2016). Stability of self-reported arousal to sexual fantasies involving children in a clinical sample of pedophiles and hebephiles. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(5),1153–1162. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-016-0729-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Habetha, S., Bleich, S., Sievers, C., Marschall, U., Weidenhammer, J., & Fegert, J.M. (2012). Deutsche Traumafolgekostenstudie. Kiel: Schmidt & Klaunig.Google Scholar
  37. Hanson, R. K., & Harris, A. J. R. (2000). Where should we intervene? Dynamic predictors of sexual assault recidivism. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 27, 6–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hanson, R. K., & Morton-Bourgon, K. E. (2004). Predictors of sexual recidivism: An updated meta-analysis (Research Report No. 2004-02). Ottawa, Canada: Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada.Google Scholar
  39. Hanson, R. K., & Morton-Bourgon, E. M. (2005). The characteristics of persistent sexual offenders: a meta-analysis of recidivism studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 1154–1163.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hanson, R. K., Gordon, A., Harris, A., Marques, J., Murphy, W., Quinsey, V., & Seto, M. (2002). First report of the collaborative outcome data project on the effectiveness of psychological treatment for sex offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 14, 169–194.Google Scholar
  41. Hanson, R. K., Harris, A. J. R., Scott, T.-L., & Helmus, L. (2007). Assessing the risk of sexual offenders on community supervision: The Dynamic Supervision Project (User Report 2007-05). Ottawa, Canada: Public Safety Canada.Google Scholar
  42. Hartmann, K. (1970) Theoretische und empirische Beiträge zur Verwahrlosungsforschung. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Häuser, W., Schmutzer, G., Brähler, E., & Glaesmer, H. (2011). Maltreament in childhood and adolescence – results from a survey of a representative sample of the German population. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 108(17),287–294. doi: https://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2011.0287.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Hayashino, D. S., Wurtele, S. K., & Klebe, K. J. (1995). Child molesters: An examination of cognitive factors. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10, 106–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Heim, C., Mayberg, H. S., Mletzko, T., Nemeroff, C. B., & Pruessner, J. C. (2013). Decreased cortical representation of genital somatosensory field after childhood sexual abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 616–623.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kuhle, L. F., Konrad, A., Beier, K. M. (2011). Variability in sexual preference and use of sexually explicit and non-explicit images of children. Paper presented at the 30th Annual Confer-ence of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers, Toronto.Google Scholar
  47. Kuhle, L. F., Kossow, S. B., & Beier, K. M. (2015). Das Präventionsprojekt Dunkelfeld. Informationsveranstaltung zum Präventionsprojekt Dunkelfeld. Berlin.Google Scholar
  48. Kuhle, L., Grundmann, D., & Beier, K. M. (2015). Missbrauchstäter und -täterinnen. Sexueller Missbrauch von Kindern: Ursachen und Verursacher. In J. M. Fegert, U. Hoffmann, E. König, J. Niehues & H. Liebhardt (Hrsg.), Sexueller Missbrauch von Kindern und Jugendlichen (S. 109–129). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  49. Lanning, K. V. (2001). Child molesters: a behavioral analysis. Arlington, VA: National Center for Missing and Exploited Children.Google Scholar
  50. Laulik, S., Allam, J., & Sheridan, L. (2007). An investigation into maladaptive personality functioning in internet sex offenders. Psychology, Crime & Law, 13, 523–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Leeb, R. T., Lewis, T., & Zolotor, A. J. (2011). A review of physical and mental health consequences of child abuse and neglect and implications for practice. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 5, 454–468. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1177/1559827611410266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lösel, F., & Schmucker, M. (2005). The effectiveness of treatment for sexual offenders: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1(1),117–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mann, R. E., Hanson, R. K., & Thornton, D. (2010). Assessing risk for sexual recidivism: some proposals on the nature of psychologically meaningful risk factors. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 22, 191–217. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1079063210366039.
  54. Marsa, F., O’Reilly, G., & Carr, A. (2004). Attachment styles and psychological profiles of child sex offenders in Ireland. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19, 228–251.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Marshall, W. L. (2008). Are pedophiles treatable? Evidence from North American studies. Seksuologia Polska (Polish Sexology), 6(1),39–43.Google Scholar
  56. Marshall, W. L., & Barbaree, H. E. (1990). An integrated theory of the etiology of sexual offending. In W. L. Marshall, D. R. Laws & H. E. Barbaree (Hrsg.), Handbook of sexual as-sault: Issues, theories, and treatment of the offender (S. 257–275). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Marshall, W. L., Serran, G. A., & Cortoni, F. A. (2000). Childhood attachments, sexual abuse, and their relationship to adult coping in child molesters. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research & Treatment, 12, 17–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Marshall, W. L., Hamilton, K., & Fernandez, Y. (2001). Empathy deficits and cognitive distortions in child molesters. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research & Treatment, 13, 123–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Marshall, L. E., Marshall, W. L., Moulden, H. M., & Serran, G. A. (2008). The prevalence of sexual addiction in incarcerated sexual offenders and matched community nonoffenders. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 15, 271–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Neutze, J., Seto, M. C., Schaefer, G. A., Mundt, I. A., & Beier K. M. (2011). Predictors of child pornography offenses and child sexual abuse in a community sample of pedophiles and hebephiles. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 23(2),212–242. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1079063210382043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Noll, J. G., Trickett, P. K., Susman, E. J., & Putnam, F. W. (2006). Sleep disturbances and childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31(5),469–480.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Paolucci, E. O., Genuis, M. L., & Violato, C. (2001). A meta-analysis of the published research on the effects of child sexual abuse. The Journal of Psychology, 135(1),17–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Paras, M. L., Murad, M. H., Chen, L. P., Goranson, E. N., Sattler A. L., Colbenson, K. M., Elamin, M. B., Seime, R. J., Prokop, L. J., & Zirakzadeh, A. (2009). Sexual abuse and lifetime diagnosis of somatic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 302, 550–561.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Pithers, W. D. (1990). Relapse prevention with sexual aggressors: a method for maintaining therapeutic gain and enhancing external supervision. In W. L. Marshall, D. R. Laws & H. E. Barbaree (Hrsg.), Handbook of sexual assault: issues, theories and treatment of the offender (S. 343–361). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Prentky, R. A., & Knight, R. A. (1991). Identifying critical dimensions for discriminating among rapists. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 643–661.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Quayle, E., & Taylor, M. (2002). Pedophiles, pornography and the Internet: assessment issues. British Journal of Social Work, 32, 863–875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rauchfleisch, U. (1981) Dissozial. Entwicklung, Struktur und Psychodynamik dissozialer Persönlichkeiten. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck.Google Scholar
  68. Raymond, N. C., Coleman, E., Ohlerking, F., Christenson, G. A., & Miner, M. (1999). Psychiatric comorbidity in pedophilic sex offenders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 786–788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Rice, M. E., & Harris, G. T. (2011). Is androgen deprivation therapy effective in the treatment of sex offenders? Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 17(2),315–332. doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Riegel, D. L. (2004). Effects on boy-attracted pedosexual males of viewing boy erotica [Letter to the Editor]. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 33, 321–323. doi: https://doi.org/10.1023/B:ASEB.0000029071.89455.53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Schaefer, G. A., Mundt, I. A., Feelgood, S., Hupp, E., Neutze, J., Ahlers, C. J., & Beier, K. M. (2010). Potential and Dunkelfeld offenders: two neglected target groups for prevention of child sexual abuse. International Journal of Law & Psychiatry, 33(3),154–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Scherner, G., Konrad, A., & Grundmann, D. (2015). Therapie im Präventionsprojekt Dunkelfeld. Sexuologie, 22(3–4),Google Scholar
  73. Schlinzig, E., Peter, A., & Beier, K. M. (2017). Primäre Prävention von sexuellem Kindesmissbrauch durch Jugendliche (Zwischenbericht an das BMFSFJ). Berlin: Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Institut für Sexualwissenschaft und Sexualmedizin.Google Scholar
  74. Schmucker, M., & Lösel, F. (2015). The effects of sexual offender treatment on recidivism: an international meta-analysis of sound quality evaluations. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 11(4),597–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Seidman, B. T., Marshall, W. L., & Hudson, S. M. (1994). An examination of intimacy and loneli-ness in sex offenders. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 9, 518–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Seto, M. C. (2008). Pedophilia and sexual offending against children: theory, assessment, and intervention (2. Aufl.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Seto, M. C. (2009). Pedophilia. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5, 391–407. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.032408.153618.
  78. Seto, M. C. (2013). Internet sex offenders. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  79. Seto, M., Cantor, J., & Blanchard, R. (2006). Child pornography offenses are a valid diagnostic indicator of pedophilia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115(3),610–615.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Steine, I. M., Harvey, A. G., Krystal, J. H., Milde, A. M., Grønli, J., Bjorvatn, B., Nordhus, I. H., Eid, J., & Pallesen, S. (2012). Sleep disturbances in sexual abuse victims: a systematic review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 16(1),15–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Stinson, J. D., Becker, J. V., & Tromp, S. (2005). A preliminary study on findings of psychopathy and affective disorders in adult sex offenders. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 28, 637–649.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Thornton, D., & Beech, A. R. (2002). Integrating statistical and psychological factors through the structured risk assessment model. Poster presented at the 21st Association for the treatment of Sexual Abusers Conference, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  83. Trickett, P. K., Noll, J. G., & Putnam, F. W. (2011). The impact of sexual abuse on female development: lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 453–476.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Ward, T. (2000). Sexual offenders’ cognitive distortions as implicit theories. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 5, 491–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ward, T., & Beech, A. (2006). An integrated theory of sexual offending. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 11, 44–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ward, T., & Gannon, A. T. (2006). Rehabilitation, etiology and self-regulation: The comprehensive good lives model of treatment for sexual offenders. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 11(1),77–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ward, T., & Hudson, S. M. (2000). A self-regulation model of relapse prevention. In D. R. Laws, S. M. Hudson & T. Ward (Hrsg.), Remaking relapse prevention with sex offenders: a sourcebook (S. 79–101). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  88. Ward, T., & Siegert, R. J. (2002). Toward a comprehensive theory of child sexual abuse: a theory knitting perspective. Psychology, Crime, and Law, 8, 319–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ward, T., Hudson, S. M., & Marshall, W. L. (1996). Attachment style in sex offenders: a preliminary study. Journal of Sex Research, 33, 17–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ward, T., Hudson, S. M., & Keenan, T. (1998). A self-regulation model of the sexual offense process. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of research and Treatment, 10, 141–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wetzels, P. (1997). Zur Epidemiologie physischer und sexueller Gewalterfahrungen in der Kindheit: Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen retrospektiven Prävalenzstudie für die BRD. (KFN-Forschungsberichte No. 59). Hannover: Kriminologisches Forschungsinstitut Niedersachsen e.V.Google Scholar
  92. Wilson, G. D. & Cox, D. N. (1983). The child-lovers: a study of paedophiles in society. London: Peter Owen.Google Scholar
  93. Wilson, R. J. (1999). Emotional congruence in sexual offenders against children. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 11, 33–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wortley, R., & Smallbone, S. (2006). Child pornography on the Internet. Online unter: www.cops.usdoj.gov/files/RIC/Publications/e04062000.pdf.
  95. World Health Organization (2013). European report on preventing child maltreatment. Online unter: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/217018/European-Report-on-Preventing-Child-Maltreatment.pdf.
  96. Finkelhor, D. (1994). Current information on the scope and nature of child sexual abuse. The Future of Children/Center for the Furture of Children, The David and Lucile Packard Foundation, 4(2), 31–53.Google Scholar
  97. Marshall, W. L., Hudson, S. M., & Hodkinson, S. (1993). The importance of attachment bonds in the development of juvenile sex offending. In H. E. Barbaree, W. L. Marshall & S. M. Hudson (Hrsg.), New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  98. Ward, T., Hudson, S. M., Marshall, W. L., & Siegert, R. (1995). Attachment style and intimacy deficits in sex offenders: a theoretical framework. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 7, 317–335.Google Scholar
  99. Hanson, R. K., & Bussiere, M. T. (1998). Predicting relapse: a meta-analysis of sexual offender recidivism studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(2), 348–362.Google Scholar
  100. Beier, K. M., Oezdemir, U. C., Schlinzig, E., Groll, A., Hupp, E., & Hellenschmidt, T. (2016). „Just dreaming of them“: The Berlin Project for Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse by Juveniles (PPJ). Child Sbuse & Neglect, 52, 1–10Google Scholar
  101. Siegel, S., Kuhle, L. F., & Amelung, T., (2015). Medikamentöse Therapie im Präventionsprojekt Dunkelfeld. Sexuologie, 22(3–4), 175–180.Google Scholar
  102. Irish, L., Kobayashi, I., & Delahanty, D. L. (2010). Long-term physical health consequences of childhood sexual abuse: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35, 450–461.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura F. Kuhle
    • 1
  • Umut Oezdemir
    • 2
  • Klaus M. Beier
    • 3
  1. 1.Institut für Sexualwissenschaft und Sexualmedizin, Centrum für Human- und Gesundheitswissenschaften, Universitätsklinikum Charité Campus MitteCharité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of HealthBerlinDeutschland
  2. 2.Institut für Sexualwissenschaft und Sexualmedizin, Centrum für Human- und Gesundheitswissenschaften, Universitätsklinikum Charité Campus MitteCharité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of HealthBerlinDeutschland
  3. 3.Institut für Sexualwissenschaft und Sexualmedizin, Centrum für Human- und Gesundheitswissenschaften, Universitätsklinikum Charité Campus MitteCharité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of HealthBerlinDeutschland

Personalised recommendations