Gender Differences in Muscular Protection of the Knee

  • Benjamin NoonanEmail author
  • Edward M. Wojtys


This chapter summarizes gender differences in various biomechanical properties of the knee including laxity, anteroposterior translation, active stiffness, and quadriceps and hamstrings strength. In addition, gender differences in proprioception, balance, muscle reaction time, muscle recruitment patterns, and time to reach peak torque are discussed.


Knee laxity Anteroposterior translation Knee stiffness Muscle recruitment Leg strength 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sanford Orthopedics and Sports MedicineFargoUSA
  2. 2.MedSport, Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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