Spina Bifida

  • Jonathan R. EllenbogenEmail author
  • Conor L. Mallucci
Part of the Springer Surgery Atlas Series book series (SPRISURGERY)


Neural tube defects (NTDs) occur in 1 in every 1000 births, arising as a result of aberrations in the embryologic development of the neural tube. They encompass a variety of congenital anomalies ranging from spina bifida occulta to anencephaly. Geographic variations exist in the incidence of spina bifida and other NTDs. Lower socioeconomic groups have a higher incidence of developing spina bifida, and the incidence is higher in Caucasians than in black people. NTDs are thought to be multifactorial in origin, with both genetic and environmental factors playing a role in their development.


Spina bifida Neural tube defect Dysraphism Myelomeningocele Meningocele Arnold–Chiari type II Foetal surgery 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryAlder Hey Children’s NHS Foundation TrustLiverpoolUK

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