Neural tube defects (NTDs) occur in 1 in every 1000 births, arising as a result of aberrations in the embryologic development of the neural tube. They encompass a variety of congenital anomalies ranging from spina bifida occulta to anencephaly. Geographic variations exist in the incidence of spina bifida and other NTDs. Lower socioeconomic groups have a higher incidence of developing spina bifida, and the incidence is higher in Caucasians than in black people. NTDs are thought to be multifactorial in origin, with both genetic and environmental factors playing a role in their development.
KeywordsSpina bifida Neural tube defect Dysraphism Myelomeningocele Meningocele Arnold–Chiari type II Foetal surgery
- Choux M, Di Rocco C, Hockley AD, Walker ML, editors. Pediatric neurosurgery. 1st ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 1999. p. 875.Google Scholar