Determinism and Computational Power of Real Measurement-Based Quantum Computation
Measurement-based quantum computing (MBQC) is a universal model for quantum computation. The combinatorial characterisation of determinism in this model, powered by measurements, and hence, fundamentally probabilistic, is the cornerstone of most of the breakthrough results in this field. The most general known sufficient condition for a deterministic MBQC to be driven is that the underlying graph of the computation has a particular kind of flow called Pauli flow. The necessity of the Pauli flow was an open question. We show that Pauli flow is not necessary, providing several counter examples. We prove however that Pauli flow is necessary for determinism in the real MBQC model, an interesting and useful fragment of MBQC.
We explore the consequences of this result for real MBQC and its applications. Real MBQC and more generally real quantum computing is known to be universal for quantum computing. Real MBQC has been used for interactive proofs by McKague. The two-prover case corresponds to real-MBQC on bipartite graphs. While (complex) MBQC on bipartite graphs are universal, the universality of real MBQC on bipartite graphs was an open question. We show that real bipartite MBQC is not universal proving that all measurements of real bipartite MBQC can be parallelised leading to constant depth computations. As a consequence, McKague’s techniques cannot lead to two-prover interactive proofs.
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