Polyatomic Molecules

  • Wolfgang DemtröderEmail author
Part of the Graduate Texts in Physics book series (GTP)


With an increasing number of atoms in a molecule, the complexity of the molecular structure and the many possibilities for different isomeric configurations of these atoms make investigations of polyatomic molecules a challenging task. Because of the larger number of degrees of freedom \(f=3q-3\) for the internal motions (vibrations and rotations) of the q atoms in the molecule, the dynamics of such a system of q nuclei and \(N= \sum Z_{i}\) electrons plays a more important role than in diatomics. The potential energy can no longer be described by a potential curve as in diatomics but by an n-dimensional energy surface in an \((n\,+\,1)\)-dimensional space of the nuclear coordinates. The dimension \(n\ (n\,=\,3q-7\) for linear, \(n\,=\,3q\,-\,6\) for planar and \(n\,=\,3q\,-\,5\) for nonplanar molecules) depends on the number \(q\ge 3\) of atoms.


  1. 1.
    A.D. Walsh, J. Chem. Soc. 1953, 2260 (1953)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.K. Burdett, Chemical Bonds, A Dialog (Wiley, Chichester, 1997)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.M. Hollas, High Resolution Spectroscopy, 2nd edn. (Kindle-edition Bitterworth-Hinemann, 2013)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E.B. Wilson Jr., J.C. Decius, P.C. Cross, Molecular Vibrations (Dover Publications, 1980); H.C. Allen, P.C. Cross, Molecular Vib-Rotors (Wiley Interscience, New York 1963)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, Vol II: Infrared and Raman Spectra (van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1963)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.L. McHale, Molecular Spectroscopy, 2nd edn. (CRT Press, 2017)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    C.N. Banwell, E.M. McCash, Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy (McGraw Hill College, 1994)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D.S. Schonland, Molecular Symmetry and Spectroscopy (Van Nostrand Reinhold Comp, London, 1971)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. P. Borpuzari, Basic of Molecular Symmetry (Create Space Independent Publishing Platform, 2017)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. Willock, Molecular Symmetry (Wiley, 2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.M. Hollas, Symmetry in Molecules (Chapman & Hall, London, 1972)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    R.L. Carter, Molecular Symmetry and Group Theory (Wiley, New York, 1997)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. R. Bunker, P. Jensen, Molecular symmetry and Spectroscopy, 2nd edn. (NRC-Press 2008)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure III: Electronic Spectra and Electronic Structure of Polyatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand Reinhold Comp, New York, 1966)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. Benedek, T.P. Martin: Clusters: What are they? G. Pacchioni (eds.), Elemental and Molecular Clusters (Springer, Berlin, 1988), p. 2Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. Haberland (ed.), Clusters of Atoms and Molecules I+II (Springer, Berlin, 1994)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    K. von Haeften, M. Havenith, He-droplets. A fluid with unusual properties, in Electron Excitations in Liqufied Rare Gases, ed. by E.F. Schmidt, E. Illenberger (American Scientific Publ., California, 2005)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Havenith, Infrared Spectroscopy of Molecular Clusters, vol. 176 (Springer Tracts in Modern Physics, 2013)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    K.D. Rinnen, D.A.V. Kliner, R.N. Zare, The \( +{\rm D}_{2}\) reaction. J. Chem. Phys. 91, 7514 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    N.H. March, J.F. Mucci, Chemical Physics of Free Molecules (Plenum Press, New York, 1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fachbereich PhysikUniversität KaiserslauternKaiserslauternGermany

Personalised recommendations