Advertisement

Classification of Ventral and Incisional Hernias

  • Ulrich A. Dietz
  • Juliane Bingener-Casey
Chapter

Abstract

Classifications are an expression of the need for structure and organization within complex realities. The manner in which complex phenomena are classified is fundamental to how they are understood and dealt with ► [1]. It is therefore necessary that classification systems are subjected to validation. The first step in this process can be the retrospective evaluation of the data that were collected and the second step prospective confirmation of the validation. A classification system is accepted as useful if it can generate verifiable hypotheses. In the validation process, a classification is tested for its utility in answering specific questions, a test that can have one of three results: the system is verified (its methodology confirmed), it is falsified (its methodology refuted), or the test is inconclusive (neither confirmed nor refuted). Validation of a classification confirms that it has met the requirements for its intended use. Any classification, however, is valid only so long as it can withstand or adapt to continued critical testing based on continuous refinement of the knowledge on which it is based. Unlike truth, provisional validation is based on a large body of basic data ► [2]. Every type of classification thus relies on empirical validation. The goal is to create an evidentiary foundation upon which to build as knowledge increases ► [3].

References

  1. 1.
    Loves C. Trends and pitfalls with nomenclatures and classifications in medicine. Into J Med Inform. 1998;52:141–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Popper K. Logik der Forschung. Wien: Julius Springer; 1935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Museums FE, Deisenberg EB, Peters E, Agrestic F, Brevet F, Campanili G, et al. Recommendations for reporting outcome results in abdominal wall repair: results of a consensus meeting in Palermo, Italy, 28-30 June 2012. Hernia. 2013;17:423–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chute CG. Clinical classification and terminology: some history and current observations. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2000;7:298–303.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kennedy J, Kossmann CE. Nomenclatures in medicine. Bull Med Libr Assoc. 1973;61:238–52.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kumar A, Yip YL, Smith B, Marwede D, Novotny D. An ontology for carcinoma classification for clinical bioinformatics. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2005;116:635–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chevrel JP, Rath AM. Classification of incisional hernias of the abdominal wall. Hernia. 2000;4:7–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Korenkov M, Paul A, Sauerland S, Neugebauer E, Arndt M, Chevrel JP, et al. Classification and surgical treatment of incisional hernia. Results of an experts´ meeting. Langebeck’s. Arch Surg. 2001;386:65–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dietz UA, Hamelmann W, Winkler MS, Debus ES, Malafaia O, Czeczko NG, et al. An alternative classification of incisional hernias enlisting morphology, body type and risk factors in the assessment of prognosis and tailoring of surgical technique. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2007;60:383–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Muysoms FE, Miserez M, Berrevoet F, Campanelli G, Champault GG, Chelala E, et al. Classification of primary and incisional abdominal wall hernias. Hernia. 2009;13:407–14.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Breuing K, Butler CE, Ferzoco S, Franz M, Hultman CS, Kilbridge JF, Rosen M, Silverman RP, Vargo D, Ventral Hernia Working Group. Incisional ventral hernias: review of the literature and recommendations regarding the grading and technique of repair. Surgery. 2010;148:544–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dietz UA, Winkler MS, Härtel RW, Fleischhacker A, Wiegering A, Isbert C, et al. Importance of recurrence rating, morphology, hernial gap size, and risk factors in ventral and incisional hernia classification. Hernia. 2012;18:19–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dietz UA, Wiegering A, Germer CT. Indikationen zur laparoskopischen Versorgung großer Narbenhernien. Chirurg. 2014;86:338–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sellers AH. The clinical classification of malignant tumours: the TNM system. Can Med Assoc J. 1971;105:836.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Payne PR, Mendonça EA, Johnson SB, Starren JB. Conceptual knowledge acquisition in biomedicine: a methodological review. Biomed Inform. 2007;40:582–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bittner R, Bingener-Casey J, Dietz UA, Fabian M, Ferzli G, Fortelny R, et al. Guidelines for laparoscopic treatment of ventral and incisional abdominal wall hernias (international Endohernia society IEHS) part I. Surg Endosc. 2013;28:2–29.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Conze J, Prescher A, Kisielinski K, Klinge U, Schumpelick V. Technical consideration for subxiphoidal incisional hernia repair. Hernia. 2005;9:84–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Losanoff JE, Basson MD, Laker S, Weiner M, Webber JD, Gruber SA. Subxiphoid incisional hernias after median sternotomy. Hernia. 2007;11:473–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Varnell B, Bachman S, Quick J, Vitamvas M, Ramshaw B, Oleynikov D. Morbidity associated with laparoscopic repair of suprapubic hernias. Am J Surg. 2008;196:983–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Höer J, Lawong G, Klinge U, Schumpelick V. Factors influencing the development of incisional hernia. A retrospective study of 2,983 laparotomy patients over a period of 10 years. Chirurg. 2002;73:474–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Klinge U, Si ZY, Zheng H, Schumpelick V, Bhardwaj RS, Klosterhalfen B. Collagen I/III and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 1 and 13 in the fascia of patients with incisional hernias. J Investig Surg. 2001;14:47–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sørensen LT, Hemmingsen UB, Kirkeby LT, Kallehave F, Jørgensen LN. Smoking is a risk factor for incisional hernia. Arch Surg. 2005;140:119–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jenkins ED, Yom VH, Melman L, Pierce RA, Schuessler RB, Frisella MM, et al. Clinical predictors of operative complexity in laparoscopic ventral hernia repair: a prospective study. Surg Endosc. 2010;24:1872–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Klinge U. Mesh for hernia repair. Br J Surg. 2008;95:539–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dietz Dietz UA, Wiegering A, Germer CT. Eingriffsspezifische Komplikationen der Hernienchirurgie. Chirurg. 2014;85:97–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dietz Dietz UA, Spor L, Germer CT. Therapie der Netz-(Implantat) Infektion. Chirurg. 2011;82:208–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universitätsklinikum Würzburg, Klinik und Poliklinik für Allgemein-, Viszeral-, Gefäß- und KinderchirurgieWürzburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryMayo ClinicRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations