Anatomy of the Breast: A Clinical Application

  • Moustapha HamdiEmail author
  • Elisabeth Würinger
  • Ingrid Schlenz
  • Rafic Kuzbari


The epidermis of the nipple and areola is highly pigmented and somewhat wrinkled, and the skin of the nipple contains numerous sebaceous and apocrine sweat glands and relatively little hair. The 15–25 milk ducts enter the base of the nipple, where they dilate to form the milk sinuses. Slightly below the nipple’s surface, these sinuses terminate in cone-shaped ampullae. The circular areola surrounds the nipple and varies between 15 and 60 mm in diameter.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Moustapha Hamdi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Elisabeth Würinger
    • 3
  • Ingrid Schlenz
    • 2
  • Rafic Kuzbari
    • 4
  1. 1.Professor and Chairman, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive SurgeryBrussels University Hospital – Vrij Universiteit Brussel (VUB)BrusselsBelgium
  2. 2.Wilheminenspital, Department of Plastic and Reconstruction SurgeryViennaAustria
  3. 3.Plastic Surgery DepartmentBrusselsBelgium
  4. 4.Associate Professor of Plastic SurgeryKuzbari Center of Aesthetic MedicineViennaAustria

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