Gold surfaces in perchloric acid: Au(111) – perchlorate

  • M. NowickiEmail author
  • K. Wandelt
Part of the Condensed Matter book series (volume 45B)


In this chapter the experimental results on adsorption of perchlorate ion on Au(111) surface is described.

CV and surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) as well as STM studies in 0.1 M HClO4 or 10 mM HClO4 solutions suggest gold oxidation at about 1.0–1.5 V (SCE) and reduction at about 0.8 v (SCE) of the clean substrate without adsorption/desorption peaks of ClO4. Adsorption/desorption occurs between −0.2 V and 0.0 V. Both the reconstructed and the unreconstructed gold surface are seen with STM. The fast anion adsorption and desorption can be decoupled from the slow surface restructuring of the surface by applying appropriate CV scan rates and initial potentials. The coverage of ClO4 on Au(111) is reported to be only 0.15 ML due to the large size of the anions, whose electrovalency is about 0.6. For comparison, extensive ClO4 and water co-adsorption experiments in UHV at sufficiently low temperature (~130 K) are described by Pirug et al. [1] and report a (√ 3 × √3)R30° structure from LEED observations [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6].

Symbols and abbreviations

Short form

Full form


low-energy electron diffraction


saturated calomel electrode


scanning tunneling microscopy


surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy


ultrahigh vacuum


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Experimental PhysicsUniversity of WroclawWroclawPoland
  2. 2.Institute of Physical and Theoretical ChemistryUniversity of BonnBonnGermany

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