Silver surfaces in sulfuric acid: Ag(100) – sulfate

  • M. NowickiEmail author
  • K. Wandelt
Part of the Condensed Matter book series (volume 45B)


In this chapter an overview of the sulfate ion adsorption on Ag(100), Ag(111) and Ag(110) surfaces is described.

Frumkin adsorption isotherms of sulfate adsorption were determined by means of radiometry from HClO4 solution on the three low-index planes Ag(100), Ag(111), and Ag(110). It was found that the adsorption strength decreases in the order Ag(111) > Ag(110) > Ag(100) and showed an intermediate behavior on a polycrystalline silver electrode. The stronger interaction with Ag(111) can be explained by the match between the tetrahedral symmetry of the anion and the trigonal symmetry of the substrate [see however Cu(111), Chap.  195[]].

With STM an incommensurate (1.3 × 3) structure was observed, corresponding to a coverage of 0.25 ML. Since this structure is only stable in acidic solution (pH = 1), it is likely that this structure is stabilized by H3O+ ions (like on Cu(111), Chap.  194[]). The structure, however, is not stable at potentials slightly above −0.2 V (SCE). The presence of sulfate does not affect the oxidation potential of silver electrodes but facilitates the hydrogen evolution reaction. The sequence of adsorption in a neutral solution is quite different to that in acidic solution and follows the sequence of the potential of zero charge (Epzc): −0.48 V, −0,65 V, and −0.77 V (RHE) for Ag(111), Ag(100), and Ag(110), respectively [1, 2, 3, 4].

Symbols and abbreviations

Short form

Full form


scanning tunneling microscopy




saturated calomel electrode


reference hydrogen electrode


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Experimental PhysicsUniversity of WroclawWroclawPoland
  2. 2.Institute of Physical and Theoretical ChemistryUniversity of BonnBonnGermany

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