Advertisement

Hydrops fetalis, Anämie und Thrombozytopenie

  • U. Gembruch

Zusammenfassung

Hydrops fetalis bezeichnet das Auftreten fetaler Wassereinlagerungen in mindestens zwei fetalen Kompartimenten. Wenn dem eine hämolytische Anämie durch gegen fetale Erythrozyten gerichtete maternale Alloantikörper zugrunde liegt, spricht man von einem immunologisch bedingten Hydrops fetalis (IHF). Die anderen über 150 fetale Erkrankungen umfassenden Ursachen eines Hydrops werden als nicht immunologisch bedingter Hydrops fetalis (NIHF) bezeichnet. Ursache, Diagnostik, Prognose und mögliche Therapie bei Vorliegen eines Hydrops fetalis werden in diesem Kapitel abgehandelt, insbesondere die in der Regel gut zu behandelnden Anämien des Feten. Ferner wird ausführlich auf die Diagnostik und Therapie fetaler Thrombozytopenien eingegangen.

Literatur

  1. Adzick NS (2009) Management of fetal lung lesions. Clin Perinatol 36: 363–376Google Scholar
  2. Adzick NS (2010) Open fetal surgery for life–threatening fetal anomalies. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 15: 1–8Google Scholar
  3. Altarescu G, Elda-Geva T, Grisaru-Granovsky S, Bonstein L, Miskin H, Varshver I, Margalioth EJ, Levy-Lahad E, Renbaum P (2012) Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for fetal neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to antihuman platelet antigen maternal antibodies. Obstet Gynecol 119: 338–343Google Scholar
  4. Amann C, Geipel A, Müller A, Heep A, Ritgen J, Stressig R, Kozlowski P, Gembruch U, Berg C (2011) Fetal anemia of unknown cause – a diagnostic challenge. Ultraschall Med 32 (Suppl 2): E115–E121Google Scholar
  5. Arinsburg SA, Shaz BH, Westhoff C, Cushing MM (2012) Determination of human platelet antigen typing by molecular methods: Importance in diagnosis and early treatment of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Am J Hematol 87: 525–528Google Scholar
  6. Bakchoul T, Greinacher A, Sachs UJ, Krautwurst A, Renz H, Harb H, Bein G, Newmann PJ, Santoso S (2013) Inhibition of HPA-1a alloantibody-mediated platelet destructionm by a deglycosylated antii-HPA-1a antibody in mice: toward targeted treatment of fetal-alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Blood 122: 321–327Google Scholar
  7. Bellini C, Hennekam RC, Fulcheri E, Rutigliani M, Morcaldi G, Boccardo F, Bonioli E (2009) Etiology of nonimmune hydrops featlis: a systematic review. Am J Med Genet A 149 (A): 844–851Google Scholar
  8. Bellini C, Donarini G, Paladini D, Calevo MG, Bellini T, Ramenghi LA, Hennekam RC (2015) Etiology of non-immune hydrops fetalis: an update. Am J Med Genet A 167A: 1082–1088Google Scholar
  9. Berkowitz RL, Kolb EA, McFarland JG, Wissert M, Primani A, Lesser M, Bussel JB (2006) Parallel randomized trials of risk–based therapy for fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Obstet Gynecol 107: 91–96Google Scholar
  10. Bertrand G, Drame M, Martageix C, Kaplan C (2011) Prediction of the fetal status in noninvasive management of alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Blood 117: 3209–3213Google Scholar
  11. Bertrand G, Petermann R, Kaplan C (2014) Prediction of IVIG treatment efficiency in fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Blood 124: 654–655Google Scholar
  12. Bianchi S, Lista G, Castoldi F, Rustico M (2010) Congenital primary hydrothorax: effect of thoracoamniotic shunting on neonatal clinical outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 23: 1225–1229Google Scholar
  13. Boulot P, Cattaneo A, Taib J, Peray P, Lefort G, Hedon B, Laffargue F, Viala JL (1993) Hematologic values of fetal blood obtained by means of cordocentesis. Fetal Diagn Ther 8: 309–316Google Scholar
  14. Braun T, Brauer M, Fuchs I, Czernik C, Dudenhausen JW, Henrich W, Sarioglu N (2010) Mirror syndrome: a systematic review of fetal associated conditions, maternal presentation and perinatal outcome. Fetal Diagn Ther 27: 191–203Google Scholar
  15. Bussel JB, Sola-Visner M (2009) Current approaches to the evaluation and management of the fetus and neonate with immune thrombocytopenia. Semin Perinatol 33: 35–42Google Scholar
  16. Bussel JB, Berkowitz RL, Lynch L, Lesser ML, Paidas MJ, Huang CL, McFarland JG (1996) Antenatal management of alloimmune thrombocytopenia with intravenous gamma-globulin: a randomized trial of the addition of low-dose steroid to intravenous gamma-globulin. Am J Obstet Gynecol 174: 1414–1423Google Scholar
  17. Bussel JB, Berkowitz RL, Hung C, Kolb EA, Wissert M, Primiani A, Tsaur FW, Macfarland JG (2010) Intracranial hemorrhage in alloimmune thrombocytopenia: stratified management to prevent recurrence in the subsequent affected fetus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 203: 135.e1–135.e14Google Scholar
  18. Cosmi E, Mari G, Delle Chiaie L, Detti L, Akiyama M, Murphy J, Stefos T, Ferguson 2nd JE, Hunter D, Hsu CD, Abuhamad A, Bahado-Singh R (2002) Noninvasive diagnosis by Doppler ultrasonography of fetal anemia resulting from parvovirus infection. Am J Obstet Gynecol 187: 1290–1293Google Scholar
  19. Courtier J, Schauer GM, Parer JT, Regenstein AC, Callen PW, Glenn OA (2012) Polymicrogyria in a fetus with human parvovirus B19 infection: a case with radiologic–pathologic correlation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 40: 604–606Google Scholar
  20. de Haan TR, van den Akker ES, Porcelijn L, Oepkes D, Kroes AC, Walther FJ (2008) Thrombocytopenia in hydropic fetuses with parvovirus B19 infection: incidence, treatment and correlation with fetal B19 viral load. BJOG 115: 76–81Google Scholar
  21. de Jong EP, Walther FJ, Kroes AC, Oepkes D (2011) Parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy: new insights and management. Prenat Diagn 31: 419–425Google Scholar
  22. de Jong EP, Lindenburg IT, van Klink JM, Oepkes D, van Kamp IL, Walther FJ, Lopriore E (2012) Intrauterine transfusion for parvovirus B19 infection: long-term neurodevelopmental outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 206: 204. e1–204.e5Google Scholar
  23. Detti L, Mari G (2003) Noninvasive diagnosis of fetal anemia. Clin Obstet Gynecol 46: 923–930Google Scholar
  24. Detti L, Oz U, Guney I, Ferguson JE, Bahado-Singh RO, Mari G (2001) Collaborative Group for Doppler Assessment of the Blood Velocity in Anemic Fetuses: Doppler ultrasound velocimetry for timing the second intrauterine transfusion in fetuses with anemia from red cell alloimmunization. Am J Obstet Gynecol 185: 1048–1051Google Scholar
  25. Detti L, Mari G, Akiyama M, Cosmi E, Moise Jr KJ, Stefor T, Conaway M, Deter R (2002) Longitudinal assessment of the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in healthy fetuses and in fetuses at risk for anemia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 187: 937–939Google Scholar
  26. Dijkmans AC, de Jong EP, Dijkmans BA, Lopriore E, Vossen A, Walther FJ, Oepkes D (2012) Parvovirus B19 in pregnancy: prenatal diagnosis and management of fetal complications. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 24: 95–101Google Scholar
  27. Fasano RM (2016) Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn in the molecular era. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 21: 28–34Google Scholar
  28. Gembruch U (2009) Fetal tachyarrhythmia. In: Yagel S, Silverman NH, Gembruch U (eds) Fetal cardiology, 2nd ed. Informa Healthcare, New York, p 461–481Google Scholar
  29. Gembruch U, Holzgreve W (2000) The fetus with nonimmune hydrops. In: Harrison MR, Evans MI, Adzick NS, Holzgreve W (eds) The unborn patient: the art and science of fetal therapy, 3rd ed. Saunders, Philadelphia, p 525–582Google Scholar
  30. Gembruch U, Holzgreve W (2009) Cardiac diseases in association with hydrops fetalis. In: Yagel S, Silverman NH, Gembruch U (eds) Fetal cardiology, 2nd ed. Informa Healthcare, New York, p 483–514Google Scholar
  31. Ghevaert C, Wilcox DA, Fang J, Armour KL, Clark MR, Ouwehand WH, Williamson LM (2008) Developing recombinant HPA-1-a-specific antibodies with abrogated Fcγ receptor binding for the treatment of fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. J Clin Invest 118: 2929–2935Google Scholar
  32. Gimovsky AC, Luzi P, Berghella V (2015) Lysosomal storage disease as an etiology of nonimmune hydrops. Am J Obstet Gynecol 212: 281–290Google Scholar
  33. Gottschalk I, Gottschalk L, Stressig R, Ritgen J, Herberg U, Breuer J, Oberhoffer R, Willruth A, Strizek B, Geipel A, Gembruch U, Berg C (2017a) Ebstein’s anomaly of the tricuspid valve in the fetus – a multicenter experience. Ultraschall Med 38: 427–436Google Scholar
  34. Gottschalk I, Jehle C, Herberg U, Breuer J, Brockmeier K, Bennink G, Hellmund A, Strizek B, Gembruch U, Geipel A, Berg C (2017b) Prenatal diagnosis of absent pulmonary valve syndrome from the 1st trimester onward: novel insights into pathophysiology, associated conditions and outcome of a rare cardiac defect. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 49: 637–642Google Scholar
  35. Gumuscu B, Thompson EI, Grovas AC, Zach TL, Warkentin PI, Coccia PF (2013) Successful unrelated cord blood transplantation for homozygous α-thalassemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 35: 570–572Google Scholar
  36. Hudecova I, Chiu RW (2017) Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of thalassemias using maternal plasma cell free DNA. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 39: 63–73Google Scholar
  37. Hellmund A, Berg C, Rösing B, Gembruch U, Geipel A (2012) Masked anemia due to cardiac tamponade in a hydropic fetus caused by placental chorioangioma. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 39: 479–480Google Scholar
  38. Hellmund A, Berg C, Geipel A, Bludau M, Heydweiller A, Bachour H, Müller A, Müller A, Gembruch U (2016) Prenatal diagnosis and evaluation of sonographic predictors for intervention and adverse outcome in congenital pulmonary airway malformation. PLoS One 11:e0150474.Google Scholar
  39. Hellmund A, Berg C, Geipel A, Bald R, Gembruch U (2017) Early intrauterine transfusion in fetuses with severe anemia caused by parvovirus B19 infection. Fetal Diagn Ther. doi: 10.1159/000477208
  40. Huhta JC (2009) Congestive heart failure in the fetus. In: Yagel S, Silverman NH, Gembruch U (eds) Fetal cardiology, 2nd ed. Informa Healthcare, New York, p 561–578Google Scholar
  41. Jauniaux E, Pahal G, Gervy C, Gulbis B (2000) Blood biochemistry and endocrinology in the human fetus between 11 and 17 weeks of gestation. Reprod Biomed Online 1: 38–44Google Scholar
  42. Kamphuis MM, Oepkes D (2011) Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: prenatal interventions. Prenat Diagn 31: 712–719Google Scholar
  43. Kamphuis MM, Paridaans N, Porcelijn L, De Haas M, Van Der Schoot CE, Brand A, Bonsel GJ, Oepkes D (2010) Screening in pregnancy for fetal or neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: systematic review. BJOG 117: 1335–1343Google Scholar
  44. Kamphuis MM, Paridaans NP, Porcelijn L, Lopriore E, Oepkes D (2014) Incidence and consequences of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: a systematic review. Pediatrics 133: 715–721Google Scholar
  45. Kempe A, Rösing B, Berg C, Kamil D, Heep A, Gembruch U, Geipel A (2007) First-trimester treatment of fetal anemia secondary to parvovirus B19 infection. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 29: 226–228Google Scholar
  46. Kjeldsen-Kragh J, Skogen B (2013) Mechanisms and prevention of alloimmunization in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv 68: 526–532Google Scholar
  47. Kohl T, Van de Vondel P, Stressig R, Wartenberg HC, Heep A, Keiner S, Müller A, Franz A, Fröhlich S, Willinek W, Gembruch U (2009) Percutaneous fetoscopic laser decompression of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) from laryngeal atresia via a single trocar – current technical constraints and potential solutions for future interventions. Fetal Diagn Ther 25: 67–71Google Scholar
  48. Koyama S, Tomimatsu T, Kanagawa T, Kumasawa K, Tsutsui T, Kimura T (2012) Reliable predictors of neonatal immune thrombocytopenia in pregnant women with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Am J Hematol 87: 15–21Google Scholar
  49. Krapp M, Kohl T, Simpson JM, Sharland GK, Katalinic A, Gembruch U (2003) Review of diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of fetal atrial flutter compared with supraventricular tachycardia. Heart 89: 913–917Google Scholar
  50. Kreger EM, Singer ST, Witt RG, Sweeters N, Lianoglou B, Lal A, Mackenzie TC, Vichinsky E (2016) Favorable outcomes after in utero transfusion in fetuses with alpha thalassemia major: a case series and review of the literature. Prenat Diagn 36: 1242–1249Google Scholar
  51. Lam YH, Tang MH (2002) Middle cerebral artery Doppler study in fetuses with homozygous alpha-thalassaemia-1 at 12–13 weeks of gestation. Prenat Diagn 22: 56–58Google Scholar
  52. Lamont RF, Sobel JD, Vaisbuch E, Kusanovic JP, Mazaki-Tovi S, Kim SK, Uldbjerg N, Romero R (2011) Parvovirus B19 infection in human pregnancy. BJOG 118: 175–186Google Scholar
  53. Le Toriellec E, Chenet C, Kaplan C (2013) Safe fetal platelet genotyping: new developments. Transfusion 53: 1755–1762Google Scholar
  54. Lee FL, Said N, Grikscheit TC, Shin CE, Llanes A, Chmait RH (2012) Treatment of congenital pulmonary airway malformation induced hydrops fetalis via percutaneous sclerotherapy. Fetal Diagn Ther 31: 264–268Google Scholar
  55. Lee HH, Mak AS, Poon CF, Leung KY (2017) Prenatal ultrasound monitoring of homozygous α0-thalassemia-induced fetal anemia. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 39: 53–62Google Scholar
  56. Leung TY, Lao TT (2012) Thalassaemia in pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynecol 26: 37–51Google Scholar
  57. Leung KY, Cheong KB, Lee CP, Chan V, Lam YH, Tang M (2010) Ultrasonographic prediction of homozygous α0–thalassemia using placental thickness, fetal cardiothoracic ratio and middle cerebral artery Doppler: alone or in combination? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 35: 149–154Google Scholar
  58. Li DZ, Yang YD (2017) Invasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal thalassemia. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 39: 41–52Google Scholar
  59. Lindenburg IT, Wolterbeek R, Oepkes D, Klumper FJ, Vandenbussche FP, van Kamp IL (2011) Quality control for intravascular intrauterine transfusion using cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis for the monitoring of individual performance. Fetal Diagn Ther 29: 307–314Google Scholar
  60. Lindenburg IT, Smits-Wintjens VE, van Klink JM, Verduin E, van Kamp IL, Walther FJ, Schonewille H, Doxiadis II, Kanhai HH, van Lith JM, van Zwet EW, Oepkes D, Brand A, Lopriore E (2012) Long-term neurodevelopmental outcome after intrauterine transfusion for hemolytic disease of the fetus/newborn: the LOTUS study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 206: 141. e1–141.e8Google Scholar
  61. Lindenburg IT, van Klink JM, Smits-Wintjens VE, van Kamp IL, Oepkes D, Lopriore E (2013) Long-term neurodevelopmental and cardiovascular outcome after intrauterine transfusions for fetal anaemia: a review. Prenat Diagn 33: 815–822Google Scholar
  62. Lindenburg IT, van Kamp IL, Oepkes D (2014) Intrauterine blood transfusion: current indications and associated risks. Fetal Diagn Ther 36: 263–271Google Scholar
  63. Loh KC, Jelin E, Hirose S, Feldstein V, Goldstein R, Lee H (2012) Microcystic congenital pulmonary airway malformation with hydrops fetalis: steroids vs open fetal resection. J Pediatr Surg 47: 36–39Google Scholar
  64. Mallmann MR, Geipel A, Bludau M, Matil K, Gottschalk I, Hoopmann M, Müller A, Bachour H, Heydweiller A, Gembruch U, Berg C (2016) Bronchopulmonary sequestration with massive pleural effusion: pleuroamniotic shunting vs intrafetal vascular laser ablation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 44: 441–446Google Scholar
  65. Mallmann MR, Graham V, Rösing B, Gottschalk I, Müller A, Gembruch U, Geipel A, Berg C (2017) Thoracoamniotic shunting for fetal hydrothorax: predictors of intrauterine course and postnatal outcome. Fetal Diagn Ther 41: 58–65Google Scholar
  66. Mari G, Deter RL, Carpenter RL, Rahman F, Zimmerman R, Moise Jr KJ, Dorman KF, Ludomirsky A, Gonzalez R, Gomez R, Oz U, Detti L, Copel JA, Bahado- Singh R, Berry S, Martinez-Poyer J, Blackwell SC (2000) Noninvasive diagnosis by Doppler ultrasonography of fetal anemia due to maternal redcell alloimmunization. Collaborative Group for Doppler Assessment of the Blood Velocity in Anemic Fetuses. N Engl J Med 342: 9–14Google Scholar
  67. Mari G, Zimmermann R, Moise Jr KJ, Deter RL (2005) Correlation between middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity and fetal hemoglobin after 2 previous intrauterine transfusions. Am J Obstet Gynecol 193: 1117–1120Google Scholar
  68. Mari G, Hanif F, Kruger M, Cosmi E, Santolaya-Forgas J, Treadwell MC (2007) Middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity: a new Doppler parameter in the assessment of growth-restricted fetuses. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 29: 310–316Google Scholar
  69. Martí-Carvajal AJ, Peña-Martí GE, Comunián-Carrasco G (2009) Medical treatments for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4: CD007722Google Scholar
  70. Merz WM, Kübler K, Fimmers R, Stoffel-Wagner B, Geipel A, Gembruch U (2012a) Circulating N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in fetal anemia before and after treatment. Pediatr Res 72: 174–178Google Scholar
  71. Merz WM, Patzwaldt F, Fimmers R, Stoffel-Wagner B, Gembruch U (2012b) Dual-colour flow cytometry for the analysis of fetomaternal haemorrhage during delivery. J Clin Pathol 65: 186–187Google Scholar
  72. Moise KJ Jr (2008) Management of rhesus alloimmunization in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 112: 164–176Google Scholar
  73. Moise KJ Jr, Argoti PS (2012) Management and prevention of red cell alloimmunization in pregnancy: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol 120: 1132–1139Google Scholar
  74. Moreno CA, Kanazawa T, Barini R, Nomura ML, Andrade KC, Gomes CP, Heinrich JK, Giugliani R, Burin M, Cavalcanti DP (2013) Non-immune hydrops fetalis: a prospective study of 53 cases. Am J Med Genet A161A: 3078–3086Google Scholar
  75. Nicolaides KH, Thilaganathan B, Mibashan RS (1989) Cordocentesis in the investigation of fetal erythropoiesis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 161: 1197–1200Google Scholar
  76. Oepkes D, Seaward PG, Vandenbussche FP, Windrim R, Kingdom J, Beyene J, Kanhai HH, Ohlsson A, Ryan G (2006) DIAMOND Study Group: Doppler ultrasonography versus amniocentesis to predict fetal anemia. N Engl J Med 355: 156–164Google Scholar
  77. Pacheco LD, Berkowitz RL, Moise Jr KJ, Bussel JB, McFarland JG, Saade GR (2011) Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: a management algorithm based on risk stratification. Obstet Gynecol 118: 1157–1163Google Scholar
  78. Paridaans NP, Kamphuis MM, Taune Wikman A, Tiblad E, van den Akker ES, Lopriore E, Challis D, Westgren M, Oepkes D (2015) Low-dose versus standard-dose intravenous immunglobulin to prevent fetal intracranial hemorrhage in fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: a randomized trial. Fetal Diagn Ther 38: 147–153Google Scholar
  79. Pasman SA, van den Brink CP, Kamping MA, Adama van Scheltema PN, Oepkes D, Vandenbussche FP (2009) Total blood volume is maintained in nonhydropic fetuses with severe hemolytic anemia. Fetal Diagn Ther 26: 10–15Google Scholar
  80. Picklesimer AH, Oepkes D, Moise Jr KJ, Kush ML, Weiner CP, Harman CR, Baschat AA (2007) Determinants of the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in the human fetus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 197: 526.e1–526.e4Google Scholar
  81. Pistorius LR, Smal J, de Haan TR, Page-Christiaens GC, Verboon-Maciolek M, Oepkes D, de Vries LS (2008) Disturbance of cerebral neuronal migration following congenital parvovirus B19 infection. Fetal Diagn Ther 24: 491–494Google Scholar
  82. Porcelijn L, Van den Akker ES, Oepkes D (2008) Fetal thrombocytopenia. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 13: 223–230Google Scholar
  83. Rayment R, Brunskill SJ, Soothill PW, Roberts DJ, Bussel JB, Murphy MF (2011) Antenatal interventions for fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 5: CD004226Google Scholar
  84. Ruano R, Ramalho AS, Cardoso AK, Moise Jr K, Zugaib M (2011) Prenatal diagnosis and natural history of fetuses presenting with pleural effusion. Prenat Diagn 31: 496–499Google Scholar
  85. Scheffer PG, Ait Soussan A, Verhagen OJ, Page-Christiaens GC, Oepkes D, de Haas M, van der Schoot CE (2011a) Noninvasive fetal genotyping of human platelet antigen-1a. BJOG 118: 1392–1395Google Scholar
  86. Scheffer PG, van der Schoot CE, Page-Christiaens GC, de Haas M (2011b) Noninvasive fetal blood group genotyping of rhesus D, c, E and of K in alloimmunised pregnant women: evaluation of a 7-year clinical experience. BJOG 118: 1340–1348Google Scholar
  87. Scheier M, Hernandez-Andrade E, Fonseca EB, Nicolaides KH (2006) Prediction of severe fetal anemia in red blood cell alloimmunization after previous intrauterine transfusions. Am J Obstet Gynecol 195: 1550–1556Google Scholar
  88. Schonewille H, Klumper FJ, van de Watering LM, Kanhai HH, Brand A (2007) High additional maternal red cell alloimmunization after Rhesus- and Kmatched intrauterine intravascular transfusions for hemolytic disease of the fetus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 196: 143.e1–143.e6Google Scholar
  89. Serrarens-Janssen VM, Semmekrot BA, Novotny VM, Porcelijn L, Lotgering FK, Delemarre FM, Steegers EA (2008) Fetal/neonatal allo-immune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT): past, present, and future. Obstet Gynecol Surv 63: 239–252Google Scholar
  90. Simms RA, Liebling RE, Patel RR, Denbow ML, Abdel-Fattah SA, Soothill PW, Overton TG (2009) Management and outcome of pregnancies with parvovirus B19 infection over seven years in a tertiary fetal medicine unit. Fetal Diagn Ther 25: 373–378Google Scholar
  91. Slaghekke F, Kist WJ, Oepkes D, Pasman SA, Middeldorp JM, Klumper FJ, Walther FJ, Vandenbussche FP, Lopriore E (2010) Twin anemia-polycythemia sequence: diagnostic criteria, classification, perinatal management and outcome. Fetal Diagn Ther 27: 181–190Google Scholar
  92. Slaghekke F, Pasman S, Veujoz M, Middeldorp JM, Lewi L, Devlieger R, Favre R, Lopriore E, Oepkes D (2015) Middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity to predict fetal hemoglobin levels in twin anemia-polycythemia sequence. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 46: 432–436Google Scholar
  93. SMFM (Society of Maternal-Fetal Medicine); Norton ME, Chauhan SP, Dashe JS (2015a) Society of Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SFMF) Clinical Guideline #7: nonimmune hydrops fetalis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 212: 127–139Google Scholar
  94. SMFM (Society of Maternal-Fetal Medicine); Mari G, Norton ME, Stone J, Berghella V, Sciscione AC, Tate D, Schenone MH (2015b) Society of Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SFMF) Clinical Guideline #8: the fetus at risk for anemia – diagnosis and management. Am J Obstet Gynecol 212: 697–710Google Scholar
  95. Smits-Wintjens VE, Rath ME, Lindenburg IT, Oepkes D, van Zwet EW, Walther FJ, Lopriore E (2012) Cholestasis in neonates with red cell alloimmune hemolytic disease: incidence, risk factors and outcome. Neonatology 101: 306–310Google Scholar
  96. Swartz AE, Ruma MS, Kim E, Herring AH, Menard MK, Moise KJ Jr (2009) The effect of fetal heart rate on the peak systolic velocity of the fetal middle cerebral artery. Obstet Gynecol 113: 1225–1229Google Scholar
  97. Takagi K, Tanaka H, Nishijima S, Masaoka N, Miyake Y, Sakata H, Satoh K (1989) Fetal blood values by percutaneous umbilical blood sampling. Fetal Ther 4: 152–160Google Scholar
  98. Tiblad E, Kublickas M, Ajne G, Bui TH, Ek S, Karlsson A, Wikman A, Westgren M (2011) Procedure-related complications and perinatal outcome after intrauterine transfusions in red cell alloimmunization in Stockholm. Fetal Diagn Ther 30: 266–273Google Scholar
  99. Tiller H, Kamphuis MM, Flodmark O, Papadogiannakis N, David AL, Sainio S, Koskinen S, Javela K, Wikman AT, Kekomaki R, Kanhai HH, Oepkes D, Husebekk A, Westgren M (2013) Fetal intracranial haemorrhages caused by fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: an observational cohort study of 43 cases from an international multicentre registry. BMJ Open Mar 22: 3(3). pii: e002490Google Scholar
  100. Tiller H, Husebekk A, Skogen B, Kjeldsen-Kragh J, Kjaer M (2016) True risk of fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia in subsequent pregnancies: a prospective observational follow-up study. BJOG 123: 738–44Google Scholar
  101. Traeger-Synodinos J, Harteveld CL, Old JM, Petrou M, Galanello R, Giordano P, Angastioniotis M, De la Salle B, Henderson S, May A; EMQN haemoglobinopathies best practice meeting (2015) EMQN Best Practice Guidelines for molecular and haematology methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of the haemoglobinopathies. Eur J Hum Genet 23: 426–437Google Scholar
  102. van den Akker ES, de Haan TR, Lopriore E, Brand A, Kanhai HH, Oepkes D (2008) Severe fetal thrombocytopenia in Rhesus D alloimmunized pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 199: 387.e1–4Google Scholar
  103. van der Schoot CE, Tax GH, Rijnders RJ, de Haas M, Christiaens GC (2003) Prenatal typing of Rh and Kell blood group system antigens: the edge of a watershed. Transfus Med Rev 17: 31–44Google Scholar
  104. van Dongen H, Klumper FJ, Sikkel E, Vandenbussche FP, Oepkes D (2005) Noninvasive tests to predict fetal anemia in Kell-alloimmunized pregnancies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 25: 341–315Google Scholar
  105. van Kamp IL, Klumper FJ, Oepkes D, Meerman RH, Scherjon SA, Vandenbussche FP, Kanhai HH (2005) Complications of intrauterine intravascular transfusion for fetal anemia due to maternal red-cell alloimmunization. Am J Obstet Gynecol 192: 171–177Google Scholar
  106. van Winden KR, Quintero RA, Kontopoulos EV, Korst LM, Llanes A, Chmait RH (2015) Pre-operative twin anemia/polycythemia in the setting of twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Fetal Diagn Ther 37: 274–280Google Scholar
  107. Vandenbussche FPHA, Brand A, Kanhai HHH (2011) Fetal thrombocytopenia. In: James D, Steer PJ, Weiner CP, Gonik B, Crowther CA, Robson SC (eds) High risk pregnancy: management options, 4th ed. Saunders, St. Louis, p 229–237Google Scholar
  108. Vogel M, McElhinney DB, Wilkins-Haug LE, Marshall AC, Benson CB, Juraszek AL, Silva V, Lock JE, Marx GR, Tworetzky W (2011) Aortic stenosis and severe mitral regurgitation in the fetus resulting in giant left atrium and hydrops: pathophysiology, outcomes, and preliminary experience with pre-natal cardiac intervention. J Am Coll Cardiol 57: 348–355Google Scholar
  109. Weiner CP (2011) Fetal hemolytic disease. In: James D, Steer PJ, Weiner CP, Gonik B, Cowther CA, Robson SC (eds) High risk pregnancy: management options, 4th ed. Saunders, St. Louis, p 209–227Google Scholar
  110. Winkelhorst D, Murphy MF, Greinacher A, Shehata N, Bakchoul T, Massey E, Baker J, Lieberman L, Tanael S, Hume H, Arnold DM, Baidya S, Bertrand G, Bussel J, Kjaer M, Kaplan C, Kjeldsen-Kragh J, Oepkes D, Ryan G (2017) Antenatal management in fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: a systematic review. Blood 129: 1538–1547Google Scholar
  111. Witlox RS, Lopriore E, Oepkes D, Walther FJ (2011) Neonatal outcome after prenatal interventions for congenital lung lesions. Early Hum Dev 87: 611–618Google Scholar
  112. Wylie BJ, D’Alton ME (2010) Fetomaternal hemorrhage. Obstet Gynecol 115: 1039–1051Google Scholar
  113. Yang YS, Ma GC, Shih JC, Chen CP, Chou CH, Yeh KT, Kuo SJ, Chen TH, Hwu WL, Lee TH, Chen M (2012) Experimental treatment of bilateral fetal chylothorax using in-utero pleurodesis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 39: 56–62Google Scholar
  114. Yinon Y, Grisaru-Granovsky S, Chaddha V, Windrim R, Seaward PG, Kelly EN, Beresovska O, Ryan G (2010) Perinatal outcome following fetal chest shunt insertion for pleural effusion. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 36: 58–64Google Scholar
  115. Yougbaré I, Lang S, Yang H, Chen P, Zhao X, Tai WS, Zdravic D, Vadasz B, Li C, Piran S, Marshall A, Zhu G, Tiller H, Killie MK, Boyd S, Leong-Poi H, Wen XY, Skogen B, Adamson SL, Freedman J, Ni H (2015) Maternal anti-platelet β3 integrins impair angiogenesis and cause intracranial hemorrhage. J Clin Invest 125: 1545–1556Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universitätsklinikum BonnAbt. für Geburtshilfe/Pränatale MedizinBonnDeutschland

Personalised recommendations