Advertisement

Pathologische Plazenta und Nabelschnur

  • W. Henrich
  • E. Hafner

Zusammenfassung

Mit der Bestimmung des Plazentasitzes wurde schon sehr früh die Überlegenheit des Ultraschalls gegenüber anderen Methoden deutlich. Heute ist der Ultraschall der Plazenta und der Nabelschnur bei vielen Schwangerschaftskomplikationen ein wesentlicher diagnostischer Bestandteil. Dies führt einerseits zum besseren Verständnis von Störungen der fetoplazentaren Einheit, andererseits können für Mutter und Kind lebensbedrohliche Entwicklungen frühzeitig entdeckt und durch geeignete Maßnahmen zum Zeitpunkt der Geburt verhindert werden.

Literatur

  1. Abramovicz JS, Sheiner E (2008) Ultrasound of the placenta: a systematic approach. Part 1: imaging. Placenta 29: 225–240Google Scholar
  2. Aherne W (1966) A weight relationship between the human foetus and placenta. Biol Neonat 10: 113–118Google Scholar
  3. Ananth CV, Demissie K, Smulian JC, et al (2003) Placenta previa in singleton and twin births in the United States, 1989 through 1998: A comparison of risk factor profiles and associated conditions. Am J Obstet Gynecol 188: 275–281Google Scholar
  4. Balcacer P, Pahade J, Spektor M, Staib L, Copel JA, McCarthy S (2016) Magnetic resonance imaging and sonography in the diagnosis of placental invasion. J Ultrasound Med 35: 1445–1456Google Scholar
  5. Becker RH, Vonk R, Mende BC, et al (2001) The relevance of placental location at 20–23 gestational weeks for prediction of placenta previa at delivery: evaluation of 8650 cases. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 17: 496–501Google Scholar
  6. Benson RC, Fujikura T (1969) Circumvallate and circummarginate placenta: Uimportant clinical entities. Obstet Gyncol 34: 799Google Scholar
  7. Bhide A, Prefumo F, Moore J, et al (2003) Placental edge to internal os distance in the late third trimester and mode of delivery in placenta praevia. BJOG 110: 860–864Google Scholar
  8. Bodner LJ, Nosher JL, Gribbin C, et al (2006) Balloon-assisted occlusion of the internal iliac arteries in patients withplacenta accreta/percreta. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 29: 354–361Google Scholar
  9. Bower S, Schuchter K, Campbell S (1993) Doppler ultrasound screening as part of routine antenatal scanning: reduction of pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 100: 989–994Google Scholar
  10. Brown HL, Miller JM, Khawli O, Gabert HA (1988) Premature placental calcifications in maternal cigarette smokers. Obstet Gynecol 71: 914–917Google Scholar
  11. Campbell S, Kohorn EI (1968) Placental localization by ultrasonic compound scanning. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 75: 1007–1013Google Scholar
  12. Catanzarite V, Maida C, Thomas W et al (2001) Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of vasa previa: ultrasound findings and obstetric outcome in ten cases. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 18: 109–115Google Scholar
  13. Chantraine F, Braun T, Gonser M, Henrich W, Tutschek B (2013) Prenatal diagnosis of abnormally invasive placenta reduces maternal peripartum hemorrhage and morbidity. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 92 (4): 439–44Google Scholar
  14. Clark SL (1999) Placenta previa and abruptio placentae. In: Creasy RK, Resnik R (eds) Maternal Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, p 616Google Scholar
  15. Clark SL, Koonings PP, Phelan JP (1985) Placenta previa/accreta and prior cesarean section. Obstet Gynecol 66: 89–92Google Scholar
  16. Cnossen JS, Morris RK, ter Riet G, Mol BW, van der Post JA, Coomarasamy A, Zwinderman AH, Robson SC, Bindels PJ, Klejnen J, Khan KS (2008) Se of uterine artery Doppler Ultrasonography to predict pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction: a systematic review and bivariable metaanalysis. CMAJ 178: 701–711Google Scholar
  17. Collins SL, Ashcroft A, Braun T, Calda P, Langhoff-Roos J, Morel O, Stefanovic V, Tutschek B, Chantraine F; European Working Group on Abnormally Invasive Placenta (EW-AIP) (2016) Proposal for standardized ultrasound descriptors of abnormally invasive placenta (AIP). Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 47: 271–275Google Scholar
  18. Comstock CH (2005) Antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta: a review. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 26: 89–96Google Scholar
  19. Comstock CH (2011) The antenatal diagnosis of placental attachment disorders. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 23: 117–122Google Scholar
  20. Comstock CH, Love JJ, Bronsteen RA, et al (2004) Sonographic detection of placenta accreta in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 190: 1135–1140Google Scholar
  21. Cotton DB, Read JA, Paul RH, et al (1980) The conservative aggressive management of placenta previa. Am J Obstet Gynecol 137: 687–695Google Scholar
  22. Crane JM, Hof MC, van den Dodds L, et al (1999) Neonatal outcomes with placenta previa. Obstet Gynecol 93: 541–544Google Scholar
  23. Crawford JM (1962) Vascular anatomy of the human placenta. Am J Obstet Gynecol 84: 1543Google Scholar
  24. Degani S (2006) Sonographic findings in fetal viral infections: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 61: 329–336Google Scholar
  25. Demissie K, Breckenridge MB, Joseph L, et al (1999) Placenta previa: preponderance of male sex at birth. Am J Epidemiol 149: 824–830Google Scholar
  26. Earn AA (1951) Placental anomalies. Can Med Assoc J 65: 118–120Google Scholar
  27. Elchalal U, Ezra Y, Levy Y, Bar-Oz B, Yanai N, Intrator O (1999) Sonographically thick placenta a marker for increased perinatal risk – a prospective crosssectional study. Placenta 21: 268–272Google Scholar
  28. Faiz AS, Ananth CV (2003) Etiology and risk factors for placenta previa: an overview and meta-analysis of observational studies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 13: 175–179Google Scholar
  29. Fleischer AC, James Jr AE, Krause DA, Millis JB (1978) Sonographic patterns in trophoblastic diseases. Radiology 126: 215–220Google Scholar
  30. Francois K, Mayer S, Harris C, et al (2003) Association of vasa previa at delivery with a history of second-trimester placenta previa. J Reprod Med 48: 771–774Google Scholar
  31. Fuchs I, Dudenhausen JW, Sehouli J, Henrich W (2008) Placenta pathology: disorders of placental location, placental implantation and cord insertion. Ultraschall Med 29: 4–17 (quiz 18–23)Google Scholar
  32. Galli G, Moneta Caglio E, Troncone L, Garcea N (1968) Localization of the placenta: indications and methods (article in Italian). Ann Ostet Ginecol Med Perinat 90: 677–733Google Scholar
  33. Gassner R, Metzenbauer M, Hafner E, Valazza U, Philipp K (2003) Triploidy in a twin pregnancy: small placental volume as an early sonographic marker. Prenat Diagn 23: 16–20Google Scholar
  34. Gemer O, Segal S (1994) Incidence and contribution of predisposing factors to transverse lie presentation. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 44: 219–221Google Scholar
  35. Golic M, Hinkson L, Bamberg C, Rodekamp E, Brauer M, Sarioglu N, Henrich W (2013) Vasa praevia: risk-adapted modification of the conventional management – a retrospective study. Ultraschall Med 34: 368–376Google Scholar
  36. Grannum P, Berkowitz RL, Hobbins JC (1979) The ultrasonic changes in the maturing placenta and their relation to fetal pulmonic maturity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 133: 915–922Google Scholar
  37. Gungor T, Ekin M, Dumanli H, Gokmen O (1998) Color Doppler ultrasonography in the earlier differentiation of benign mole hydatidiforms from malignant gestational trophoblastic disease. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 77: 860Google Scholar
  38. Hafner E, Philipp T, Schuchter K, Dillinger-Paller B, Philipp K, Bauer P (1998) Second-trimester measurement of placental volume by three-dimensional ultrasound to predict small-for-gestational-age infants. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 12: 97–102Google Scholar
  39. Hafner E, Metzenbauer M, Höfinger D, Munkel M, Gassner R, Schuchter K, Dillinger- Paller B, Philipp K (2003) Placental growth from the first to the second trimester of pregnancy in SGA-fetuses and pre-eclamptic pregnancies compared to normal fetuses. Placenta 24: 336–342Google Scholar
  40. Hafner E, Metzenbauer M, Stümpflen I et al (2010) First trimester placental and mayometrial blood perfusion measured by 3D power Doppler in normal and unfavourable outcome pregnancies. Placenta 31: 756–763Google Scholar
  41. Harris RD, Wells WA, Black WC, Chertoff JD, Poplack SP, Sargent SK, et al (1997) Accuracy of prenatal sonography for detecting circumvallate placenta. Am J Roentgenol 168: 1603–1608Google Scholar
  42. Heer IM, Muller-Egloff S, Strauss A (2006) Placenta praevia – comparison of four sonographic modalities. Ultraschall in Med 27: 355–359Google Scholar
  43. Henrich W, Stupin JH (2011) 3D volume contrast imaging (VCI) for the visualization of placenta previa increta and uterine wall thickness in a dichorionic twin pregnancy. Ultraschall Med 32: 406–411Google Scholar
  44. Henrich W, Fuchs I, Ehrenstein T, Kjos S, Schmider A, Dudenhausen JW (2002) Antenatal diagnosis of placenta percreta with planned in situ retention and methotrexate therapy in a woman infected with HIV. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 20: 90–93Google Scholar
  45. Henrich W, Surbek D, Kainer F, Grottke O, Hopp H, Kiesewetter H, Koscielny J, Maul H, Schlembach D, von Tempelhoff GF, Rath W (2008) Diagnosis and treatment of peripartum bleeding. J Perinat Med 36: 467–478Google Scholar
  46. Hohlfeld P, MacAleese J, Capella-Pavlovski M, Forestier F (1991) Fetal toxoplasmosis: ultrasonographic signs. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1241–1244Google Scholar
  47. Hoogland HJ, De Haan J, Martin Jr CB (1980) Placental size during early pregnancy and fetal outcome: a preliminary report of a sequential ultrasonographic study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 138: 441–443Google Scholar
  48. Hopper KD, Komppa GH, Bice P, Williams MD, Cotterill RW, Ghaed N (1984) A reevaluation of placental grading and its clinical significance. J Ultrasound Med 3: 261–266Google Scholar
  49. Jauniaux E (1999) Partial moles from postnatal to prenatal diagnosis. Placenta 20: 379–388Google Scholar
  50. Jauniaux E, Ramsay B, Campbell S (1994) Ultrrasonographic investigation of placental morphologic characteristics and size during the second trimester of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 170: 130–137Google Scholar
  51. Jauniaux E, Broen R, Snijders RJM, Noble P, Nicolaudes K (1997a) Early prenatal diagnosis of triploidy. Am J Obstet Gynecology 176: 550–554Google Scholar
  52. Jauniaux E, Nicolaides KH, Hustin J (1997b) Perinatal features associated with placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Placenta 18: 701–706Google Scholar
  53. Jauniaux E, Collins SL, Jurkovic D, Burton GJ (2016) Accreta placentation: a systematic review of prenatal ultrasound imaging and grading of villous invasiveness. Am J Obstet Gynecol 215: 712–721Google Scholar
  54. Jedberg H, Notter G, Söderholm B, Vikterlöf KJ (1970) Placenta localization by different methods. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 49: 265–270Google Scholar
  55. Jones HW (1981) III Gestational trophoblastic disease. In: Jones H, Jones JS (eds) Novaks’s textbook of gynecology, 10. ed. Williams, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  56. Kazzi GM, Gross TL, Rosen MG, Jaatoul-Kazzi NY (1984) The relationship of placental grade, fetal lung maturity, and neonatal outcome in normal and complicated pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 148: 54–58Google Scholar
  57. Kofinas A, Kofinas G, Sutija V (2007) The role of second trimester ultrasound in the diagnosis of placental hypoechoic lesions leading to poor pregnancy outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 20: 859–866Google Scholar
  58. Konje JC, Kaufmann P, Bell SC, et al (2001) A longitudinal study of quantitative uterine blood flow with the use of color power angiography in appropriate for gestational age pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 185: 608–613Google Scholar
  59. Kouyoumdjian A (1980) Velamentous insertion of the umbilical cord. Obstet Gynecol 56: 737–742Google Scholar
  60. Krapp M, Axt-Fliedner R, Berg C, et al (2007) Clinical application of grey scale and colour Doppler sonography during abnormal third stage of labour. Ultraschall in Med 28: 63–66Google Scholar
  61. Kratochwil A (1969) Methods of placenta localization. Wien Klin Wochenschr 81: 290–293Google Scholar
  62. Kuhlmann RS, Wasof S (1996) Ultrasound of the placenta. Clin Obstet Gynecol 39: 519–534Google Scholar
  63. La Torre R, Nigro G, Mazzocco M, Best AM, Adler SP (2006) Placental enlargement in women with primary maternal cytomegaly virus infection is associated with fetal and neonatal disease. Clin Infect Dis 43: 994–1000Google Scholar
  64. Lavery JP (1990) Placenta previa. Clin Obstet Gynecol 33: 414–421Google Scholar
  65. Lee W, Lee VL, Kirk JS et al (2000) Vasa previa: prenatal diagnosis, natural evolution, and clinical outcome. Obstet Gynecol 95: 572–576Google Scholar
  66. Loh KY, Sivalingam N, Suryani MY (2004) Gestational trophoblastic disease. Med J Malaysa 59: 697–702Google Scholar
  67. Lurain JR (2010) Gestational trophoblastic disease I: epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease, and management of hydatiform mole. Am J Obstet Gynecol 203: 531–539Google Scholar
  68. Lurain JR, Brewer JI (1982) Invasive mole. Semin Oncol 9: 174–180Google Scholar
  69. McCowan LM, Ritchie K, Mo LY et al (1988) Uterine artery flow velocity waveforms in normal and growth retarded pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 158: 499–504Google Scholar
  70. McKenna D, Tharmaratnam S, Mahsud S, Dornan J (2005) Ultrasonic evidence of placental calcification at 26 weeks’ gestation: maternal and fetal oucomes. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 84: 7–10Google Scholar
  71. McShane PM, Heyl PS, Epstein MF (1985) Maternal and perinatal morbidity resulting from placenta previa. Obstet Gynecol 1985 65: 176–182Google Scholar
  72. Meiner A, Holland H, Reichenbach H, Horn LC, Faber R, Froster UG (1998) Tetraploidy in a growth retarded fetus with thick placenta. Prenat diagn 18: 864–865Google Scholar
  73. Melchiorre K, Leslie K, Prefumo A (2009) First-trimester uterine artery Doppler of small-for-gestational age pregnancies and intrauterine growth restriction. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 33: 524–529Google Scholar
  74. Merz E (2005) Ultrasound in obstetrics and gynecology, vol 1: Obstetrics. Textbook and Atlas. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  75. Metzenbauer M, Hafner E, Schuchter K, Philipp K (2002) First-trimester placental volume as a marker for chromosomal anomalies: preliminary resultsfrom an unselected population. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 19: 240–242Google Scholar
  76. Naftolin F, Khudr G, Bernischke K, Hutchinson DL (1973) The syndrome of chronic abruptio placenta, hydrorrhea, and circumvallate placenta. Am J Obstet Gynecol 116: 347–350Google Scholar
  77. O’Brien JM, Barton JR, Donaldson ES (1996) The management of placenta percreta: conservative and operative strategies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 175: 1632–1638Google Scholar
  78. Oppenheimer L (2007) Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Diagnosis and management of placenta previa. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 29: 261–273Google Scholar
  79. Oyelese Y, Smulian JC (2006) Placenta previa, placenta accreta, and vasa previa. Obstet Gynecol 107: 927–941Google Scholar
  80. Oyelese Y, Spong C, Fernandez MA, et al (2000) Second trimester low-lying placenta and in-vitro fertilization? Exclude vasa previa. J Matern Fetal Med 9: 370–372Google Scholar
  81. Oyelese Y, Catanzarite V, Prefumo F et al (2004) Vasa previa: the impact of prenatal diagnosis on outcomes. Obstet Gynecol 103: 937–942Google Scholar
  82. Palmer JR (1994) Advances in the epidemiology of gestational trophoblastic tumors. J Reprod Med 39: 155–162Google Scholar
  83. Pham T, Steele J, Stayboldt C, Chan L, Bernischke K (2006) Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is associated with high rates of intrauterine growth restriction and fetal demise. Am J Clin Pathol 126: 67–78Google Scholar
  84. Pijnenborg R, Brosens I, Romero R (2010) Placental bed disorders. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  85. Proctor LK, Toal M, Keating S et al (2009) Placental size and the prediction of severe early-onset intrauterine growth restriction in women with low pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 34: 274–282Google Scholar
  86. Proctor LK, Whittle WL, Keating S, Viero S, Kingdom JCP (2010) Pathologic basis of echogenic cystic lesions in the human placenta: role of ultrasound guided wire localization. Placenta 31: 1111–1115Google Scholar
  87. Quinlan RW, Cruz AC, Buhi WC, Martin M (1982) Changes in placental ultrasonic appearance II. Pathologic significance of Grade III placental changes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 144: 471–473Google Scholar
  88. Raio L, Saile G, Brühwiler H (1997) Discordant umbilical cord arteries: prenatal diagnosis and significance. Ultraschall in Med 18: 229–232Google Scholar
  89. Rosenberg T, Pariente G, Sergienko R, Wiznitzer A, Sheiner E (2011) Critical analysis of risk factors and outcome of placenta previa. Arch Gynecol Obstet 284: 47–51Google Scholar
  90. Schlensker KH (1971) Plazentographie mittels Ultraschall-Schnittbildverfahren. Geburtsh Frauenheilk 31: 879–897Google Scholar
  91. Sebire NJ, Sepulveda W (2008) Correlation of placental pathology with prenatal ultrasound findings. J Clin Pathol 61: 1276–1284Google Scholar
  92. Sepulveda W, Rojas I, Robert JA, et al (2003) Prenatal detection of velamentous insertion of the umbilical cord: a prospective color Doppler ultrasound study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 21: 564–569Google Scholar
  93. Sheiner E, Shoham-Vardi I, Hallak M, Hershkowitz R, Katz M, Mazor M (2001) Placenta previa: obstetric risk factors and pregnancy outcome. J Matern Fetal Med 10: 414–419Google Scholar
  94. Spirt BA, Gordon LP (2001) Sonography of the placenta. In: Fleischer A, Manning FA, Jeanty P, Romero R (eds) Sonography in obstetrics and gynecology, principles and practice, 6. ed. Mc Graw-Hill, New York, p 195–224Google Scholar
  95. Stupin JH, Heinrich W (2012) Geburtshilfe. Lösungsstörungen der Plazenta. Geburtsh Frauenheilk 72: 102–105Google Scholar
  96. Tariverdian G, Paul M (1999) Genetische Diagnostik in der Geburtshilfe und Gynäkologie. Leitfaden für Klinik und Praxis. Springer, Heidelberg, S 195Google Scholar
  97. Thame M, Osmond C, Benett F, Wilks R, Forrester T (2004) Fetal growth is directly related to maternal anthropomorphy and placental volume. Eur J Clin Nutr 58: 894–900Google Scholar
  98. Tikkanen M, Nuutila M, Hiilesmaa V, et al (2006) Clinical presentation and risk factors of placental abruption. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 85: 700–705Google Scholar
  99. Timmermans S, Hof AC, Duvekot JJ (2007) Conservative management of abnormally invasive placentation. Obstet Gynecol Surv 62: 529–539Google Scholar
  100. Timor-Tritsch IE, Monteagudo A (1993) Diagnosis of placenta previa by transvaginal sonography. Ann Med 25: 279–283Google Scholar
  101. Vegani P, Ornaghi S, Pozi I, Beretta P, Russo FM, et al (2009) Placenta previa: distance to internal os and mode of delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 201: 266.e1–266.e5Google Scholar
  102. Walker MG, Hindmarsh PC, Geary M, Kingdom JCP (2010) Sonographic maturation of the placenta at 30 to 34 weeks is not associated with second trimester markers of placental insufficiency in low-risk pregnancies. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 32: 1134–1139Google Scholar
  103. Wegrzyn P, Falcon O, Peralta CF, Nicolaides KH (2005) Placental volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasound at 11 to 13+6 weeks of gestation: relation to chromosomal defects. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 26: 28–32Google Scholar
  104. Wenworth P (1968) Circumvallate and circummarginate placentas: Their incidence and clinical significance. Am J Obstet Gynecol 102: 44Google Scholar
  105. Wigglesworth JS (1969) Vascular anatomy of the human placenta and its significance for placental pathology. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 76: 979–989Google Scholar
  106. Wilson D, Paalman RJ (1967) Clinical significance of circumvallate placenta. Obstet Gynecol 29: 774–778Google Scholar
  107. Wing DA, Paul RH, Millar LK (1996) Management of the symptomatic placenta previa: a randomized, controlled trial of inpatient versus outpatient expectant management. Am J Obstet Gynecol 175: 806–811Google Scholar
  108. Wolf H, Oosting H, Treffers PE (1989) Second-trimester placental volume measurement by ultrasound: prediction of fetal outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 160: 120–126Google Scholar
  109. Yang JI, Lim YK, Kim S (2006) Sonographic findings of placental lacunae and the prediction of adherent placenta in women with placenta praevia totalis and prior caesarean section. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 28: 178–182Google Scholar
  110. Zhou Q, Lei XY, Xie Q, Cardoza JD (2005) Sonographic and Doppler imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of gestational trophoblastic disease: a 12-year experience. J Ultrasound Med 24: 15–24Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Campus Virchow Klinikum, Campus Mitte, BerlinKliniken für Geburtsmedizin CharitéBerlinDeutschland
  2. 2.Sozialmedizinisches Zentrum Ost - DonauspitalGeburtshilflich-Gynäkologische Abt.WienDeutschland

Personalised recommendations