Overview of battery systems
Electrochemical storage systems will increasingly gain in importance in the future. This is true for the energy supply of computers and mobile phones that are becoming more and more sophisticated and smaller. It is also true for power tools and electric vehicles as well as, on a larger scale, for stationary storage of renewable energy. This Chapter will provide an overview of today's most common electrochemical storage systems. It will discuss two primary systems, which in general cannot be recharged, or only in limited fashion. Among other things, problems of rechargeability are discussed, using the example of the anode materials zinc (for aqueous electrolytes) and lithium (for non-aqueous electrolytes). In terms of rechargeable systems, the whole spectrum from lead-acid batteries to rechargeable nickel-based or sodium-based batteries to lithium-ion batteries is covered. Redox flow-batteries also are discussed, as are electric double-layer capacitors. This will enable the reader to gain an insight in the lithium-ion technology's competing and complementary technologies. The latter will be presented in other chapters of this book.
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