Advertisement

Ökologie pp 307-354 | Cite as

Von Populationen zu Lebensgemeinschaften

  • Michael Begon
  • Robert W. Howarth
  • Colin R. Townsend
Chapter

Zusammenfassung

In den vorigen Kapiteln lag unser Augenmerk häufig auf Populationen einer einzigen Art. Weil wir uns klarmachen wollten, was die Abundanz und Verbreitung einer Art bestimmt, haben wir mehr oder weniger unabhängig voneinander betrachtet, welche Rolle dabei Umweltbedingungen und Ressourcen, Wanderungen, intra- und interspezifische Konkurrenz, mutualistische Beziehungen sowie Prädation und Parasitismus spielen.

Bibliographie

  1. Bayliss, P. (1987) Kangaroo dynamics. In: Kangaroos, their Ecology and Management in the Sheep Rangelands of Australia (G. Caughley, N. Shepherd & J. Short, eds), pp. 119–134. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Taylor, I. (1994) Barn Owls. Predator–Prey Relationships and Conservation. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  3. Geange, S.W. & Stier, A.C. (2009) Order of arrival affects competition in two reef fishes. Ecology, 90, 2868–2878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Krebs, C.J., Sinclair, A.R.E., Boonstra, R., Boutin, S., Martin, K. & Smith, J.N.M. (1999) Community dynamics of vertebrate herbivores: how can we untangle the web? In: Herbivores: between Plants and Predators (H. Olff, V.K. Brown & R.H. Drent, eds.), pp. 447–473. Blackwell Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  5. Choquenot, D. (1998) Testing the relative influence of intrinsic and extrinsic variation in food availability on feral pig populations in Australia’s rangelands. Journal of Animal Ecology, 67, 887–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. White, G. (1789) The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne. (Reprinted in 1977 as The Natural History of Selborne (G. White and R. Mabey). Penguin, London.)Google Scholar
  7. Lawton, J.H. & May, R.M. (1984) The birds of Selborne. Nature, 306, 732–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Singleton, G., Krebs, C.J., Davis, S., Chambers, L. & Brown, P. (2001) Reproductive changes in fluctuating house mouse populations in southeastern Australia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 268, 1741–1748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Butet, A. & Leroux, A.B.A. (2001) Effects of agricultural development on vole dynamics and conservation of Montagu’s harrier in western French wetlands. Biological Conservation, 100, 289–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hassell, M.P., Latto, J. & May, R.M. (1989) Seeing the wood for the trees: detecting density dependence from existing life-table studies. Journal of Animal Ecology, 58, 883–892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Woiwod, I.P. & Hanski, I. (1992) Patterns of density dependence in moths and aphids. Journal of Animal Ecology, 61, 619–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davidson, J. & Andrewartha, H.G. (1948) The influence of rainfall, evaporation and atmospheric temperature on fluctuations in the size of a natural population of Thrips imaginis (Thysanoptera). Journal of Animal Ecology, 17, 200–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coulson, T., Gaillard, J-M. & Festa-Bianchet, M. (2005) Decomposing the variation in population growth into contributions from multiple demographic rates. Journal of Animal Ecology, 74, 789–901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Harcourt, D.G. (1971) Population dynamics of Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) in eastern Ontario. III. Major population processes. Canadian Entomologist, 103, 1049–1061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berven, K.A. (1995) Population regulation in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica, from three diverse geographic localities. Australian Journal of Ecology, 20, 385–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Symonides, E. (1979) The structure and population dynamics of psammophytes on inland dunes. II. Loose-sod populations. Ekologia Polska, 27, 191–234Google Scholar
  17. Gadgil, M. (1971) Dispersal: population consequences and evolution. Ecology, 52, 253–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bauerfeind, S.S., Theisen, A. & Fischer, K. (2009) Patch occupancy in the endangered butterfly Lycaena helle in a fragmented landscape: effects of habitat quality, patch size and isolation. Journal of Insect Conservation, 13, 271–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Levins, R. (1969) Some demographic and genetic consequences of environmental heterogeneity for biological control. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 15, 237–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Franzen, M. & Nilsson, M. (2010) Both population size and patch quality affect local extinctions and colonizations. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 277, 79–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Thomas, C.D. & Harrison, S. (1992) Spatial dynamics of a patchily distributed butterfly species. Journal of Applied Ecology, 61, 437–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Moilanen, A., Smith, A.T. & Hanski, I. (1998) Long-term dynamics in a metapopulation of the American pika. American Naturalist, 152, 530–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Thomas, C.D. & Jones, T.M. (1993) Partial recovery of a skipper butterfly (Hesperia comma) from population refuges: lessons for conservation in a fragmented landscape. Journal of Animal Ecology, 62, 472–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Yodzis, P. (1986) Competiton, mortality and community structure. In: Community Ecology (J. Diamond & T.J. Case, eds.), pp. 480–491. Harper & Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Sale, P.F. & Douglas, W.A. (1984) Temporal variability in the community structure of fish on coral patch reefs and the relation of community structure to reef structure. Ecology, 65, 409–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kennedy, P.G., Peay, K.G. & Bruns, T.D. (2009) Root tip competition among ectomycorrhizal fungi: are priority effects a rule or an exception? Ecology, 90, 2098–2107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lichter, J. (2000) Colonization constraints during primary succession on coastal Lake Michigan sand dunes. Journal of Ecology, 88, 825–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dölle, M., Bernhardt-Römmermann, M., Parth, A. & Schmidt, W. (2008) Changes in life history trait composition during undisturbed old-field succession. Flora, 203, 508–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Navas, M.-L., Roumet, C., Bellmann, A., Laurent, G. & Garnier, E. (2010) Suites of plant traits in species from different stages of a Mediterranean secondary succession. Plant Biology, 12, 183–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sieman, E., Haarstad, J. & Tilman, D. (1999) Dynamics of plant and arthropod diversity during old field succession. Ecography, 22, 406–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Courchamp, F., Clutton-Brock, T. & Grenfell, B. (1999) Inverse density dependence and the Allee effect. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 14, 405–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Spiller, D.A. & Schoener, T.W. (1990) A terrestrial field experiment showing the impact of eliminating predators on foliage damage. Nature, 347, 469–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Letourneau, D.K. & Dyer, L.A. (1998a) Density patterns of Piper ant-plants and associated arthropods: top-predator trophic cascades in a terrestrial system? Biotropica, 30, 162–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pace, M.L., Cole, J.J., Carpenter, S.R. & Kitchell, J.F. (1999) Trophic cascades revealed in diverse ecosystems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 14, 483–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Frank, K.T., Petrie, B., Choi, J.S. & Leggett, W.C. (2005) Trophic cascades in a formerly cod-dominated ecosystem. Science, 308, 1621–1623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Carpenter, S.R., Christensen, D.L., Cole, J.J., Kottingham, K.L., He, X., Hodgson, J.R., Hitchell, J.F., Knight, S.E., Pace, M.L., Post, D.M., Schindler, D.E. & Voichick, N. (1995) Biological control of eutrophication in lakes. Environmental Science and Technology, 29, 784–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kersch-Becker, M.F. & Lewinsohn, T.M. (2012) Bottom-up multitrophic effects in resprouting plants. Ecology, 93, 9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hairston, N.G., Smith, F.E. & Slobodkin, L.B. (1960) Community structure, population control, and competition. American Naturalist, 44, 421–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Murdoch, W.W. (1966) Community structure, population control and competition—a critique. American Naturalist, 100, 219–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Borer, E.T., Halpern, B.S. & Seabloom, E.W. (2006) Asymmetry in community regulation: effects of predators and productivity. Ecology, 87, 2813–2820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Power, M.E., Tilman, D., Estes, J.A. et al. (1996) Challenges in the quest for keystones. Bioscience, 46, 609–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kerbes, R.H., Kotanen, P.M. & Jefferies, R.L. (1990) Destruction of wetland habitats by lesser snow geese: a keystone species on the west coast of Hudson Bay. Journal of Applied Ecology, 27, 242–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. MacArthur, R.H. (1955) Fluctuations of animal populations and a measure of community stability. Ecology, 36, 533–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Elton, C.S. (1958) The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. Methuen, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. May, R.M. (1981) Patterns in multi-species communities. In: Theoretical Ecology: Principles and Applications, 2nd edn (R.M. May, ed.), pp. 197–227. Blackwell Scientific Publications, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  46. Tilman, D. (1999) The ecological consequences of changes in biodiversity: a search for general principles. Ecology, 80, 1455–1474Google Scholar
  47. Cottingham, K.L., Brown, B.L. & Lennon, J.T. (2001) Biodiversity may regulate the temporal variability of ecological systems. Ecology Letters, 4, 72–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stouffer, D.B. & Bascompte, J. (2011) Compartmentalization increases food web persistence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 108, 3648–3652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tilman, D. (1996) Biodiversity: population versus ecosystem stability. Ecology, 77, 350–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McGrady-Steed, J., Harris, P.M. & Morin, P.J. (1997) Biodiversity regulates ecosystem predictability. Nature, 390, 162–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wardle, D.A., Bonner, K.I. & Barker, G.M. (2000) Stability of ecosystem properties in response to above-ground functional group richness and composition. Oikos, 89, 11–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rezende, E.L., Albert, E.M., Fortuna, M.A. & Bascompte, J. (2009) Compartments in a marine food web associated with phylogeny, body mass, and habitat structure. Ecology Letters, 12, 779–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Townsend, C.R., Thompson, R.M., McIntosh, A.R. et al. (1998) Disturbance, resource supply, and food-web architecture in streams. Ecology Letters, 1, 200–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Karl, B.J. & Best, H.A. (1982) Feral cats on Stewart Island: their foods, and their effects on kakapo. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 9, 287–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Begon
    • 1
  • Robert W. Howarth
    • 2
  • Colin R. Townsend
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of LiverpoolLiverpoolGroßbritannien
  2. 2.Department of EcologyCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  3. 3.Dept. of ZoologyUniversity of OtagoDunedinNeuseeland

Personalised recommendations