Ökologie pp 473-519 | Cite as


  • Michael Begon
  • Robert W. Howarth
  • Colin R. Townsend


Wir haben diskutiert, durch welche Prozesse neue Arten entstehen (Abschn. 2.3) und in neue Gebiete einwandern (Abschn. 5.4 und 10.4). Und wir wissen, dass Arten lokal oder auch global aussterben können.


  1. Burkhead, N.M. (2012) Extinction rates of North American freshwater fishes, 1900–2010. BioScience, 62, 798–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Wake, D.B. & Vredenburg, V.T. (2008) Are we in the midst of the sixth mass extinction? A view from the world of amphibians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 11466–11473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. May, R.M. (2010) Tropical arthropod species, more or less? Science, 329, 41–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Daly, H.E. & Farley, J. (2011) Ecological Economics: ­Principles and Applications, 2nd edn. Island Press, Washington, D.CGoogle Scholar
  5. Sanchez-Azofeifa, G.A., Pfaff, A., Robalino, J.A. & Boomhower, J. (2007) Costa Rica’s Payment for Environmental Services program: intention, implementation and impact. Conservation Biology, 21, 1165–1173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Primack, R.B. (1993) Essentials of Conservation Biology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MAGoogle Scholar
  7. Rodrigues, A.S.L., Pilgrim, J.D., Lamoreux, J.F., Hoffmann, M. & Brooks, T.M. (2006) The value of the IUCN Red List for conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21, 71–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Akçakaya, H.R. (1992) Population viability analysis and risk assessment. In: Proceedings of Wildlife 2001: Populations (D.R. McCullough, ed.), pp. 148–157. Elsevier, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Caughley, G. (1994) Directions in conservation biology. Journal of Animal Ecology, 63, 215–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lande, R. & Barrowclough, G.F. (1987) Effective population size, genetic variation, and their use in population management. In: Viable Populations for Conservation (M.E. Soulé, ed.), pp. 87–123. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Johnson, J.A., Toepfer, J.E. & Dunn, P.O. (2003) Contrasting patterns of mitochondrial and microsatellite population structure in fragmented populations of greater prairie-chickens. Molecular Ecology, 12, 3335–3347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Franklin, I.R. & Frankham, R. (1998) How large must populations be to retain evolutionary potential? Animal Conservation, 1, 69–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fischer, M. & Matthies, D. (1998) Effects of population size on performance in the rare plant Gentianella germanica. Journal of Ecology, 86, 195–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Swinnerton, K.J., Groombridge, J.J., Jones, C.G., Burn, R.W. & Mungroo, Y. (2004) Inbreeding depression and founder diversity among captive and free-living populations of the endangered pink pigeon Columba mayeri. Animal Conservation, 7, 353–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pimm, S.L. (1991) The Balance of Nature: Ecological Issues in the Conservation of Species and Communities. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  16. Berger, J. (1990) Persistence of different-sized populations: an empirical assessment of rapid extinctions in bighorn sheep. Conservation Biology, 4, 91–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lemieux, A.M. & Clarke, R.V. (2009) The international ban on ivory sales and its effects on elephant poaching in Africa. British Journal of Criminology, 49, 451–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hansen, M.C., Stehman, S.V. & Potapov, P.V. (2010) Quantification of global gross forest cover loss. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 107, 8650–8655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Maskell, L.C., Smart, S.M., Bullock, J.M., Thomson. K. & Stevens, C. (2010) Nitrogen deposition causes widespread loss of species richness in British habitats. Global Change Biology, 16, 671–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Thomas, C.D., Cameron, A., Green, R.E. et al. (2004) Extinction risk from climate change. Nature, 427, 145–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Beaumont, L.J. & Hughes, L. (2002) Potential changes in the distributions of latitudinally restricted Australian butterfly species in response to climate change. Global Change Biology, 8, 954–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Téllez-Valdés, O. & Dávila-Aranda, P. (2003) Protected areas and climate change: a case study of the cacti in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve, Mexico. Conservation Biology, 17, 846–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Savidge, J.A. (1987) Extinction of an island forest avifauna by an introduced snake. Ecology, 68, 660–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rahel, F.J. (2002) Homogenization of freshwater faunas. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 33, 291–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wilcove, D.S., Rothstein, D., Dubow, J., Phillips, A. & Losos, E. (1998) Quantifying threats to imperiled species in the United States. Bioscience, 48, 607–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Balmford, A. & Bond, W. (2005) Trends in the state of nature and their implications for human well-being. Ecology Letters, 8, 1218–1234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fisher, M.C., Garner, T.W.J. & Walker, S.F. (2009) Global emergence of Batrochochytrium dendrobatidis and amphibian chytridiomycosis is space, time and host. Annual Review of Microbiology, 63, 291–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lips, K.R., Brem, F., Brenes, R., Reeve, J.D., Alford, R.A., Voyles, J., Carey, C., Livo, L., Pessier, A.P. & Collins, J.P. (2006) Emerging infectious disease and the loss of biodiversity in a Neotropical amphibian community. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 103, 3165–3170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pounds, A.P., Bustamante, M.R., Coloma, L.A., Consuegra, J.A., Fogden, M.P.L., Foster, P.N., Marca, E., Masters, K.L., Merino-Viteri, A., Puschendorf, R., Ron, S.R., Sanchez-Azofeifa, G.A., Still, C.J. & Young, B.E. (2006) Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature, 439, 161–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Blomqvist, D., Pauliny, A., Larsson, M. & Flodin, L.-A. (2010) Trapped in the extinction vortex? Strong genetic effects in a declining vertebrate population. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 10, 33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cox, P.A., Elmquist, T., Pierson, E.D. & Rainey, W.E. (1991) Flying foxes as strong interactors in South Pacific island ­ecosystems: a conservation hypothesis. Conservation Biology, 5, 448–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mortensen, H.K., Dupont, Y.L. & Olesen, J.M. (2008) A snake in paradise: disturbance of plant reproduction following extirpation of bird flower-visitors on Guam. Biological Conservation, 141, 2146–2154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lacy, R.C. (1993) VORTEX: a computer simulation for use in population viability analysis. Wildlife Research, 20, 45–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Penn, A.M., Sherwin, W.B., Gordon, G., Lunney, D., Melzer, A. & Lacy, R.C. (2000) Demographic forecasting in koala conservation. Conservation Biology, 14, 629–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mora, C. & Sale, P.F. (2011) Ongoing global biodiversity loss and the need to move beyond protected areas: a review of the technical and practical shortcomings of protected areas on land and sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 434, 251–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hodgson, J.A., Kunin, W.E., Thomas, C.D., Benton, T.G. & Gabriel, D. (2010) Comparing organic farming and land sparing: optimizing yield and butterfly populations at a landscape scale. Ecology Letters, 13, 1358–1367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. World Resources Institute (2011) Reefs at Risk Revisited. The World Resources Institute.Google Scholar
  38. Kramer, D.L. & Chapman, M.R. (1999) Implications of fish home range size and relocation for marine reserve function. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 55, 65–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Bertzky, B., Corrigan, C., Kemsey, J., Kenney, S., Ravilious, C., Besançon, C. & Burgess, N. (2012) Protected Planet Report 2012: Tracking progress towards global targets for protected areas. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  40. Hodgson, J.A., Moilanen, A., Wintle, B.A. & Thomas, C.D. (2011) Habitat area, quality and connectivity: striking the balance for efficient conservation. Journal of Applied Ecology, 48, 148–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hodgson, J.A., Thomas, C.D., Wintle, B.A. & Moilanen, A. (2009) Climate change, connectivity and conservation decision making: back to basics. Journal of Applied Ecology, 46, 964–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Bruckmann, S.V., Krauss, J. & Steffan-Dewenter, I. (2010) Butterfly and plant specialists suffer from reduced connectivity in fragmented landscapes. Journal of Applied Ecology, 47, 799–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Karubian, J., Fabara, J., Yunes, D., Jorgeson, J.P., Romo, D. & Smith, T.B. (2005) Temporal and spatial patterns of macaw abundance in the Ecuadorian Amazon. The Condor, 107, 617–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Castellon, T.D. & Sieving, K.E. (2006) An experimental test of matrix permeability and corridor use by an endemic understory bird. Conservation Biology, 20, 135–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fox, N.J. & Beckley, L.E. (2005) Priority areas for conservation of Western Australian coastal fishes: a comparison of hotspot, biogeographical and complementarity approaches. Biological Conservation, 125, 399–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Cowling, R.M., Pressey, R.L., Rouget, M. & Lombard, A.T. (2003) A conservation plan for a global biodiversity hotspot—the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. Biological Conservation, 112, 191–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Costanza, R., D’Arge, R., de Groot, R. et al. (1997) The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387, 253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Townsend, C.R. (2007) Ecological Applications: Toward a Sustainable World. Blackwell Publishing, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  49. Santelmann, M.V., White, D., Freemark, K. et al. (2004) Assessing alternative futures for agriculture in Iowa, USA. Landscape Ecology, 19, 357–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Menges, E.S. & Dolan, R.W. (1998) Demographic viability of populations of Silene regia in midwestern prairies: relationships with fire management, genetic variation, geographic location, population size and isolation. Journal of Ecology, 86, 63–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  52. Rouphael, A.B. & Inglis, G.J. (2001) ‘Take only photographs and leave only footprints’? An experimental study of the impacts of underwater photographers on coral reef dive sites. Biological Conservation, 100, 281–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Begon
    • 1
  • Robert W. Howarth
    • 2
  • Colin R. Townsend
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of LiverpoolLiverpoolGroßbritannien
  2. 2.Department of EcologyCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  3. 3.Dept. of ZoologyUniversity of OtagoDunedinNeuseeland

Personalised recommendations