Complementing Semi-deterministic Büchi Automata

  • František Blahoudek
  • Matthias Heizmann
  • Sven Schewe
  • Jan Strejček
  • Ming-Hsien Tsai
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9636)

Abstract

We introduce an efficient complementation technique for semi-deterministic Büchi automata, which are Büchi automata that are deterministic in the limit: from every accepting state onward, their behaviour is deterministic. It is interesting to study semi-deterministic automata, because they play a role in practical applications of automata theory, such as the analysis of Markov decision processes. Our motivation to study their complementation comes from the termination analysis implemented in Ultimate Büchi Automizer, where these automata represent checked runs and have to be complemented to identify runs to be checked. We show that semi-determinism leads to a simpler complementation procedure: an extended breakpoint construction that allows for symbolic implementation. It also leads to significantly improved bounds as the complement of a semi-deterministic automaton with n states has less than \(4^n\) states. Moreover, the resulting automaton is unambiguous, which again offers new applications, like the analysis of Markov chains. We have evaluated our construction against the semi-deterministic automata produced by the Ultimate Büchi Automizer. The evaluation confirms that our algorithm outperforms the known complementation techniques for general nondeterministic Büchi automata.

References

  1. 1.
    Babiak, T., Badie, T., Duret-Lutz, A., Křetínský, M., Strejček, J.: Compositional approach to suspension and other improvements to LTL translation. In: Bartocci, E., Ramakrishnan, C.R. (eds.) SPIN 2013. LNCS, vol. 7976, pp. 81–98. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Babiak, T., Blahoudek, F., Duret-Lutz, A., Klein, J., Křetínský, J., Müller, D., Parker, D., Strejček, J.: The Hanoi omega-automata format. In: Kroening, D., Păsăreanu, C.S. (eds.) CAV 2015. LNCS, vol. 9206, pp. 479–486. Springer, Heidelberg (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Benedikt, M., Lenhardt, R., Worrell, J.: LTL model checking of interval Markov chains. In: Piterman, N., Smolka, S.A. (eds.) TACAS 2013 (ETAPS 2013). LNCS, vol. 7795, pp. 32–46. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beyer, D.: Software verification and verifiable witnesses. In: Baier, C., Tinelli, C. (eds.) TACAS 2015. LNCS, vol. 9035, pp. 401–416. Springer, Heidelberg (2015)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Breuers, S., Löding, C., Olschewski, J.: Improved Ramsey-based Büchi complementation. In: Birkedal, L. (ed.) FOSSACS 2012. LNCS, vol. 7213, pp. 150–164. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Büchi, J.R.: On a decision method in restricted second order arithmetic. In: CLMpPS 1960, pp. 1–11. Stanford University Press (1962)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bustan, D., Rubin, S., Vardi, M.Y.: Verifying \(\omega \)-regular properties of Markov chains. In: Alur, R., Peled, D.A. (eds.) CAV 2004. LNCS, vol. 3114, pp. 189–201. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Courcoubetis, C., Yannakakis, M.: The complexity of probabilistic verification. J. ACM 42(4), 857–907 (1995)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dietsch, D., Heizmann, M., Langenfeld, V., Podelski, A.: Fairness modulo theory: a new approach to LTL software model checking. In: Kroening, D., Păsăreanu, C.S. (eds.) CAV 2015. LNCS, vol. 9206, pp. 49–66. Springer, Heidelberg (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Duret-Lutz, A., Poitrenaud, D., SPOT: An extensible model checking library using transition-based generalized Büchi automata. In: MASCOTS 2004, pp. 76–83. IEEE Computer Society (2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fogarty, S., Kupferman, O., Wilke, T., Vardi, M.Y.: Unifying Büchi complementation constructions. Logical Methods Comput. Sci. 9(1), 1–25 (2013)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Friedgut, E., Kupferman, O., Vardi, M.Y.: Büchi complementation made tighter. Int. J. Found. Comput. Sci. 17(4), 851–868 (2006)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gurumurthy, S., Kupferman, O., Somenzi, F., Vardi, M.Y.: On complementing nondeterministic Büchi automata. In: Geist, D., Tronci, E. (eds.) CHARME 2003. LNCS, vol. 2860, pp. 96–110. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hahn, E.M., Li, G., Schewe, S., Turrini, A., Zhang, L.: Lazy probabilistic model checking without determinisation. In: CONCUR 2015. LIPIcs, vol. 42, pp. 354–367. Schloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik (2015)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Heizmann, M., Hoenicke, J., Podelski, A.: Termination analysis by learning terminating programs. In: Biere, A., Bloem, R. (eds.) CAV 2014. LNCS, vol. 8559, pp. 797–813. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kähler, D., Wilke, T.: Complementation, disambiguation, and determinization of Büchi automata unified. In: Aceto, L., Damgård, I., Goldberg, L.A., Halldórsson, M.M., Ingólfsdóttir, A., Walukiewicz, I. (eds.) ICALP 2008, Part I. LNCS, vol. 5125, pp. 724–735. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kupferman, O., Vardi, M.Y.: Weak alternating automata are not that weak. ACM Trans. Comput. Logic 2(2), 408–429 (2001)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kurshan, R.P.: Computer-Aided Verification of Coordinating Processes: The Automata-Theoretic Approach. Princeton University Press, Princeton (1994)MATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    McNaughton, R.: Testing and generating infinite sequences by a finite automaton. Inf. Control 9(5), 521–530 (1966)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Michel, M.: Complementation is more difficult with automata on infinite words. Technical report, CNET, Paris (Manuscript) (1988)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Miyano, S., Hayashi, T.: Alternating finite automata on \(\omega \)-words. Theor. Comput. Sci. 32(3), 321–330 (1984)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Muller, D.E.: Infinite sequences and finite machines. In: FOCS 1963, pp. 3–16. IEEE Computer Society Press (1963)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pécuchet, J.-P.: On the complementation of Büchi automata. Theor. Comput. Sci. 47(3), 95–98 (1986)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Piterman, N.: From nondeterministic Büchi and Streett automata to deterministic parity automata. Logical Methods Comput. Sci. 3(3:5) (2007)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Safra, S.: On the complexity of omega-automata. In: FOCS 1988, pp. 319–327. IEEE Computer Society (1988)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sakoda, W.J., Sipser, M.: Non-determinism and the size of two-way automata. In STOC 1978, pp. 274–286. ACM Press (1978)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schewe, S.: Büchi complementation made tight. In: STACS 2009. LIPIcs, vol. 3, pp. 661–672. Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik (2009)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schewe, S.: Tighter bounds for the determinisation of Büchi automata. In: de Alfaro, L. (ed.) FOSSACS 2009. LNCS, vol. 5504, pp. 167–181. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schewe, S., Varghese, T.: Tight bounds for the determinisation and complementation of generalised Büchi automata. In: Chakraborty, S., Mukund, M. (eds.) ATVA 2012. LNCS, vol. 7561, pp. 42–56. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Schewe, S., Varghese, T.: Tight bounds for complementing parity automata. In: Csuhaj-Varjú, E., Dietzfelbinger, M., Ésik, Z. (eds.) MFCS 2014, Part I. LNCS, vol. 8634, pp. 499–510. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sistla, A.P., Vardi, M.Y., Wolper, P.: The complementation problem for Büchi automata with applications to temporal logic. Theor. Comput. Sci. 49(3), 217–239 (1987)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tsai, M.-H., Fogarty, S., Vardi, M.Y., Tsay, Y.: State of Büchi complementation. Logical Methods Comput. Sci. 10(4:13) (2014)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tsai, M.-H., Tsay, Y.-K., Hwang, Y.-S.: GOAL for Games, omega-automata, and logics. In: Sharygina, N., Veith, H. (eds.) CAV 2013. LNCS, vol. 8044, pp. 883–889. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vardi, M.Y.: Automatic verification of probabilistic concurrent finite-state programs. In: FOCS 1985, pp. 327–338. IEEE Computer Society (1985)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vardi, M.Y.: The Büchi complementation saga. In: Thomas, W., Weil, P. (eds.) STACS 2007. LNCS, vol. 4393, pp. 12–22. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Vardi, M.Y., Wolper, P.: An automata-theoretic approach to automatic program verification (preliminary report). In: LICS 1986, pp. 332–344. IEEE Computer Society (1986)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Yan, Q., Lower bounds for complementation of omega-automata via the full automata technique. Logical Methods Comput. Sci. 4(1: 5), 1–20 (2008)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • František Blahoudek
    • 1
  • Matthias Heizmann
    • 2
  • Sven Schewe
    • 3
  • Jan Strejček
    • 1
  • Ming-Hsien Tsai
    • 4
  1. 1.Masaryk UniversityBrnoCzech Republic
  2. 2.University of FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  3. 3.University of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK
  4. 4.Institute of Information Science, Academia SinicaTaipeiTaiwan

Personalised recommendations