International Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Informatics

SOFSEM 2016: Theory and Practice of Computer Science pp 208-216 | Cite as

Subsequence Automata with Default Transitions

  • Philip Bille
  • Inge Li Gørtz
  • Frederik Rye Skjoldjensen
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9587)


Let S be a string of length n with characters from an alphabet of size \(\sigma \). The subsequence automaton of S (often called the directed acyclic subsequence graph) is the minimal deterministic finite automaton accepting all subsequences of S. A straightforward construction shows that the size (number of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is \(O(n\sigma )\) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal.

In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character.

Specifically, given any integer parameter k, \(1 < k \le \sigma \), we present a subsequence automaton with default transitions of size \(O(nk\log _{k}\sigma )\) and delay \(O(\log _k \sigma )\). Hence, with \(k = 2\) we obtain an automaton of size \(O(n \log \sigma )\) and delay \(O(\log \sigma )\). On the other extreme, with \(k = \sigma \), we obtain an automaton of size \(O(n \sigma )\) and delay O(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip Bille
    • 1
  • Inge Li Gørtz
    • 1
  • Frederik Rye Skjoldjensen
    • 1
  1. 1.Technical University of DenmarkLyngbyDenmark

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