Advertisement

Phoniatrics I pp 837-856 | Cite as

Special Kinds of Disorders of Hearing Development

  • Antoinette am Zehnhoff-DinnesenEmail author
  • Doris-Eva Bamiou
  • Nicole G. Campbell
  • David R. Moore
  • Haldun Oguz
  • Ross Parfitt
  • Mustafa Asim Safak
  • Claus-Michael Schmidt
  • Tony Sirimanna
  • Amélie Elisabeth Tillmanns
  • Dorothe Veraguth
Chapter
Part of the European Manual of Medicine book series (EUROMANUAL)

Abstract

An overview presenting the types and courses of hearing loss is followed by descriptions of special kinds of hearing impairment. Mechanisms and aetiologies are outlined in this chapter.

The three primary types of peripheral hearing loss are conductive, sensorineural and mixed hearing loss. The remaining cases of hearing losses are central in origin. Hearing loss in children can be present at birth (congenital) or acquired later. In some cases the hearing loss is progressive or fluctuating.

Developmental auditory processing disorder (APD) is a listening difficulty encountered despite normal auditory sensitivity, diagnosed primarily in children. APD has traditionally been defined as a disorder of the central auditory nervous system (CANS), but it may also involve cochlear hair cell or auditory nerve pathology. Cerebral cortical areas beyond the CANS and descending auditory pathways may also be involved.

Hyperacusis is characterised by a reduced tolerance to sound. This kind of hypersensitivity has to be distinguished from phonophobia, misophonia and loudness recruitment.

Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of an external acoustic stimulus. It is a symptom that can arise as a result of dysfunction at any point in the auditory pathway.

Non-organic (functional) hearing loss in children is characterised by hearing loss without a detectable corresponding pathology in the auditory system. Patient history shows a high prevalence of emotional and school problems. Pre-existing organic hearing loss can be worsened by non-organic causes.

Keywords

Hearing loss Types Courses Auditory processing disorders Hyperacusis Non-organic (Functional) 

References

  1. AAA (2010) Guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of children and adults with central auditory processing disorder. http://www.audiology.org/publications-resources/document-library/central-auditory-processing-disorder. Accessed 10 Oct 2016
  2. Agrup C (2008) Immune-mediated audiovestibular disorders in the paediatric population: a review. Int J Audiol 47(9):560–565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aksoy S, Akdogan O, Gedikli Y et al (2007) The extent and levels of tinnitus in children of central Ankara. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 71(2):263–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anari M, Axelsson A, Eliasson A et al (1999) Hypersensitivity to sound—questionnaire data, audiometry and classification. Scand Audiol 28(4):219–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andersson G, Lindvall N, Hursti T et al (2002) Hypersensitivity to sound (hyperacusis): a prevalence study conducted via the Internet and post. Int J Audiol 41(8):545–554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Andersson G (2013) The treatment of hyperacusis with cognitive behavioral therapy. ENT Audiol News 21:86–87Google Scholar
  7. Aplin DY, Rowson VJ (1990) Psychological characteristics of children with functional hearing loss. Br J Audiol 24(2):77–87PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Ardle BM, Bitner-Glindzicz M (2010) Investigation of the child with permanent hearing impairment. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract 95(1):14–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. ASHA (2005) (Central) auditory processing disorders: the role of the audiologist. http://www.asha.org/docs/html/tr2005-00043.html. Accessed Sept 2013
  10. Atiani S, David SV, Elgueda D et al (2014) Emergent selectivity for task-relevant stimuli in higher-order auditory cortex. Neuron 82(2):486–499.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2014.02.029CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Aust G (2002) Tinnitus in childhood. Int Tinnitus J 8(1):20–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Austen S, Lynch C (2004) Non-organic hearing loss redefined: understanding, categorizing and managing non-organic behaviour. Int J Audiol 43(8):449–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bachmann KR, Arvedson JC (1998) Early identification and intervention for children who are hearing impaired. Pediatr Rev 19(5):155–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Baguley DM, Andersson G (2007) Hyperacusis: mechanisms, diagnosis, and therapies. Plural Publishing, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  15. Baguley DM, McFerran DJ (2011) Hyperacusis and disorders of loudness perception. In: Møller M et al (eds) Textbook of tinnitus. Springer, New York, pp 13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Baguley DM, Bartnik G, Kleinjung T et al (2013) Troublesome tinnitus in childhood and adolescence: data from expert centres. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 77(2):248–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bamiou DE, Werring D, Cox K et al (2012) Patient-reported auditory functions after stroke of the central auditory pathway. Stroke 43(5):1285–1289.  https://doi.org/10.1161/strokeaha.111.644039CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bernard F, Quante A (2011) Akustische Halluzinationen und Pseudohalluzinationen bei erworbener Schwerhörigkeit (Acoustic hallucinations and pseudo-hallucinations in acquired deafness). HNO 59(5):519–521.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00106-010-2249-9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bharadwaj HM, Verhulst S, Shaheen L et al (2014) Cochlear neuropathy and the coding of supra-threshold sound. Front Syst Neurosci 8:26.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2014.00026CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Bisiach E, Cornacchia L, Sterzi R et al (1984) Disorders of perceived auditory lateralization after lesions of the right hemisphere. Brain 107.(Pt 1:37–52PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Blomberg S, Rosander M, Andersson G (2006) Fears, hyperacusis and musicality in Williams syndrome. Res Dev Disabil 27(6):668–680PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Bösel C, Mazurek B, Haupt H et al (2008) Chronischer Tinnitus und kraniomandibuläre Dysfunktionen (Chronic tinnitus and craniomandibular disorders. Effectiveness of functional therapy on perceived tinnitus distress). HNO 56(7):707–713PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Brody RM, Nicholas BD, Wolf MJ et al (2013) Cortical deafness: a case report and review of the literature. Otol Neurotol 34(7):1226–1229PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Brozoski T, Odintsov B, Bauer C (2012) Gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid levels in the auditory pathway of rats with chronic tinnitus: a direct determination using high resolution point-resolved proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Front Syst Neurosci 6:9.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2012.00009CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Brusis T (2011) Innenohrschwerhörigkeit nach stumpfem Schädelhirntrauma bzw. Kopfanpralltrauma (Sensorineural hearing loss after dull head injury or concussion trauma). Laryngo-Rhino-Otologie 90(2):73–80PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. BSA (2011) Position statement: auditory processing disorder (APD). http://www.thebsa.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/BSA_APD_PositionPaper_31March11_FINAL.pdf. Accessed 29 Dec 2014
  27. Campbell NG, Bamiou DE, Sirimanna T (2012) Current progress in auditory processing disorder. ENT Audiol News 21(2):86–90Google Scholar
  28. Chadha NK, Gordon KA, James AL et al (2009) Tinnitus is prevalent in children with cochlear implants. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 73(5):671–675PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Cope TE, Baguley DM (2009) Is musical hallucination an otological phenomenon? a review of the literature. Clin Otolaryngol 34(5):423–430.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-4486.2009.02013.xCrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Cremers CW, O’Connor AF, Helms J et al (2010) International consensus on Vibrant Soundbridge® implantation in children and adolescents. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 74(11):1267–1269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Davis A, El Rafaie A (2000) Epidemiology of tinnitus. In: Tyler RS (ed) Tinnitus handbook. Singular, San Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
  32. Dawes P, Sirimanna T, Burton M et al (2009) Temporal auditory and visual motion processing of children diagnosed with auditory processing disorder and dyslexia. Ear Hear 30(6):675–686.  https://doi.org/10.1097/AUD.0b013e3181b34cc5CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Del Zoppo C, Sanchez L, Lind C (2015) A long-term follow-up of children and adolescents referred for assessment of auditory processing disorder. Int J Audiol 54(6):368–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Edmond K, Clark A, Korczak VS et al (2010) Global and regional risk of disabling sequelae from bacterial meningitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 10(5):317–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Elziere M, Roman S, Nicollas R et al (2007) Objective tinnitus associated with essential palatal myoclonus: report in a child. Int Tinnitus J 13(2):157–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Emanuel DC, Ficca KN, Korczak P (2011) Survey of the diagnosis and management of auditory processing disorder. Am J Audiol 20(1):48–60.  https://doi.org/10.1044/1059-0889(2011/10-0019CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Formby C, Sherlock LP, Gold SL (2003) Adaptive plasticity of loudness induced by chronic attenuation and enhancement of the acoustic background. J Acoust Soc Am 114(1):55–58PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Fritsch MH, Wynne MK, Matt BH et al (2001) Objective tinnitus in children. Otol Neurotol 22(5):644–649PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Gibson WP, Sanli H (2007) Auditory neuropathy: an update. Ear Hear 28(2 Suppl):102S–106SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gifford KA, Holmes MG, Bernstein HH (2009) Hearing loss in children. Pediatr Rev 30(6):207–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Goebel G, Günther S (2014) Nachweis der Geräuschüberempfindlichkeit (Hyperakusis) mit überschwelliger Audiometrie: evaluation eines neuen Verfahrens auf Basis der kategorialen Hörfeldaudiometrie (Würzburger Hörfeld) zur Klassifizierung des Hyperakusis-Schweregrades (Assessment of decreased sound tolerance (hyperacusis) with suprathreshold audiometry: evaluation of a new method based on categorial loudness scaling (Würzburger Hörfeld) to classify the severity of hyperacusis). Z Audiol 53(3):98–109Google Scholar
  42. Gregg R, Wiorek L, Arvedson J (2004) Pediatric audiology: a review. Pediatr Rev 25(7):224–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Griffiths TD, Rees A, Witton C et al (1997) Spatial and temporal auditory processing deficits following right hemisphere infarction. A psychophysical study. Brain 120(Pt 5):785–794PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. GSPPA (2014) Auditory processing and perception disorders: definition. Professional guidelines. German Society of Phoniatrics and Pediatric AudiologyGoogle Scholar
  45. Hall JW (2013) What can be done for patients with hyperacusis and other forms of decreased sound tolerance. Available via Audiology Online, Article #11679. http://www.audiologyonline.com/articles/20q-what-can-done-for-11679. Accessed 16 Nov 2016
  46. Halliday LF, Taylor JL, Millward KE et al (2012) Lack of generalization of auditory learning in typically developing children. J Speech Lang Hear Res 55(1):168–181.  https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2011/09-0213CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Harlor AD, Bower C (2009) Hearing assessment in infants and children: recommendations beyond neonatal screening. Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine; Section on Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Pediatrics 124(4):1252–1263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hattiangadi N, Pillion JP, Slomine B et al (2005) Characteristics of auditory agnosia in a child with severe traumatic brain injury: a case report. Brain Lang 92(1):12–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hazell JW, McKinney CJ, Aleksy W (1995) Mechanisms of tinnitus in profound deafness. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl 166:418–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Henry JA, Meikle MB (2000) Psychoacoustic measures of tinnitus. J Am Acad Audiol 11(3):138–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Herráiz C, Plaza G, Aparicio JM (2006) Mechanisms and management of hyperacusis (decreased sound tolerance). Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp 57(8):373–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Herráiz C, Diges I (2011) Tinnitus and Hyperacusis/Phonophobia. In: Møller M et al (eds) Textbook of Tinnitus. Springer, New York, pp 455–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hesse G, Masri S, Nelting M et al (1999) Hypermotility of outer hair cells: DPOAE findings with hyperacusis patients. In: Hazell J (ed) Proceedings of the sixth international tinnitus seminar. Tinnitus and Hyperacusis Center, London, pp 342–344Google Scholar
  54. Hind SE, Haines-Bazrafshan R, Benton CL et al (2011) Prevalence of clinical referrals having hearing thresholds within normal limits. Int J Audiol 50(10):708–716.  https://doi.org/10.3109/14992027.2011.582049CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hoistad DL, Hain TC (2003) Central hearing loss with a bilateral inferior colliculus lesion. Audiol Neurootol 8(2):111–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Holmes S, Padgham ND (2009) Review paper: more than ringing in the ears: a review of tinnitus and its psychosocial impact. J Clin Nurs 18(21):2927–2937PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hornickel J, Zecker SG, Bradlow AR et al (2012) Assistive listening devices drive neuroplasticity in children with dyslexia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(41):16731–16736.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1206628109CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Hoth S (1991) Veränderungen der frühen akustisch evozierten Potentiale bei Akustikusneurinom (Changes in early auditory evoked potentials in acoustic neuroma). HNO 39(9):343–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Huang BY, Zdanski C, Castillo M (2012) Pediatric sensorineural hearing loss, part 1: practical aspects for neuroradiologists. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 33(2):211–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Humes LE, Dubno JR, Gordon-Salant S et al (2012) Central presbycusis: a review and evaluation of the evidence. J Am Acad Audiol 23(8):635–666PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Iizuka O, Suzuki K, Endo K et al (2007) Pure word deafness and pure anarthria in a patient with frontotemporal dementia. Eur J Neur 14(4):473–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jackler RK, Luxford WM, House WF (1987) Congenital malformations of the inner ear: a classification based on embryogenesis. Laryngoscope 97(3 Pt 2 Suppl 40):2–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Janssen RM, Hong P, Chadha NK (2012) Bilateral bone-anchored hearing aids for bilateral permanent conductive hearing loss: a systematic review. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 147(3):412–422PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jastreboff PJ, Hazell JW (1993) A neurophysiological approach to tinnitus: clinical implications. Br J Audiol 27(1):7–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jastreboff PJ, Gray WC, Gold SL (1996) Neurophysiological approach to tinnitus patients. Am J Otol 17(2):236–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Jastreboff PJ, Jastreboff MM (2000) Tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) as a method for treatment of tinnitus and hyperacusis patients. J Am Acad Audiol 11(3):162–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Jerger J (2009) The concept of auditory processing disorder: a brief history. In: McFarland ATCDJ (ed) Controversies in central auditory processing disorder. Plural Publishing, San Diego, CA, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  68. Jit M (2010) The risk of sequelae due to pneumococcal meningitis in high-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Infect 61(2):114–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Johansen IR, Hauch AB, Christensen B et al (2004) Longitudinal study of hearing impairment in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 68(9):1157–1165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Joint Committee on Infant Hearing (2000) Year 2000 position statement: principles and guidelines for early hearing detection and intervention programs. Am J Audiol 9(1):9–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Joswig H, Schonenberger U, Brugge D et al (2015) Reversible pure word deafness due to inferior colliculi compression by a pineal germinoma in a young adult. Clin Neur Neurosurg 139:62–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Juul J, Barrenäs ML, Holgers KM (2012) Tinnitus and hearing in 7-year-old children. Arch Dis Child 97(1):28–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kaga M, Shindo M, Kaga K (2000a) Long-term follow-up of auditory agnosia as a sequel of herpes encephalitis in a child. J Child Neur 15(9):626–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kaga K, Shindo M, Tanaka Y et al (2000b) Neuropathology of auditory agnosia following bilateral temporal lobe lesions: a case study. Acta Otolaryngol 120(2):259–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kaga K, Kaga M, Tamai F et al (2003) Auditory agnosia in children after herpes encephalitis. Acta Otolaryngol 123(2):232–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kaga K, Shinjo Y, Enomoto C et al (2015) A case of cortical deafness and loss of vestibular and somatosensory sensations caused by cerebrovascular lesions in bilateral primary auditory cortices, auditory radiations, and postcentral gyruses—complete loss of hearing despite normal DPOAE and ABR. Acta Otolaryngol 135(4):389–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Keith RW (ed) (1977) Central auditory dysfunction. Grune & Stratton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  78. Keith RW (2000) Development and standardization of SCAN-C test for auditory processing disorders in children. J Am Acad Audiol 11(8):438–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Keith WJ, Purdy SC (2014) Assistive and therapeutic effects of amplification for auditory processing disorder. Semin Hear 35(01):27–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kentish RC, Crocker SR, McKenna L (2000) Children’s experience of tinnitus: a preliminary survey of children presenting to a psychology department. Br J Audiol 34(6):335–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Khalfa S, Dubal S, Veuillet E et al (2002) Psychometric normalization of a hyperacusis questionnaire. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 64(6):436–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kihara M, de Haan M, Were EO et al (2012) Cognitive deficits following exposure to pneumococcal meningitis: an event-related potential study. BMC Infect Dis 12:79PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kim YH, Jung HJ, Kang SI et al (2012) Tinnitus in children: association with stress and trait anxiety. Laryngoscope 122(10):2279–2284PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Kraus N (2012) Biological impact of music and software-based auditory training. J Commun Disord 45(6):403–410.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcomdis.2012.06.005CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Kujawa SG, Liberman MC (2009) Adding insult to injury: cochlear nerve degeneration after “temporary” noise-induced hearing loss. J Neurosci 29(45):14077–14085.  https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.2845-09.2009CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Leaver AM, Renier L, Chevillet MA et al (2011) Dysregulation of limbic and auditory networks in tinnitus. Neuron 69(1):33–43PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lehnhardt E, Laszig R (eds) (2009) Praxis der audiometrie. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 140Google Scholar
  88. Lescanne EB, Bakhos D, Metais JP et al (2008) Otosclerosis in children and adolescents: a clinical and CT-scan survey with review of the literature. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 72(2):147–152PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Lockwood AH, Salvi RJ, Coad ML et al (1998) The functional neuroanatomy of tinnitus: evidence for limbic system links and neural plasticity. Neurology 50(1):114–120PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Lucker JR (2012) What school psychologists need to understand about auditory processing disorders. School Psych 66(2):9–18Google Scholar
  91. Ludwig AA, Fuchs M, Kruse E et al (2014) Auditory processing disorders with and without central auditory discrimination deficits. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 15(3):441–464.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10162-014-0450-3CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Luquetti DV, Heike CL, Hing AV et al (2012) Microtia: epidemiology and genetics. Am J Med Genet A 158A(1):124–139PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Madeira G, Ch M, Decat M et al (2007) TRT: efficacité après un an de traitement (TRT: results after one year treatment). Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord) 128(3):145–148Google Scholar
  94. Margolis RH (1993) Detection of hearing impairment with the acoustic stapedius reflex. Ear Hear 14(1):3–10PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Meikle MB, Vernon J, Johnson RM (1984) The perceived severity of tinnitus. Some observations concerning a large population of tinnitus clinic patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 92(6):689–696PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Mendez MF (2001) Generalized auditory agnosia with spared music recognition in a left-hander. Analysis of a case with a right temporal stroke. Cortex 37(1):139–150PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Mills RP, Albert DM, Brain CE (1986) Tinnitus in childhood. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 11(6):431–434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Moore DR, Rosenberg JF, Coleman JS (2005) Discrimination training of phonemic contrasts enhances phonological processing in mainstream school children. Brain Lang 94(1):72–85.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2004.11.009CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Moore DR (2012) Listening difficulties in children: bottom-up and top-down contributions. J Commun Disord 45(6):411–418.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcomdis.2012.06.006CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Moore DR, Rosen S, Bamiou DE et al (2013) Evolving concepts of developmental auditory processing disorder (APD): a British Society of Audiology APD special interest group ‘white paper’. Int J Audiol 52(1):3–13.  https://doi.org/10.3109/14992027.2012.723143CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Moore DR, Hunter LL (2013) Auditory processing disorder (APD) in children: a marker of neurodevelopmental syndrome. Hearing Balance Commun 11(3):160–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Moser T, Predoehl F, Starr A (2013) Review of hair cell synapse defects in sensorineural hearing impairment. Otol Neurotol 34(6):995–1004PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Muse C, Harrison J, Yoshinaga-Itano C et al (2013) Supplement to the JCIH 2007 position statement: principles and guidelines for early intervention after confirmation that a child is deaf or hard of hearing. Joint Committee on Infant Hearing of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatrics 131(4):e1324–e1349PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. Nelken I, Bizley J, Shamma SA et al (2014) Auditory cortical processing in real-world listening: the auditory system going real. J Neurosci 34(46):15135–15138.  https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.2989-14.2014CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Nelting M, Finlayson NK (2004) GÜF Geräuschüberempfindlichkeits-Fragebogen. Manual. Hogrefe Verlag, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  106. Nickisch A, Massinger C, Ertl-Wagner B et al (2009) Pedaudiologic findings after severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 266(2):207–212PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Nicolas-Puel C, Akbaraly T, Lloyd R et al (2006) Characteristics of tinnitus in a population of 555 patients: specificities of tinnitus induced by noise trauma. Int Tinnitus J 12(1):64–70PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Nodar RH (1972) Tinnitus aurium in school age children. J Audit Res 12:133–135Google Scholar
  109. Noreña AJ, Gourévitch B, Aizawa N et al (2006) Spectrally enhanced acoustic environment disrupts frequency representation in cat auditory cortex. Nat Neurosci 9(7):932–939PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Parving A (1988) Longitudinal study of hearing-disabled children. A follow-up investigation. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 15(3):233–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Peretz I, Blood AJ, Penhune V et al (2001) Cortical deafness to dissonance. Brain 124(Pt 5):928–940PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Rodriguez-Casero MV, Mandelstam S, Kornberg AJ et al (2006) Acute tinnitus and hearing loss as the initial symptom of multiple sclerosis in a child. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 69(1):123–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Rosenfeld RM, Schwartz SR, Pynnonen MA et al (2013) Clinical practice guideline: tympanostomy tubes in children. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 149(1 Suppl):S1–S35PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. Savastano M, Marioni G, de Filippis C (2009) Tinnitus in children without hearing impairment. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 73(Suppl 1):13–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Schmidt CM, am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen A, Deuster D (2013) Nonorganic (functional) hearing loss in children. (Nichtorganische (funktionelle) Hörstörungen bei Kindern). HNO 61(2):136–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Selters WA, Brackmann DE (1977) Acoustic tumor detection with brain stem electric response audiometry. Arch Otolaryngol (Chicago, Ill: 1960) 103(4):181–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Shetye A, Kennedy V (2009) Tinnitus in children: an uncommon symptom? Arch Dis Child 95(8):645–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Silverstein H, Ojo R, Daugherty J et al (2016) Minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of hyperacusis. Otol Neurotol 37(10):1482–1488PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Skarzyński H, Rogowski M, Bartnik G et al (2000) Organization of tinnitus management in Poland. Acta Otolaryngol 120(2):225–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Stanford Center on Longevity (2014) Redesigning Long Life. A consensus on the brain training industry from the scientific community. http://longevity3.stanford.edu/blog/2014/10/15/the-consensus-on-the-brain-training-industry-from-the-scientific-community/. Accessed 10 Mar 2015
  121. Sun Fu Q, Zhang C et al (2014) Loudness perception affected by early age hearing loss. Hear Res 313:18–25. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378595514000471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sun W, Deng A, Jayaram A et al (2012) Noise exposure enhances auditory cortex responses related to hyperacusis behavior. Brain Res 1485:108–116PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. Swibel Rosenthal LH, Caballero N, Drake AF (2012) Otolaryngologic manifestations of craniofacial syndromes. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 45(3):557–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Tabuchi S, Kadowaki M, Watanabe T (2007) Reversible cortical auditory dysfunction caused by cerebral vasospasm after ruptured aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and evaluated by perfusion magnetic resonance imaging. Case report. J Neurosurg 107(1):161–164PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. Taniwaki T, Tagawa K, Sato F et al (2000) Auditory agnosia restricted to environmental sounds following cortical deafness and generalized auditory agnosia. Clin Neur Neurosurg 102(3):156–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Tomlin D, Dillon H, Sharma M et al (2015) The impact of auditory processing and cognitive abilities in children. Ear Hear 36(5):527–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Tonndorf J (1987) The analogy between tinnitus and pain: a suggestion for a physiological basis of chronic tinnitus. Hear Res 28(2–3):271–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Venekamp RP, Sanders S, Glasziou PP et al (2013) Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 31(1):557–577. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 31(1):CD000219Google Scholar
  129. Vermiglio AJ (2014) On the clinical entity in audiology: (central) auditory processing and speech recognition in noise disorders. J Am Acad Audiol 25(9):904–917.  https://doi.org/10.3766/jaaa.25.9.11CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Wakabayashi Y, Nakano T, Isono M et al (1999) Cortical deafness due to bilateral temporal subcortical hemorrhages associated with moyamoya disease: report of a case. No shinkei geka. Neurol Surg 27(10):915–919Google Scholar
  131. Walker EA, McCreery RW, Spratford M et al (2016) Children with ANSD fitted with hearing aids applying the AAA pediatric amplification guideline: current practice and outcomes. J Am Acad Audiol 27(3):204–218.  https://doi.org/10.3766/jaaa.15050CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. Willeford J (1974) Central auditory function in children with learning disabilities. Paper presented at the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Annual Convention, 1974, Las VegasGoogle Scholar
  133. Yuvaraj P, Jayaram M, Abubacker R et al (2015) Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder in hypomyelinating leukodystrophy—a case study. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 79(12):2479–2483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Zazzio M (2010) Pain threshold improvement for chronic hyperacusis patients in a prospective clinical study. Photomed Laser Surg 28(3):371–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Zhu RJ, Lv ZS, Shan CL et al (2010) Pure word deafness associated with extrapontine myelinolysis. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 11(11):842–847PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antoinette am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Doris-Eva Bamiou
    • 2
  • Nicole G. Campbell
    • 3
  • David R. Moore
    • 4
  • Haldun Oguz
    • 5
  • Ross Parfitt
    • 1
  • Mustafa Asim Safak
    • 6
  • Claus-Michael Schmidt
    • 7
  • Tony Sirimanna
    • 8
  • Amélie Elisabeth Tillmanns
    • 1
  • Dorothe Veraguth
    • 9
  1. 1.Clinic of Phoniatrics and PedaudiologyUniversity Hospital MünsterMünsterGermany
  2. 2.National Hospital for Neurology and NeurosurgeryLondonUK
  3. 3.Auditory Implant ServiceUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK
  4. 4.Communication Sciences Research CenterCincinnati Children’s HospitalCincinnatiUSA
  5. 5.FonomerAnkaraTurkey
  6. 6.Department of OtolaryngologyNear East UniversityLefkosaTurkey
  7. 7.Gemeinschaftspraxis im VitalcenterMünsterGermany
  8. 8.Audiological Medicine and Cochlear Implant DepartmentGreat Ormond Street HospitalLondonUK
  9. 9.Clinic of ENT, Head- and Neck-SurgeryUniversity Hospital ZurichZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations