Scalable Timing Analysis with Refinement

  • Nan Guan
  • Yue Tang
  • Jakaria Abdullah
  • Martin Stigge
  • Wang Yi
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9035)


Traditional timing analysis techniques rely on composing system-level worst-case behavior with local worst-case behaviors of individual components. In many complex real-time systems, no single local worst-case behavior exists for each component and it generally requires to enumerate all the combinations of individual local behaviors to find the global worst case. This paper presents a scalable timing analysis technique based on abstraction refinement, which provides effective guidance to significantly prune away state space and quickly verify the desired timing properties. We first establish the general framework of the method, and then apply it to solve the analysis problem for several different real-time task models.


Real-time systems timing analysis scalability digraph real-time task model 


  1. 1.
    Amnell, T., Fersman, E., Mokrushin, L., Pettersson, P., Yi, W.: TIMES - A tool for modelling and implementation of embedded systems. In: Katoen, J.-P., Stevens, P. (eds.) TACAS 2002. LNCS, vol. 2280, pp. 460–464. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baruah, S.K., Mok, A., Rosier, L.: Preemptively scheduling hard-real-time sporadic tasks on one processor. In: Proceedings of the 11th Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS) (1990)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bengtsson, J.E., Yi, W.: Timed automata: Semantics, algorithms and tools. In: Desel, J., Reisig, W., Rozenberg, G. (eds.) ACPN 2003. LNCS, vol. 3098, pp. 87–124. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Buttazzo, G.C., Bini, E., Buttle, D.: Rate-adaptive tasks: Model, analysis, and design issues. Technical Report (2013)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Davis, R.I., Feld, T., Pollex, V., Slomka, F.: Schedulability tests for tasks with variable rate-dependent behaviour under fixed priority scheduling. In: the 20th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS) (2014)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fersman, E., Krcal, P., Pettersson, P., Yi, W.: Task automata: Schedulability, decidability and undecidability. Information and Computation (2007)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Guan, N., Yi, W.: Finitary real-time calculus: Efficient performance analysis of distributed embedded systems. Proceedings of the IEEE 34th Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS) (2013)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Joseph, M., Pandya, P.K.: Finding response times in a real-time system. The Computer Journal (1986)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Larsen, K.G., Pettersson, P., Yi, W.: Uppaal in a nutshell. International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer, STTT (1997)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu, C.L., Layland, J.W.: Scheduling algorithms for multiprogramming in a hard-real-time environment. Journal of the ACM (1973)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pollex, V., Feld, T., Slomka, F., Margull, U., Mader, R., Wirrer, G.: Sufficient real-time analysis for an engine control unit with constant angular velocities. In: Design, Automation and Test Conference in Europe (DATE) (2013)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stigge, M., Ekberg, P., Guan, N., Yi, W.: The digraph real-time task model. In: Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS), pp. 71–80. IEEE (2011)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Martin, Stigge, N.G., Yi, W.: Refinement-based exact response-time analysis. In: the 26th EUROMICRO Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS) (2014)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Martin Stigge and Wang Yi. Hardness results for static priority real-time scheduling. In: Proceedings of the 24th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS), pp. 189–198. IEEE (2012)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stigge, M., Yi, W.: Combinatorial abstraction refinement for feasibility analysis. In: Procedings of the 34th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS), pp. 340–349 (2013)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Thiele, L., Chakraborty, S., Naedele, M.: Real-time calculus for scheduling hard real-time systems. In: Proc. Inti. Symposium on Circuits and Systems (2000)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nan Guan
    • 1
  • Yue Tang
    • 1
  • Jakaria Abdullah
    • 2
  • Martin Stigge
    • 2
  • Wang Yi
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Northeastern UniversityShenyangChina
  2. 2.Uppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations