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Highly Ordered Macroporous Electrodes

  • Alexander Kuhn
  • Matthias Heim
Part of the Springer Handbooks book series (SHB)

Abstract

In recent years, the field of highly ordered macroporous thin films coated onto solid electrode surfaces has received increasing attention, on the one hand, due to interesting fundamental questions, and, on the other hand, because of a large variety of potential applications of such designer structures, ranging from electrocatalysis to biosensors and energy storage/conversion. This chapter describes the synthesis, the characterization, and the features of such organized layers, with a special emphasis on an increasingly sophisticated and rational design, which is possible when using colloidal crystal structures as templates . Some possible applications of such modified electrodes are also highlighted in the last section of the chapter, illustrating their beneficial effects in various domains, going eventually far beyond pure electrochemical aspects.

In this chapter, we present the elaboration of highly-ordered macroporous electrodes using colloidal crystal templating. A structure is considered as macroporous, when the pore size exceeds 50 nm; pores with 2–50 nm are considered as mesopores , whereas pores smaller than 2 nm are termed microporous. Several techniques allowing the self-assembly of microspheres into colloidal crystal templates will be discussed in Sect. 6.1.1. After giving an overview in Sect. 6.1.2 over existing methods to infiltrate colloidal templates, Sects. 6.1.3 and 6.1.4 will focus on the controlled electrodeposition of metals and conducting polymers (CP s) into colloidal templates, and the electrochemical characterization of the resulting macroporous electrodes. Section 6.2 illustrates an approach to fabricate macroporous electrodes with complex pore architectures, including gradient pore structures. Assembly of colloidal microspheres into complex colloidal crystal architectures in a layer-by-layer deposition process using the Langmuir–Blodgett technique followed by infiltration of the template by electrochemical deposition enabled us to obtain this objective. In Sect. 6.3, we focus on miniaturized macroporous gold electrodes with a cylindrical geometry and their utility with respect to the electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen. The broad field of applications, in which macroporous electrodes can be used for, is presented in Sect. 6.4.

Keywords

Photonic Crystal Pore Layer Inverse Opal Active Surface Area Colloidal Crystal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
ALD

atomic layer deposition

ATO

antimony-doped tin oxide

ATP

adenosine-\(5^{\prime}\)-triphosphate

CE

counter electrode

CP

conducting polymer

CRP

creactive protein

CTNFM

4-carboxy-(2,5,7-trinitro-9-fluorenylidene) malonitrile

CV

cyclic voltammogram

CVD

chemical vapor deposition

DI

diaphorase

DSC

dye-sensitized solar cell

DSDH

d-sorbitol dehydrogenase

EAD

electro-assisted deposition

EDP

electrodeposited paint

EPC

elastic photonic crystal

fcc

face-centered cubic

hcp

hexagonal close-packed

ITO

indium tin oxide

LB

Langmuir–Blodgett technique

PANI

polyaniline

PBG

photonic bandgap

PBT

polybithiophene

PC

photonic crystal

PDDA

poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride)

PECVD

plasma enhanced CVD

PEDOT

poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

PMMA

poly(methyl methacrylate)

PPy

polypyrrole

PS

polystyrene

PT

polythiophene

PVD

physical vapor deposition

RE

reference electrode

SAM

self-assembled monolayer

SDS

sodium dodecyl sulfate

SEM

scanning electron microscopy

SERS

surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

SPP

surface plasmon polariton

TBA BF6

tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate

TEM

transmission electron microscopy

TEOS

tetraethyl orthosilicate

VD

vertical deposition

WE

working electrode

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Kuhn
    • 1
  • Matthias Heim
    • 2
  1. 1.Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie, Biologie et PhysiqueUniversité de BordeauxPessacFrance
  2. 2.BMZ GmbHKarlsteinGermany

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