Multi-GNSS PPP and PPP-RTK: Some GPS+BDS Results in Australia
As in the Asian-Pacific region BDS is operational next to GPS, satellite clocks (needed for Precise Point Positioning; PPP) and satellite phase hardware biases (needed for integer ambiguity resolution enabled PPP-RTK) have been estimated from a zero baseline in Perth, Australia, and applied to dual-frequency GPS+BDS data of a single GNSS receiver at a distance of 110 km from the zero baseline. Precise orbits were obtained from the IGS (GPS) and Wuhan University (BDS). It is shown that with GPS alone the PPP solution needs on average 1 h to converge to a level of a few decimetres, whereas with BDS alone this takes on average 2.5 h, which is due to the poorer geometry of the BDS satellites in Australia. With both GPS and BDS combined this convergence time is tremendously reduced to 30 min on average. With the satellite phase biases corrected, the precision of the GPS+BDS PPP-RTK solution is at the few centimetre level.
KeywordsGNSS GPS BDS PPP PPP-RTK Ambiguity resolution
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