Multi-GNSS PPP and PPP-RTK: Some GPS+BDS Results in Australia

  • Dennis OdijkEmail author
  • Baocheng Zhang
  • Peter J. G. Teunissen
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 341)


As in the Asian-Pacific region BDS is operational next to GPS, satellite clocks (needed for Precise Point Positioning; PPP) and satellite phase hardware biases (needed for integer ambiguity resolution enabled PPP-RTK) have been estimated from a zero baseline in Perth, Australia, and applied to dual-frequency GPS+BDS data of a single GNSS receiver at a distance of 110 km from the zero baseline. Precise orbits were obtained from the IGS (GPS) and Wuhan University (BDS). It is shown that with GPS alone the PPP solution needs on average 1 h to converge to a level of a few decimetres, whereas with BDS alone this takes on average 2.5 h, which is due to the poorer geometry of the BDS satellites in Australia. With both GPS and BDS combined this convergence time is tremendously reduced to 30 min on average. With the satellite phase biases corrected, the precision of the GPS+BDS PPP-RTK solution is at the few centimetre level.


GNSS GPS BDS PPP PPP-RTK Ambiguity resolution 



This work has been done in the context of the Positioning Program Project 1.01 “New carrier phase processing strategies for achieving precise and reliable multi-satellite, multi-frequency GNSS/RNSS positioning in Australia” of the Cooperative Research Centre for Spatial Information (CRC-SI). The third author is the recipient of an Australian Research Council (ARC) Federation Fellowship (project number FF0883188). Mr. Robert Odolinski is acknowledged for creating Fig. 52.1.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dennis Odijk
    • 1
    Email author
  • Baocheng Zhang
    • 1
  • Peter J. G. Teunissen
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.GNSS Research CentreCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Geosciences and Remote SensingDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

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