Hypaxial Muscle: Controversial Classification and Controversial Data?
Hypaxial muscle is the anatomical term commonly used when referring to all the ventrally located musculature in the body of vertebrates, including muscles of the body wall and the limbs. Yet these muscles had very humble beginnings when vertebrates evolved from their chordate ancestors, and complex anatomical changes and changes in underlying gene regulatory networks occurred. This review summarises the current knowledge and controversies regarding the development and evolution of hypaxial muscles.
KeywordsMuscle Precursor Muscle Stem Cell Ventral Muscle Limb Mesenchyme Lateral Motor Column
We are grateful to Mohi U. Ahmed, Ashish K. Maurya, Louise Cheng, Erika C. Jorge, Pascal Maire, M. Albert Basson and Philip W. Ingham for agreeing to include currently unpublished data in this review article. The work was supported by the Human Frontier Science Program, Grant No R6Y0056/2004-C201, the European Network of Excellence Myores, Grant No EU LSHG-CT-2004-511978 MYORES, the Association Française contre les Myopathies, Grant No CL/NM/2005.2088/Following number 11378, Groupe A07/06/05 and CA 01/07/05, DRM05/BUIOCE/REFAP/MUSAI/ANGLE.
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