Hypaxial Muscle: Controversial Classification and Controversial Data?

  • Karl R. Wotton
  • Frank R. Schubert
  • Susanne Dietrich
Part of the Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation book series (RESULTS, volume 56)


Hypaxial muscle is the anatomical term commonly used when referring to all the ventrally located musculature in the body of vertebrates, including muscles of the body wall and the limbs. Yet these muscles had very humble beginnings when vertebrates evolved from their chordate ancestors, and complex anatomical changes and changes in underlying gene regulatory networks occurred. This review summarises the current knowledge and controversies regarding the development and evolution of hypaxial muscles.


Muscle Precursor Muscle Stem Cell Ventral Muscle Limb Mesenchyme Lateral Motor Column 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We are grateful to Mohi U. Ahmed, Ashish K. Maurya, Louise Cheng, Erika C. Jorge, Pascal Maire, M. Albert Basson and Philip W. Ingham for agreeing to include currently unpublished data in this review article. The work was supported by the Human Frontier Science Program, Grant No R6Y0056/2004-C201, the European Network of Excellence Myores, Grant No EU LSHG-CT-2004-511978 MYORES, the Association Française contre les Myopathies, Grant No CL/NM/2005.2088/Following number 11378, Groupe A07/06/05 and CA 01/07/05, DRM05/BUIOCE/REFAP/MUSAI/ANGLE.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karl R. Wotton
    • 1
    • 2
  • Frank R. Schubert
    • 3
  • Susanne Dietrich
    • 4
  1. 1.EMBL/CRG Systems Biology Research UnitCentre for Genomic Regulation (CRG)BarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF)BarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Institute for Biomedical and Biomolecular Science (IBBS), School of BiologyUniversity of PortsmouthPortsmouthUK
  4. 4.Institute for Biomedical and Biomolecular Science (IBBS), School of Pharmacy and Biomedical SciencesUniversity of PortsmouthPortsmouthUK

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