Placebo, Nocebo, and Learning Mechanisms
Recent substantial laboratory and theoretical research hints for different learning mechanisms regulating the formation of placebo and nocebo responses. Moreover, psychological and biological variants may play a role as modulators of learning mechanisms underlying placebo and nocebo responses. In this chapter, we present pioneering and recent human and nonhuman research that has impressively increased our knowledge of learning mechanisms in the context of placebo and nocebo effects across different physiological processes and pathological conditions.
KeywordsConditioning Expectation Verbal suggestion Observational learning Drug-mimic effects Vicarious hypoalgesia
This research is supported by the Intramural Research Program of the Clinical Center, NIH, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).
Conflict of Interest There are no conflicts of interest.
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