Flyspecking Flyspeck

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8592)


The formalisation of mathematics by use of theorem provers has reached the stage where previously questioned mathematical proofs have been formalised. However, sceptics will argue that lingering doubts remain about the efficacy of these formalisations. In this paper we motivate and describe a capability for addressing such concerns. We concentrate on the nearly-complete Flyspeck Project, which uses the HOL Light system to formalise the Kepler Conjecture proof. We first explain why a sceptic might doubt the formalisation. We go on to explain how the formal proof can be ported to the highly-trustworthy HOL Zero system and then independently audited, thus resolving any doubts.


Inference Rule Formal Proof Concrete Syntax Mathematical Text Proof Script 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Hales, T.: Introduction to the Flyspeck Project. In: Mathematics, Algorithms, Proofs. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, vol. 05021. Internationales Begegnungs- und Forschungszentrum für Informatik (2006)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Harrison, J.: HOL Light: An Overview. In: Berghofer, S., Nipkow, T., Urban, C., Wenzel, M. (eds.) TPHOLs 2009. LNCS, vol. 5674, pp. 60–66. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gordon, M.: An Introduction to the HOL System. In: Proceedings of the 1991 International Workshop on the HOL Theorem Proving System and its Applications. IEEE Computer Society Press (1992)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pollack, R.: How to Believe a Machine-Checked Proof. In: Twenty Five Years of Constructive Type Theory. Oxford University Press (1998)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wiedijk, F.: Pollack-Inconsistency. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 285. Elsevier Science (2012)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gordon, M., Milner, R., Wadsworth, C.P.: Edinburgh LCF. LNCS, vol. 78. Springer, Heidelberg (1979)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Proof Technologies Ltd. website,

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Proof Technologies LtdUK

Personalised recommendations