Dry Eye pp 21-29 | Cite as

The Epidemiology of Dry Eye Disease

  • Fiona Stapleton
  • Qian Garrett
  • Colin Chan
  • Jennifer P. Craig
Part of the Essentials in Ophthalmology book series (ESSENTIALS)


Dry eye disease is a large worldwide public health issue. It is common, chronic, and progressive and causes a significant reduction in quality of life and functional ability. Its prevalence increases with age, and no treatment is curative; therefore with an aging population, the prevalence will only increase. This will result in an ever expanding cost to society, both direct (need for medical care) and indirect (loss of productivity).

Dry eye disease affects more women than men, and women are more likely to have severe dry eye disease. Much work is being done looking at the role of hormones in dry eye disease. Meibomian gland dysfunction is the most common subtype of dry eye disease and appears to have a higher prevalence in Asian countries for as yet unknown reasons.


Ocular Surface Refractive Surgery Meibomian Gland Dysfunction Nighttime Driving Annual Sick Leave 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Compliance with Ethical Requirements

Fiona Stapleton, Qian Garrett, and Jennifer Craig declare that they have no conflict of interest. No human or animal studies were carried out by the authors for this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fiona Stapleton
    • 1
  • Qian Garrett
    • 1
  • Colin Chan
    • 2
  • Jennifer P. Craig
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Optometry and Vision ScienceUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Vision Eye Institute, School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South WalesChatswood, SydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Ophthalmology, School of Optometry and Vision SciencesUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

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