The Regulation of IL-10 Expression

  • Leona Gabryšová
  • Ashleigh Howes
  • Margarida Saraiva
  • Anne O’Garra
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 380)


Interleukin (IL)-10 is an important immunoregulatory cytokine and an understanding of how IL-10 expression is controlled is critical in the design of immune intervention strategies. IL-10 is produced by almost all cell types within the innate (including macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs), mast cells, neutrophils, eosinophils and natural killer cells) and adaptive (including CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and B cells) immune systems. The mechanisms of IL-10 regulation operate at several stages including chromatin remodelling at the Il10 locus, transcriptional regulation of Il10 expression and post-transcriptional regulation of Il10 mRNA. In addition, whereas some aspects of Il10 gene regulation are conserved between different immune cell types, several are cell type- or stimulus-specific. Here, we outline the complexity of IL-10 production by discussing what is known about its regulation in macrophages, monocytes, DCs and CD4+ T helper cells.


Il10 Gene Il10 Promoter Il10 Gene Expression Il10 Gene Promoter Il10 Gene Regulation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations


Aryl hydrocarbon receptor


Activator protein 1


Antigen presenting cell


AU rich element


Activating transcription factor 1


ARE/poly(U) binding degradation factor 1


Basic leucine zipper transcription factor ATF-like transcription factor


B-cell lymphoma 6


PR domain zinc finger protein 1


Bone marrow


CCAAT/enhancer binding protein


Cyclic adenosine monophosphate


CREB-binding protein


CD40 ligand


Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing


Conserved non-coding sequences


cAMP response element-binding protein


CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 3


Dendritic cell


Delta-like Notch ligands


Distal regulatory element


Dual specificity phosphatase-1


E4 promoter-binding protein 4


Extracellular signal-regulated kinase

E. coli

Escherichia coli


E26 transformation-specific 1


GATA binding protein 3


Granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor


Glycogen synthase kinase 3


Histone acetyl transferase


Histone deacetylase


Histone methyl transferase


DNaseI hypersensitive sites


Inducible T cell costimulator






Interferon regulatory factor


Jun dimerising protein



MAP kinase

Mitogen-activated protein kinase


C-MAF responsive element


Myeloid dendritic cell


Major histocompatibility complex




Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinases 1/2


Mammalian target of rapamycin

M. tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis


Myeloid differentiation factor 88


Nuclear factor-κB


Nuclear factor of activated T cells


Pre-B cell leukaemia homeobox 1


Plasmocytoid dendritic cell


Programmed cell death 4


Prostaglandin E2


Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase


Protein kinase A


Protein kinase R


PBX-regulating protein 1


Pattern recognition receptor


RAR-related orphan receptor gamma t


Salt-inducible kinase 2


Specific protein 1/3


Signal transducer and activator of transcription


Switching-defective-sucrose non-fermenting


Spleen tyrosine kinase


T-box transcription factor


T cell receptor


T follicular helper cell


Transforming growth factor


T helper cell


Toll-like receptor


Tumour necrosis factor


Tumour progression locus 2


TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β


Transcription start site




Untranslated region



At NIMR, we thank B. Seddon, C. Sinclair and S. Ley for discussions, J. Brock from PhotoGraphics for the generation of figures and C. Whicher for critical reading of the manuscript. MS is a FCT Associate Investigator. AOG, LG, AH are funded by UK MRC (U117565642); AOG. is also funded by Imperial College, National Heart and Lung Institute; AOG & LG are also funded by ERC-2011-AdG, 294682-TB-PATH; MS is funded by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, Portugal and co-funded by Programa 73 Operacional Regional do Norte (ON.2 – O Novo Norte), Quadro de Referência Estratégico Nacional 74 (QREN), through the Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional (FEDER).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leona Gabryšová
    • 1
  • Ashleigh Howes
    • 1
  • Margarida Saraiva
    • 3
    • 4
  • Anne O’Garra
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of ImmunoregulationMRC National Institute for Medical ResearchLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Respiratory MedicineImperial College Healthcare NHS TrustLondonUK
  3. 3.Microbiology and Infection Research Domain, Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health SciencesUniversity of MinhoBragaPortugal
  4. 4.ICVS/3B’s-PT Government Associate LaboratoryBraga/GuimarãesPortugal

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