A Framework for Integrating Motivational Techniques in Technology Enhanced Learning

  • Keri Baumstark
  • Sabine Graf
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7697)


Motivation is a key factor in education. While there exist some learning system that consider techniques for motivating learners, these systems implement only one or few techniques and assume that the respective technique(s) work well for all learners. However, learners are motivated differently and what is motivating for one learner can be demotivating for another learner. In this paper, we introduce a framework of motivational techniques, which suggests motivational techniques that can be included in learning systems, discusses the relationships between these techniques, situations where the techniques might be demotivational for learners, and requirements of the techniques to be integrated into a course and learning system. This framework aims at providing guidelines on how to implement a set of motivational techniques into learning systems and is the basis for providing personalization based on motivational aspects in learning systems, presenting learners only with motivational techniques that work well for them.


Motivation personalized learning personalized learning systems 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Dweck, C.S.: Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist 41(10), 1040–1048 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dickinson, L.: Autonomy and motivation: A literature review. System 23(2), 165–174 (1995)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Keller, J.M.: Development and use of the ARCS model of motivational design. Journal of Instructional Development 10(3), 2–10 (1987) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cheng, R., Vassileva, J.: Design and evaluation of an adaptive incentive mechanism for sustained educational online communities. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction 16(2/3), 321–348 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen, G.-D., Lee, J.-H., Wang, C.-Y., Lee, T.-Y.: An Empathic Avatar in a Computer-Aided Learning Program to Encourage and Persuade Learners. Educational Technology & Society (2011) (accepted)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    DeCharms, R.: Motivation enhancement in educational settings. In: Ames, R.E., Ames, C. (eds.) Research on Motivation in Education, vol. 1, pp. 275–310 (1984)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wlodkowski, R.: How to plan motivational strategies for adult instruction. Performance and Instruction 24(9), 1–6 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ormrod, J.: Educational psychology: Developing learners. Prentice Hall, Columbus (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Curry, L.: One critique of the research on learning styles. Educational Leadership 48, 50–56 (1990)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Iyengar, S., Lepper, M.: When choice is demotivating: Can one desire too much of a good thing? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 79(6), 995–1006 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Keller, J., Suzuki, K.: Learner motivation and e-learning design: a multinationally validated process. Journal of Educational Media 29(3), 229–239 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ryan, R., Deci, E.: Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and wellbeing. American Psychologist 55, 6878 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Martens, R.L., Gulikers, J., Baestiaens, T.: The impact of intrinsic motivation on e-learning in authentic computer tasks. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 20(5), 368–376 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rovai, A., Ponton, M., Wighting, M., Baker, J.: A comparative analysis of student motivation in traditional classroom and e-learning community. International Journal on E-Learning 6(3), 413–432 (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huett, J., Kalinowski, K., Moller, L., Cleaves, K.: Improving the motivation and retention of online students through the use of ARCS-based e-mails. The American Journal of Distance Education 22, 159–176 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Code, J., MacAllister, K., Gress, C., Nesbit, J.: Self-Regulated Learning, Motivation and Goal Theory: Implications for Instructional Design and E-Learning. In: Int. Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, pp. 872–874. IEEE Press, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vassileva, J.: Motivating Participation in Virtual Communities. In: 12th International Conference of Women Engineers and Scientists, Ottawa, Canada (2002)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tretiakov, A., Smestad, O.: Kinshuk: Improving the Quality of Discussion Forum Discourses by Using an Internal Market. In: International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, pp. 601–602. IEEE Press, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Okonkwo, C., Vassileva, J.: Affective Pedagogical Agents and User Persuasion. In: Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, New Orleans, USA, pp. 397–401 (2001)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen, S., Chang, C., Hsu, C., Chen, G.: Building an Interactive Agent with Intention to Increase Students’ Learning Will. In: 8th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, pp. 257–259. IEEE Press, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vassileva, J.: Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom. In: Lester, J.C., Vicari, R.M., Paraguaçu, F. (eds.) ITS 2004. LNCS, vol. 3220, pp. 305–314. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keri Baumstark
    • 1
  • Sabine Graf
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Computing and Information SystemsAthabasca UniversityEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations