Advertisement

The Myothelia (Myoepithelial Cells)

Normal State; Regressive Changes; Hyperplasia; Tumors
  • H. Hamperl
Conference paper
Part of the Current Topics in Pathology book series (CT PATHOLOGY, volume 53)

Abstract

The myoepithelial cells are indeed a fascinating type of cell, in that they appear to belong to two widely divergent types of tissues, namely the epithelium and the mesenchyma. This two-sided nature is expressed not only by their position (on the one hand they are connected in typical manner with the secreting epithelium, whereas on the other hand they interact with the stroma and the basal membrane in the same way as smooth muscle fibres), but also by their possession of potentialities of both kinds of tissue, although these potentialities become apparent only under pathological conditions of growth. This concept is the key-note of the following paper, whose purpose is to report a comparative study of the myoepithelia of various organs. Many phenomena that were detectable and detected in only one organ, will be used to elucidate certain otherwise obscure changes in other organs. First we shall examine the normal myoepithelia of various tissues (I), then consider regressive changes (II) and hyperplasia (III), in order to apply the information thus obtained to the problem of tumors (IV, V). To some extent, therefore, this paper constitutes a continuation of my paper from 1939 “On the myothelia of the mammary gland”. Additional material has been collected since then; unfortunately, however, some of the relevant documents were lost during the war and in the post-war period.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abramow, S. S.: Ein Fall von Adenomyoma der Brustdrüse. Cbl. allg. Path. path. Anat. 12, 926 (1901).Google Scholar
  2. Ackerman, L. V.: Seminar on lesions of the breast. Amer. Soc. of clinical Path. 1957.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, A.C.: So-called mixed tumours of the mammary gland of dog and man (with special reference to the general problem of cartilage and bone formation). Arch. Path. 29, 589–642 (1940).Google Scholar
  4. Archer, F., Omar, M.: The fine structure of fibro-adenoma of human breast. J. Path. Bact. 99, 113–117 (1969).Google Scholar
  5. Archer, F., Omar, M.: Pink cell (oncocytic) metaplasia in a fibroadenoma of the human breast: electron-microscopic observations. J. Path. Bact. 99, 119–124 (1969).Google Scholar
  6. Archer, F. L., Kao, V. C. Y.: Immunohistochemical identification of actomyosin in myothelium of human tissues. Lab. Invest. 18, 669–674 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Azzopardi, J. G.: Clear-cell hidradenoma. J. Path. Bact. 76, 379–382 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Azzopardi, J. G.: Smith, A. D.: Salivary gland tumours and their mucins. J. Path. Bact. 77, 131–140 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bässler, R.: Neuere Aspekte der normalen und pathologischen Feinstruktur der Mamma. Hippokrates (Stuttg.) 39, 237–244 (1968).Google Scholar
  10. Bässler, R. Brethfeld, V.: Enzymhistochemische Studien an der Milchdrüse. Gravidität, Laktation, Involution und experimentelle Stauung mit besonderer Berücksichtigung myoepithelialer Zellen. Histochemie 15, 270–286 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bässler, R. Schäfer, A.: Elektronenmikroskopische Cytomorphologie der Gynäkomastie. Virchows Arch. Abt. A Path. Anat. 348, 356–373 (1969).Google Scholar
  12. Bässler, R. Schäfer, A., Paek, S.: Elektronenmikroskopische und histochemische Untersuchungen zur Morphologie und Funktion myoepithelialer Zellen. Verh. dtsch. Ges. Path. 1967, 301–308.Google Scholar
  13. Bain, G. O., Kowalewski, K.P., MacGregor, J.W.: Mixed tumors (pleomorphic adenomas) of the salivary glands. Acta gastro-ent. belg. 19, 70–81 (1956).Google Scholar
  14. Barton, A.: An electron microscope study of human breast cells in fibroadenosis and carcinoma. Brit. J. Cancer 18, 682–685 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bauer, W. H., Bauer, J. D.: Classification of glandular tumours of salivary glands (Study of one hundred and forty-three cases). Arch. Path. 55, 328–346 (1953).Google Scholar
  16. Bauer, W. H., Bauer, J. D., Fox, R.A.: Adenomyoepithelioma (cylindroma) of platal mucous glands. Arch. Path. 39, 96–102 (1945).Google Scholar
  17. Berg, J. W., McDivitt, R. W.: Pathology of sweat gland carcinoma. Pathology annual 3, 124–144 (1968).Google Scholar
  18. Berger, H.: Beitrag zur elektronenoptischen Zelldifferenzierung des soliden Mammacarcinoms und der Mastopathia cystica des Menschen. Z. Krebsforsch. 66, 73–86 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Berghorn, B. M., Bryce, B. L., Helwig, E. B.: Eccrine spiradenome: a pharmacologic study. Arch. Derm. 84, 434–438 (1961).Google Scholar
  20. Bertkau, F.: Ein Beitrag zur Anatomie und Physiologie der Milchdrüse. Anat. Anz. 30, 161–180 (1907).Google Scholar
  21. Bhaskar, S. N., Weinmann, J. P.: Tumors of the minor salivary glands. Oral Surg. 8, 1278–1297 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Biggs, R.: The myoepithelium in certain tumours of the breast. J. Path. Bact. 59, 437–444 (1947).Google Scholar
  23. Bock, J., Feyrter, F.: Über die benignen epithelialen Geschwülste der menschlichen Orbita. I. Das Cylindrom. Albrecht v. Graefes Arch. Ophthal. 163, 25–62 (1961).Google Scholar
  24. Bock, J., Feyrter, F.: Über die benignen epithelialen Geschwülste der menschlichen Orbita. II. Der benigne vulgäre sog. Mischtumor. Albrecht v. Graefes Arch. Ophthal. 163, 63–87 (1961).Google Scholar
  25. Bogart, B. I.: The fine structural localization of alcaline and acid phosphatase activity in the rat submandibular gland. J. Histochem. Cytochem., 16, 572–581 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Boschbach, F. W.: Adenoid-zystisches Karzinom der Bartholinischen Drüse. Geburtsh. u. Frauenheilk. 29, 474–477 (1969).Google Scholar
  27. Budd, J. W., Breslin, Fr. J.: Carcino-osteogenetic sarcoma. Amer. J. Cancer 31, 207–211 (1937).Google Scholar
  28. Bunting, H.: Cytochemical properties of apocrine sweat glands normally present in the human mammary gland. Anat. Rec. 101, 5–12 (1948).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bunting, H., Wislocki, G. B., Dempsey, E. W.: The chemical histology of the human eccrine and apocrine sweat glands. Anat. Rec. 100, 61–78 (1948).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Busch, W., Merker, H. J.: Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen an menschlichen Mamrnacarcinornen. Virchows Arch. Abt. A. Path. Anat. 344, 456–371 (1968).Google Scholar
  31. Cabanne, F.; Les sarcomes osteogeniques des parties molles et visceres. Arch. Anat. path. 8 A, 131–147 (1960).Google Scholar
  32. Capone Braga, M.: Una nuova interpretazione genetica dei tumori misti delle ghiandole salivari in base allo studio dei mioepiteli. Arch. De Vecchi Anat. pat. 7, 563–582 (1945).Google Scholar
  33. Caspersson, T., Santesson, L.: Studies on protein metabolism in the cells of epithelial tumours. Acta radiol. (Stockh.), Suppl. 46, 1 (1942).Google Scholar
  34. Cotchin, E.: Mammary neoplasms of the bitch. J. comp. Path. 68, 1–16 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Crain, R. C., Helwig, E. B.: Dermal cylindroma (dermal eccrine cylindroma). Amer. J. clin. Path. 35, 504–515 (1961).Google Scholar
  36. Crocker, D. J., Murad, T. M.: Ultrastructure of fibrosarcoma in a male breast. Cancer 23, 891–899 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cruickshank, A. H.: Benign lymphoepithelial salivary lesion to be distinguished from adenolymphoma. J. clin. Path. 18, 391–400 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Curran, R. C., Dodge, O. G.: Sarcoma of the breast, with particular reference to its origin from fibroadenoma. J. clin. Path. 15, 1–16 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. David, H., Korth, I.: Submikroskopische Untersuchungen an Mischtumoren. Zbl. allg. Path. path. Anat. 106, 78–85 (1964).Google Scholar
  40. Dempsey, E.W., Bunting, H., Wislocki, G. B.: Observations on the chemical cytology of the mammary gland. Amer. J. Anat. 81, 309–341 (1947).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. DePetris, S., Karlsbad, G., Pernis, B.: Filamentous structures in the cytoplasm of normal mononuclear phagocytes. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 7, 39 (1962).Google Scholar
  42. Deppisch, L. M., Toker, C.: Mixed tumours of the parotid gland. An ultrastructural study. Cancer (Philad.) 24, 174–184 (1969).Google Scholar
  43. Devenyi, I.: Malignes Schweißdrüsen-Myoepitheliom. Zbl. allg. Path. path. Anat. 96, 469–473 (1957).Google Scholar
  44. Dewey, M. M.: A histochemical and biochemical study of the parotid gland in normal and hypophysectomized rats. Amer. J. Anat. 102, 243–271 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Dietz, H.: Das Verhalten der großen Kopf Speicheldrüsen des Kaninchens nach Unterbindung ihres Ausführungsganges und nach Transplantation. Frankfurt. Z. Path. 66, 416–425 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Doyle, L. E., Lynn, L. A., Panopio, I. T., Crass, G.: Ultrastructure of the chondroid regions of benign mixed tumor of salivary gland. Cancer (Philad.) 22, 225–233 (1968).Google Scholar
  47. Dyx, W.: Über argentaffine, makrophage Körnchenzellen. Inaug.-Diss. Danzig 1941.Google Scholar
  48. Efskind, J., Eker, R.: Myo-epitheliomas of the skin. Acta derm.-venereol. (Stockh.) 34, 279–283 (1954).Google Scholar
  49. Ellis, R. A.: Fine structure of the myoepithelium of the eccrine sweat glands of man. J. Cell Biol. 27, 551–563 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Eneroth, C. M., Wersäll, J.: Fine structure of the epithelial cells in mixed tumors of the parotid gland. Ann. Otol. (St. Louis) 75, 95–102 (1966).Google Scholar
  51. Erichsen, S.: A histochemical study in mixed tumours of the canine mammary gland. Acta path. microbiol. scand. 36, 491–502 (1955b).Google Scholar
  52. Ericson, S.: The parotid gland in subjects with and without rheumatoid arthritis. A sialographic and physiologic study. Acta radiol. (Stockh.), Suppl. 275, 167 (1968).Google Scholar
  53. Evans, R. W.: Histological appearances of tumors. Edinbourgh-London: Livingstone 1966.Google Scholar
  54. Feyrter, F.: Über das solide (tubulär-solide) Adenom der Schleim- und Speicheldrüsen. Frankfurt. Z. Path. 71, 300–326 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Feyrter, F.: Zur Frage der Endokrinie des sogenannten Speicheldrüsenmischtumors. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 86, 335–339 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Feyrter, F.: Über das glykogenreiche retikulierte Adenom der Speicheldrüsen. Z. Krebsforsch. 65, 446 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Feyrter, F., Gottron, H., Nikolowski, W. N.: Über das Cylindrom der Haut. Arch. klin. exp. Derm. 214, 54–104 (1961/62).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Feyrter, F., Hartmann, G.: Über die carcinoide Wuchsform des Carcinoms mammae, insbesondere das Carcinoma solidům (gelatinosum) mammae. Frankfurt. Z. Path. 73, 24–39 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Finck, F. M., Schwinn, C. P., Keasbey, L. E.: Clear cell hidradenome of the breast. Cancer (Philad.) 22, 125–135 (1968).Google Scholar
  60. Foote, Fr. W., Frazell, E. L.: Tumors of the salivary glands. Atlas of tumor pathology, sect. IV, fasc. 11. Washington: AFIP 1954.Google Scholar
  61. Foote, Fr. W., Stewart, F. W.: A histologic classification of carcinoma of the breast. Amer. J. Cancer 40, 74–99 (1940).Google Scholar
  62. Friborsky, V.: Adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands. Path. et Microbiol. (Basel) 26, 17–28 (1963).Google Scholar
  63. Fruhling, L., Batzenschlager, A., Blum, E.: Epitheliosarcomes vrais (tumeurs mixtes maligne) et cancers doubles didermiques de la vessie. Ann. Anat. path., N.S. 4, 5–42 (1959).Google Scholar
  64. Gaudier, Grandclaude, Lambret, M.: Tumeur maligne du sein à type myoepithelial. Ann. Anat. path. 8, 68–70 (1931).Google Scholar
  65. Gedigk, P., Fischer, R.: Über die Entstehung von Lipopigmenten in Muskelfasern. Untersuchungen beim experimentellen Vitamin-E-Mangel der Ratte und an Organen des Menschen. Virch. Arch. path. Anat. 332, 431–468 (1959)Google Scholar
  66. Gerughty, R. M., Scofield, H. H., Brown, F. M., Hennigar, G. R.: Malignant mixed tumors of salivary gland origin. Cancer (Philad.) 24, 471–486 (1969).Google Scholar
  67. Godwin, J. T.: Benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the parotid gland. Cancer (Philad.) 5, 1089–1103 (1952).Google Scholar
  68. Goldstein, D. J.: On the origin and morphology of myoepithelial cells of apocrine sweat glands. J. invest. Derm. 37, 301–310 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Gonzales-Licea, A., Yardley, J. H., Hartmann, W. H.: Malignant tumor of the breast with bone formation. Studies by light and electron microscopy. Cancer (Philad.) 20, 1234–1247 (1967).Google Scholar
  70. Grishman, Edith: Histochemical analysis of mucopolysaccharide soccurring in mucus-producing tumours. Cancer (Philad.) 5, 700–707 (1952).Google Scholar
  71. Grynfeltt, E., Aimes, A.: Etude histologique de deux tumeurs des glandes sudoripares. Bull. Ass. franç. Cancer 11, 91–109 (1922).Google Scholar
  72. Gubarewa, A. V.: Adenomyoepitheliomas of the skin. Arch. Path. 1965/2, 32–37 [russisch].Google Scholar
  73. Günther, R.: Myoepitheliale Wucherungen in der Brustdrüse. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 300, 450–455 (1937).Google Scholar
  74. Haguenau, F.: Les myofilaments de la cellule myoépithéliale. Etude au microscope electronique. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 249, 182–184 (1959).Google Scholar
  75. Haguenau, F., Arnoult, J.: Le cancer du sein chez la femme. Etude comparative au microscope electronique et au microscope optique. Bull. Ass. franç. Cancer 46, 177–211 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Hamperl, H.: Beiträge zur normalen und pathologischen Histologie menschlicher Speicheldrüsen. Z. rnikr.-anat. Forsch. 27, 1–55 (1931)Google Scholar
  77. Hamperl, H.: Die Fluorescenzmikroskopie menschlicher Gewebe. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 292, 1–51 (1934).Google Scholar
  78. Hamperl, H.: Über die Myothelien (myo-epithelialen Elemente) der Brustdrüse. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 305, 171–215 (1939).Google Scholar
  79. Hamperl, H.: Über fluorescierende Körnchenzellen (Fluorocyten). Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 318, 32–47 (1950).Google Scholar
  80. Hamperl, H.: Über fluorescierende Mesenchymzellen (Fluorocyten). Leitz-Mitt. Wissenschaft u. Technik 4, 243–246 (1969).Google Scholar
  81. Hartroft, W. S.: In vitro and in vivo production of a ceroidlike substance from erythrocytes and certain lipids. Science 113, 673–674 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hartroft, W. S., Porta, E. A.: Ceroid. Amer. J. med. Sci. 250, 324–345 (1965).Google Scholar
  83. Hartz, Ph. H.: Adenomyoepithelioma of sweat gland. Report of a case. Amer. J. clin. Path. 16, 385–389 (1946).Google Scholar
  84. Hashimoto, K., Gross, B. G., Nelson, R. G., Lever, W. F.: Eccrine spiradenoma. Histochemical and electron microscopic studies. J. invest. Derm. 46, 347–365 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Hashimoto, K., Gross, B. G., Lever, W. F.: The ultrastructure of human embryo skin. II. The formation of intradermal portion of the eccrine sweat duct and of the secretory segment during the first half of embryonic life. J. invest. Derm. 46, 513–529 (1966).Google Scholar
  86. Hemplemann, L. H., Womack, N. A.: The pathogenesis of mixed tumors of the salivary gland type. Ann. Surg. 116, 34–42 (1942).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Hibbs, R. G.: The fine structure of human eccrine sweat glands. Amer. J. Anat. 103, 201 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Hirsch, P., Helwig, E. B.: Chondroid Syringoma. Arch. Derm. 84, 835–847 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Hollmann, K. H.: L’ultras truc ture de la glande mammaire de la souris en lactation. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 2, 423–443 (1959).Google Scholar
  90. Hübner, G., Kleinsasser, O., Klein, H. J.: Zur Feinstruktur der Speichelgang-carcinome. Ein Beitrag zur Rolle der Myoepithelzellen in Speicheldrüsengeschwülsten. Virchows Arch. Abt. A. Path. Anat. 346, 1–14 (1969).Google Scholar
  91. Hübner, G., Kleinsasser, O., Klein, H. J.: Zur Feinstruktur und Genese der Cylindrome der Speicheldrüsen. Weitere Untersuchungen zur Rolle myoepithelial differenzierter Zellen der Speicheldrüsengeschwülste. Virchows Arch. Abt. A Path. Anat. 347, 296–315 (1969).Google Scholar
  92. Hurley, H. J., Shelley, W. B.: The role of the myoepithelium of the human apocrine sweat gland. J. invest. Derm. 22, 143–156 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Jernström, P., Lindberg, A. L., Meland, O. N.: Osteogenic sarcoma of the mammary gland. Arner. J. clin. Path. 40, 521–526 (1963).Google Scholar
  94. Johnson, B. L., Helwig, B.B.: Eccrine acrospinorna. A clinopathologic study. Cancer 23, 641–657 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Jones, E. L.: Primary squamous-cell carcinoma of the breast with pseudosarcomatous stroma. J. Path. Bact. 97, 383–385 (1969).Google Scholar
  96. Karnauchow, P. N.: Myo-epithelium in gynecomastia. Amer. J. Path. 30, 1169–1179 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Kaufmann, F., Stiebitz, R.: Zur Enzymhistochemie der Speicheldrüsen. Acta histochem. (Jena) 32, 221–243 (1969).Google Scholar
  98. Keasbey, L. E., Hadley, G. G.: Clear-cell hidradenoma. Report of three cases with widespread metastases. Cancer (Philad.) 7, 934–952 (1954).Google Scholar
  99. Kersting, D. W.: Clear cell hidradenoma and hidradenocarcinoma. Arch. Derm. 87, 323–333 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kersting, D. W., Helwig, E. B.: Eccrine spiradenoma. Arch. Derm. 73, 199–227 (1956).Google Scholar
  101. Kleinsasser, O.: Einteilung, Morphologie und Verhalten der epithelialen Speicheldrüsen. H.N.O. 17, 197–211 (1969).Google Scholar
  102. Kleinsasser, O., Klein, H. J., Hübner, G.: Speichelgangcarcinome. Eine den Milchgangcarcinomen der Brustdrüse analoge Gruppe von Speicheldrüsentumoren. Arch. klin. exp. Ohr.-, Nas.- u. Kehlk.-Heilk. 192, 100–115 (1968).Google Scholar
  103. Kopf, A. W.: The distribution of alkaline phosphatase in normal and pathologic human skin. Arch. Derm. 75, 1–37 (1957).Google Scholar
  104. Kreibig, W.: Zur Kenntnis seltener Geschwulstformen der weiblichen Brustdrüse. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 256, 649–665 (1925).Google Scholar
  105. Kuzma, J. F.: Myoepithelial proliferations in the human breast. Amer. J. Path. 19, 473–489 (1943).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Langer, E., Huhn, S.: Der submikroskopische Bau der Myoepithelzelle. Z. Zellforsch. 47, 507–516 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Lee, B. J., Pack, G. T., Scharnagel, I.: Sweat gland cancer of the breast. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 56, 975–996 (1933).Google Scholar
  108. Leeson, C. G.: The histochemical identification of myoepithelium with particular reference to the Harderian and extraorbital lacrimal glands. Acta anat. (Basel) 40, 87 (1960).Google Scholar
  109. Lennox, B., Pearse, A. G. E., Richards, H. G. H.: Mucin-secreting tumours of the skin: with special reference to the so-called mixed-salivary tumour of the skin and its relation to hidradenoma. J. Path. Bact. 64, 865–880 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Lever, W. F.: Pathogenesis of benigne tumours of cutaneous appendages and of basal cell epithelioma. Arch. Derm. Syph. (Chic) 57, 679–724 (1948a).Google Scholar
  111. Lever, W. F.: Myoepithelial sweat gland tumor: Myoepithelioma. Report of three cases with a review of the literature. Arch. Derm. Syph. (Chic.) 57, 332–347 (1948b).Google Scholar
  112. Lever, W. F.: Histology of the skin. Philadelphia-London-Montreal: J. B. Lippincott Comp. 1954.Google Scholar
  113. Lever, W. F.: Castleman, B.: Clear-cell myo-epithelioma of the skin. Amer. J. Path. 28, 691–699 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Lever, W. F., Hashimoto, K.: Die Histogenèse einiger Hautanhangstumoren im Lichte histo-chemischer und elektronenmikroskopischer Befunde. (Ekkrines Porom, Ekkrines Spiradenom, Syringom, Cylindrom, verkalkendes Epitheliom.) Hautarzt 17, 161–173 (1960).Google Scholar
  115. Linzell, J. L.: The silver staining of myoepithelial cells, particuliarly in the mammary gland and their relation to the ejection of milk. J. Anat. (Lond.) 86, 49–57 (1952).Google Scholar
  116. Linzell, J. L.: Some observations on the contractile tissue of the mammary glands. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 130, 257–267 (1955).Google Scholar
  117. Löwenstein, C.: Über atypische Epithelwucherungen und Tumoren der Speicheldrüsen, besonders der Parotis. Frankfurt. Z. Path. 4, 187–202 (1910).Google Scholar
  118. Lund, H. J.: Tumors of the skin. Atlas of tumor pathology, vol. I/2. Washington 1957.Google Scholar
  119. Mackenzie, D.H.: A clear cell hidradenocarcinoma with metastases. Cancer (Philad.) 10, 1021–1023 (1957).Google Scholar
  120. Mackenzie, D.H.: A fibro-adenoma of the breast with smooth muscle. J. Path. Bact. 96, 231–232 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Maeda, R.: The origin and characteristics of ceroid. Acta path. jap. 17, 439–456 (1968).Google Scholar
  122. Masson, P.: Tumeurs humaines, 2. ed. Paris: Maloine 1956.Google Scholar
  123. Masson, Peyron: A propos des tumeurs mixtes des glandes salivaires. Specifité cellulaire et tumeurs mixtes. Ass. Franc. Etude Cancer 7, 219–263 (1914).Google Scholar
  124. Mayer, I.: Zur Histologie der Hidradenoma Frankfurt. Z. Path. 55, 548–580 (1941)Google Scholar
  125. Melnick, P. J.: Fibromyoma of the breast. Arch. Path. 14, 794–798 (1932).Google Scholar
  126. Meyer, A., Delarue, J., Peuteuil, G., Liot, F.: Sur un cas de tumeur a cellules myoepitheliales localisé a la region juxta-scissurale du poumon gauche. J. franç. Méd. Chir. thor. 8, 310–316 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Morgan, W. S., Castleman, B.: A clinicopathologic study of “Mikulicz’s disease”. Amer. J. Path. 29, 471–503 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Müller, H. B.: Die postnatale Entwicklung der Harderschen Drüse der weißen Ratte. II. Fermenthistochemische Befunde. Histochemie 20, 181–196 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Murad, M. T., v. Haam, E.: Transformation of myothelial cells into epithelial cells in pregnancy. Proc. 25 th Ann. Meeting E. M. Soc. of Amer. 62–63 (1967).Google Scholar
  130. Murad, M. T., v. Haam, E.: The ultrastructure of fibrocystic disease of the breast. Cancer (Philad.) 22, 587–600 (1968 a).Google Scholar
  131. Murad, M. T., v. Haam, E.: Ultrastructure of myoepithelial cells in human mammary gland tumors. Cancer (Philad.) 21, 1137—1149 (1968b).Google Scholar
  132. Murad, M. T.: Scarpelli, D. G.: The ultrastructure of medullary and scirrhous mammary duct carcinoma. Amer. J. Path. 50, 335–360 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Mylius, E. A.: The identification and the role of the myoepithelial cell in salivary gland tumours. Acta path. microbiol. scand., Suppl. 139, 1–59 (1960).Google Scholar
  134. Nangle, E. J., Symmers, W. St. C.: Pleomorphic sweat-gland adenoma of the foot. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 32 B, 70–73 (1950).Google Scholar
  135. Negri, L., Ferrante, R.: Orientamenti istogenetici e adeguamenti classificativi della malignita nelle ghiandole salivari (con applicazione delle mesomucinasi alio studio delle componenti stromali). Arch. DeVecchi Anat. pat. 12, 373–440 (1949).Google Scholar
  136. Newman, W., Feigin, I., Wolf, A., Kabat, E.: Histochemical studies of tissue enzymes: IV. Distribution of some enzyme systems which liberate phosphate at pH 9.2 as determined with various substrates and inhibitors; Demonstration of 3 groups of enzymes. Amer. J. Path. 26, 257–306 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Noback, C.R., Montagna, W.: Histochemical studies of the basophilia, lipase and phosphatases in the mammalian pancreas and salivary glands. Amer. J. Anat. 81, 343–367 (1947).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. O’Hara, J. M., Bensch, K., Ioannides, G., Klaus, S.N.: Eccrine sweat gland adenoma, clear cell type. A histochemical study. Cancer (Philad.) 19, 1438–1450 (1966).Google Scholar
  139. Oota, K., Takahashi, N.: Electron microscopic studies on the so-called benign mixed tumour of the salivary gland. Gann 49, 234–235 (1958).Google Scholar
  140. Peyron, A., Corsy, F., Surmont, J.: Sur la pathologie comparée des tumeurs de la mamelle. Bull. Ass. franç. Cancer 15, 21–62 (1926).Google Scholar
  141. Pirilä, V., Eränkö, O.: Distribution of histochemically demonstrable alkaline phosphatase in normal and pathologic human skin. Acta path. microbiol. scand. 27, 650–660 (1950).Google Scholar
  142. Postnov, Yu. V.: Myoepithelioma of the sweat glands. Arch. Path. 1965, 38–43 [Russisch].Google Scholar
  143. Propst, A.: Zur Morphologie der Cylindrome. Frankfurt. Z. Path. 65, 97–110 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Quintarelli, G., Robinson, L.: The glycosaminoglycans of salivary gland tumors. Amer. J. Path. 51, 19–37 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Richardson, K. G.: Contractile tissues in the mammary gland, with special reference to myothelium in the goat. Proc. roy Soc. B 136, 30–45 (1949).Google Scholar
  146. Robb, P. M., McFarlane, A.: Two rare breast tumors. J. Path. Bact. 75, 293–298 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Rottino, A., Howley, C. P.: Osteoid sarcoma of the breast a complication of fibroadenoma. Arch. Path. 40, 44–50 (1945).Google Scholar
  148. Rowlatt, C., Franks, L. M.: Myoepithelium in mouse prostate. Nature (Lond.) 202, 707 (1964).Google Scholar
  149. Saar, Freiherr v. G.: Über Cystadenoma mammae und Mastitis chronica cystica. Langenbecks Arch. klinx. Chir. 84, 223–279 (1907).Google Scholar
  150. Santler, R., Eberhartinger, C.: Malignes Klarzellen-Myoepitheliom. Dermatologica (Basel) 130, 340–347 (1965).Google Scholar
  151. Sarkar, K., Kallenbach, E.: Myoepithelial cells in carcinoma of human breast. Amer. J. Path. 49, 30I—307 (1966).Google Scholar
  152. Schäfer, A., Bässler, R.: Vergleichende elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen am Drüsenepithel und am sog. lobulären Carcinom der Mamma. Virchows Arch. Abt. A Path. Anat. 346, 269–286 (1969).Google Scholar
  153. Schultz, A.: Pathologische Anatomie der Brustdrüse. In: Henke-Lubarsch, Bd. VII/2. 1–208, 1933.Google Scholar
  154. Scott, B. L., Pease, D. C.: Electron microscopy of the salivary and lacrimal glands of the rat. Amer. J. Anat. 104, 115–161 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Seifert, G., Geiler, G.: Vergleichende Untersuchungen der Kopfspeichel- und Tränendrüsen zur Pathogenese des S Jörgen- Syndroms und der Mikulicz-Krankheit. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 330, 402–424 (1957).Google Scholar
  156. Shear, M.: Histochemical localisation of alkaline phosphatase and adenosine triphosphatase in myoepithelial cells of the rat salivary glands. Nature (Lond.) 203, 770 (1964).Google Scholar
  157. Sheldon, W. H.: The myoepithelium in sweat gland tumours. Distribution, histology, embryology and function. Arch. Path. 31, 326–337 (1941).Google Scholar
  158. Sheldon, W. H.: So-called mixed tumours of the salivary glands. Arch. Path. 35, 1–20 (1943).Google Scholar
  159. Shelley, H. B., Mescon, H.: Histochemical demonstration of secretory activity in human eccrine sweat glands. J. invest. Derm. 18, 289–301 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Simard, L. C.: Tumour of the palm having the structure of a mixed tumour of the salivary glands. Amer. J. Cancer 33, 182–195 (1938).Google Scholar
  161. Silver, I. A.: Myoepithelial cells in the mammary and parotid gland. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 125, Proceed, of the Physiol. Soc. 8 P (1954).Google Scholar
  162. Skorpil, F.: Über das Speicheldrüsenadenom. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 306, 714–736 (1940).Google Scholar
  163. Skorpil, F.: Über das benigne Lymphom der Ohrspeicheldrüse. Frankfurt. Z. Path. 56, 514–533 (1942).Google Scholar
  164. Skorpil, F.: Über das Vorkommen von sog. hellen Zellen (Lamprozyten) in der Milchdrüse. Beitr. path. Anat. 108, 378–393 (1943).Google Scholar
  165. Stewart, F. W.: Tumors of the breast. Atlas of tumor pathology, Sect. IX Fasc. 34. Washington: AFIP 1950.Google Scholar
  166. Stillians, A. W.: Naevo-epithelioma adenoides (cylindroma) of the scalp. Arch. Derm. Syph. (Chic.) 27, 481 (1933).Google Scholar
  167. Tamarin, A.: Myoepithelium of the rat submaxillary gland. J. Cell Biol. 23, 93 A abstract (1964).Google Scholar
  168. Tamarin, A.: Myoepithelium of the rat submaxillary gland. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 16, 320–338 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Tandler, B.: Ultrastructure of the human submaxillary gland. III. Myoepithelium. Z. Zellforsch. 68, 852–863 (1965).Google Scholar
  170. Tannenbaum, M., Weiss, M., Marx, A.: Ultrastructure of the human mammary ductule. Cancer (Philad.) 23, 958–978 (1969).Google Scholar
  171. Thackeray, A. C., Lucas, R. B.: The histology of cylindrome of mucous gland origin. Brit. J. Cancer 14, 612–620 (1960).Google Scholar
  172. Waugh, D., Hoeven, E. van der : Fine structure of the human adult female breast. Lab. Invest. 11, 220–228 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Weber, H. W.: Über anatomische Befunde bei männlicher Brustdrüsen Vergrößerung. Frankfurt. Z. Path. 61, 547–556 (1949/50).Google Scholar
  174. Weiss, P.: Submikroskopische Charakteristika und Reaktionsformen der glatten Muskelzelle unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Gefäßwandmuskelzelle. Z. mikr.-anat. Forsch. 78, 305–331 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Wellings, S. R., Roberts, P.: Electron microscopy of sclerosing adenosis and infiltrating duct carcinoma of the human mammary gland. J. nat. Cancer Inst. 30, 269–287 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Welsh, R. A., Meyer, A. T.: Mixed tumors of human salivary gland: Histogenesis. Arch. Path. 85, 433–447 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Willis, R. A.: Pathology of tumours, 3. ed. London: Butterworth 1960.Google Scholar
  178. Winkelmann, R. K., Wolff, K.: Solid-cystic hidradenoma of the skin. Arch. Derm. Syph. (Chic.) 97, 651–661 (1968).Google Scholar
  179. Zimmermann, K. W.: Speicheldrüsen der Mundhöhle und die Bauchspeicheldrüse. In: Handbuch der mikroskopischen Anatomie, Bd. V, S. 1. Berlin: Springer 1927.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1970

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Hamperl
    • 1
  1. 1.Patholog. InstituteBonn UniversityBonn 1Germany

Personalised recommendations