Advertisement

Pädiatrie pp 776-871 | Cite as

Krankheiten von Verdauungstrakt, Peritoneum, Bauchwand und Pankreas

  • R. H. Reich
  • G. Hillmann
  • S. Koletzko
  • M. J. Lentze
  • K.-M. Keller
  • W. Nützenadel
  • K. L. Waag
  • J. Henker
  • S. Buderus
Chapter
  • 292 Downloads

Zusammenfassung

Verglichen mit dem Erwachsenenalter werden Speicheldrüsenkrankheiten bei Kindern viel seltener angetroffen. Am häufigsten sind unter diesen die Entzündungen (60%); der Rest teilt sich in die seltenen Tumoren und die Fehlbildungen der Speicheldrüsen auf. Hauptsächlich ist die Glandula parotis, seltener die Glandula submandibularis betroffen. Krankheiten der kleineren Speicheldrüsen (Glandulae sublinguales und die akzessorischen Speicheldrüsen in der Lippen- und Mundschleimhaut) sind Raritäten.

Literatur

  1. Blechschmidt E (1982) Die Entwicklungskinetik des Gesichtsschädels. In: Pfeiffer G (Hrsg) Lippen-Kiefer-Gaumenspalten. Thieme, Stuttgart New York, S 234–244Google Scholar
  2. Hotz M, Gnoinski W, Perko M, Nussbaumer H, Hof E, Haubensak R (Hrsg) (1986) Early treatment of cleft lip and palate. Huber, Toronto Lewiston New York Bern StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  3. Jacques DA, Kroll OS, Chambers RG (1976) Parotid tumors in children. Am J Surg 132: 469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Lopez-Tello CS, Krämer D (1971) Parotishämangiome im Kindesalter. Arch Kinderheilk 182: 258–264Google Scholar
  5. Rauch S (1970) Zur Klinik der gut- und bösartigen mesenchymalen Speicheldrüsentumoren. In: Schuchardt K (Hrsg) Fortschritte der Kiefer-und Gesichtschirurgie, Bd XIV. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  6. Rauch RH (1997) Funktionelle Kiefergelenkchirurgie. In: Horch HH (Hrsg) Praxis der Zahnheilkunde, 3. Aufl, Bd to/I. Urban & Schwarzenberg, München Wien Baltimore, S 165–183Google Scholar
  7. Horch H-H, Hupfauf L, Ketterl W, Schmuth G (Hrsg) (1992) Zahnerhaltung I. Urban & Schwarzenberg, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  8. Schroeder HE (1992) Orale Strukturbiologie. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  9. Schroeder, HE (1997) Pathobiologie oraler Strukturen. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  10. Shafer WG, Hine MK, Levy BM (1983) Oral pathology. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  11. Staehle HJ, Koch MJ (1996) Kinder- und Jugendzahnheilkunde. Deutscher Ärzte Verlag, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  12. Witkop CJ (1989) Amelogenesis imperfecta, dentinogenesis imperfecta and dentin dysplasia revisited: problems in classification. J Oral Pathol Med 17: 547–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Depaepe A, Dolk H, Lechat M et al. (1993): The epidemiology of tracheoesophageal fistula and oesophageal atresia in Europe. Arch Dis Child 68: 743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Friedland G, Sunshine P, Zboralske FF (1975) Hiatal hernia in infants and young children: a 2- to 3-year follow-up study. J Pediatr 84: 71–74Google Scholar
  15. Jeawett TC, Siegel M (1984) Hiatal hernia and gastroesophageal reflux. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 3: 340–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Louhimo I, Lindahl H (1983) Esophageal atresia: primary results of 500 consecutively treated patients. J Pediatr Surg 18: 217–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nobuhara KK, Gorski YC, La-Quaglia MP et al. (1997) Bronchiogenic cysts and esophageal duplications: common origins and treatment. J Pediatr Surg 32: 1408–1413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Spitz L (1996) Esophageal atresia: past, present and future. J Pediatr Surg 31: 19–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Tam PKH, Sprigg A, Cudmore RE et al. (1991) Endoscopy-guided balloon dilatation of esophageal strictures and anastomotic strictures after esophageal replacement in children. J Pediatr Surg 26: 1101–1103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Anderson KD, Rouse TM, Randolph JG (1990) A controlled trial of corticosteroids in children with corrosive injury of the esophagus. N Engl J Med 323: 637–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gorman RL, Khin-Maung-Gyi T, Klein-Schartz W et al. (1992) Initial symptoms as predicators of esophageal injury in alkaline corrosive ingestions. Am J Emerg Med 10: 189–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Howell JM, Dalsey WC, Hartsell FW et al. (1992) Steroids for the treatment of corrosive esophageal injury: a statistical analysis of past studies. Am J Emerg Med 10: 421–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Litowitz T, Schmitz BF (1992) Ingestion of cylindrical and button batteries: an analysis of 2382 cases. Pediatrics 89: 747–757Google Scholar
  24. Panieri E, Bass DH (1995) The management of ingested foreign bodies in children–a review of 663 cases. Eur J Emerg Med 2: 83–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Previtera C, Giusti F, Guglielmi M (1990) Predictive value of visible lesions (cheeks, lips, oropharynx) in suspected caustic ingestion: may endoscopy reasonably be omitted in completely negative pediatric patients? Pediatr Emerg Care 3: 176–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Webb WA (1988) Management of foreign bodies of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Gastroenterology 94: 204–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Baehr PH, McDonald GB (1994) Esophageal infections: risk factors, pre- sentation, diagnosis, and treatment. Gastroenterology 106: 509–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Brandt de Oliveira R, Troncon LEA, Dantas RO, Meneghelli UG (1998) Gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas’ disease. Am J Gastroenterol 93: 884–889Google Scholar
  29. Isaac DW, Parham DM, Patrick CC (1997) The role of esophagoscopy in diagnosis and management of esophagitis in children with cancer. Med Pediatr Oncol 28: 299–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hassall E (1997) Co-morbidities in childhood Barrett’s esophagus. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 25: 255–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Leichtner AM, Hoppin AG (1996) Esophageal and gastric neoplasm. In: Walker WA, Dune PR, Hamilton JR et al. (eds) Pediatric gastrointestinal disease. Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management, 2nd edn. Mosby-Year Book, St. Louis/MO, pp 533–542Google Scholar
  32. Spechler SJ, Goyal RK (1996) The columnar-lined esophagus, intestinal metaplasia, and Norman Barrett. Gastroenterology 10: 614–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Colletti RB, Christie DL, Orenstein SR (1995) Indications for pediatric esophageal pH monitoring. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 21: 253–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Faubion WA, Zein NN (1998) Gastroesophageal reflux in infants and children. Mayo Clin Proc 73: 166–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hassal E (1995) Wrap session: is the Nissen slipping? Can medical treatment replace surgery for severe gastroesophageal reflux disease in children? Am J Gastroenterol 90: 1212–1220Google Scholar
  36. Jesch J, Koletzko S (woo) Omeprazol in der Kinderheilkunde. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 148Google Scholar
  37. Mittal RK, Holloway RH, Penagini R et al. (1995) Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Gastroenterology 109: 601–610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Orenstein S (1992) Controversies in pediatric gastroesophageal Reflux. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 14: 338–348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vandenplas Y, Ashkenazi A, Belli DC et al. (1993) A proposition for the diagnosis and treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in children: a report from a working group on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Eur J Pediatr 152: 704–711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vandenplas Y, Belli DC, Benatar A et al. (1999) The role of cisapride in the treatment of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 28: 518–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Allescher HD (1993) Was ist gesichert in der Therapie der Achalasie? Internist 34: 1122–1132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Bode CP, Schroten H, Koletzko S, Lübke H, Wahn V (1996) Transient achalasia-like esophageal motility disorder after Candida esophagitis in a boy with chronic granulomatous disease. J Ped Gastroenterol Nutr 23: 320–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Faubion WA, Perrault J, Burgart LJ et al. (1998) Treatment of eosinophilic eosphagitis with inhaled corticosteroids. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 29: 90–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Khoshoo V, LaGarde DC, Udall JN (1997) Intrasphincteric injection of Botulinum toxin for treating achalasia in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 24: 439–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mattioli G, Cagnazzo A, Barabino A et al. (1997) The surgical approach to eosophageal achalasia. Eur J Pediatr Surg 7: 323–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Perisic VN, Scepanovic D, Radlovic N (1996) Nonoperative treatment of achalasia. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 22: 45–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Staiano A, Cucchiara S, De Vizia B et al. (1987) Disorders of upper esophageal sphincter motility in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 6: 892–898PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Anderson KD, Guzzetta PC (1983) Treatment of congenital microgastria and dumping syndrome. J Pediatr Surg 18: 747–750PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Cameron AEP, Howard ER (1987) Gastric volvulus in childhood. J Pediatr Surg 22: 944–947PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Faerber EN (1993) Gastric dublication with hemoptysis: CT findings. AJR 161: 1245–1246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rescoria FJ, Grosfeld JL (1985) Intestinal atresia and stenosis: analysis of survival in 120 cases. Surgery 98: 668–676Google Scholar
  52. Caspary WF, Arnold R, Bayerdörffer E et al. (1996) Diagnostik und Therapie der Helicobacter pylori Infektion. Leitlinien der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselkrankheiten, mitgetragen von der Gesellschaft für pädiatrische Gastroenterologie und Ernährung. Z Gastroenterol 34: 392–401Google Scholar
  53. De Giacomo C, Fiocca R, Villani L et al. (1990) Omeprazole treatment of severe peptic disease associated with G cell hyperfunction and hyperpepsinogenemia I in an infant. J Pediatr 117: 989–993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Dixon MF, Genta RM, Yardley JH et al. (1996) Classification and grading of gastritis. The updated Sydney system. Am J Surg Pathol 20: 1161–1181Google Scholar
  55. Drumm B, Koletzko S, Oderda G et al. (2000) Helicobacter pylori infection in children: a consensus statement. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 30: 207–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gormally S, Sherman PM, Drumm B (1996) Gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. In: Walker WA, Durie PR, Hamilton JR et al. (eds) Pediatric gastrointestinal disease. Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management, 2nd edn. Mosby, St. Louis/MO, pp 506–527Google Scholar
  57. Kindermann A, Koletzko S (1998) Eiweißverlierende Riesenfaltengastritis im Kindesalter–ein Fallbericht und Abgrenzung zum Morbus Ménétrier des Erwachsenenalters. Z Gastroenterol 36: 165–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Koletzko S (1997) Die Helicobacter-pylori-Infektion im Kindes- und Jugendalter. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 145: 660–678Google Scholar
  59. Lopez-Herce J, Dorao P, Elola P et al. (1992) Frequency and prophylaxis of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in critically ill children: a prospective study comparing the efficacy of almagate, ranitidine, and sucralfate. Crit Care Med 20: 1082–1089PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Andrus Ch, Ponsky JL (1988) Bezoars: classification, pathophysiology and treatment. Am J Gastroenterol 83: 476–478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Fuchs CS, Mayer RJ (1995) Gastric carcinoma. Review. N Engl J Med 333: 32–41Google Scholar
  62. Leichtner AM, Hoppin AG (1996) Esophageal and gastric neoplasm. In: Walker WA, Durie PR, Hamilton JR et al. (eds) Pediatric gastrointestinal disease. Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management, znd edn. Mosby, St. Louis/MO, pp 533–542Google Scholar
  63. Lilverio I (1988) Lactobezoar risk. Pediatrics 81: 177–178Google Scholar
  64. Sackmann M, Morgner A, Rudolph B et al. (1997) Regression of gastric MALT lymphoma after eradication of Helicobacter pylori is predicted by endosonographic staging. Gastroenterology 113: 1087–1090PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Fleisher DR, Matar Marla (1993) The cyclic vomiting syndrome: a report of 71 cases and literature review. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 17: 361–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gokhale R, Huttenlocher PR, Brady L, Kirschner BS (1997) Use of barbiturates in the treatment of cyclic vomiting during childhood. J Pediatr Gastrenterol Nutr 25: 64–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hulka F, Harrison MW, Campbell TJ et al. (1997) Complications of pyloromyotomy for infantil hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Am J Surg 173: 450–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Khoshoo V, Reifen RM, Gold BD et al. (1991) Nutritional manipulation in the management of dumping syndrome. Arch Dis Child 66: 1447–1448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Li BUK (1999) Cyclic vomiting syndrome: light emerging from the black box. J Pediatr 135: 276–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Samuk I, Afriat R, Home T et al. (1996) Dumping syndrome following Nissen fundoplication, diagnosis and treatment. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 23: 235–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Schechter R, Torfs CP,Bateson TF (1997) The epidemiology of infantile hypertrophie pyloric stenosis. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 112: 407–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Stringer DA (1989) Pediatric gastrointestinal imaging. Decker, Toronto PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  73. Vanderhoof JA, Young R, Kaufman SS, Ernst L (1993) Treatment of cyclic vomiting in childhood with erythromycin. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 17: 387–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Avery ME, Snyder JD (1990) Oral therapy for acute diarrhea. The underused simple solution. N Engl J Med 323: 891–894Google Scholar
  75. Booth I, Desjèux J-F, Ferreire RC et al. (1992) Recommendations for composition of oral rehydration solutions for the children of Europe. Report of an ESPGAN working group. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 14: 113–153Google Scholar
  76. Committee on Nutrition, American Academy of Pediatrics, Mauer AM, Dweck HS, Finberg L et al. (1985) Use of oral fluid therapy and posttreatment feeding following enteritis in children in a developed country. Pediatrics 75: 358–361Google Scholar
  77. Goriup U, Keller KM, Koletzko B, Lentze MJ, Stern M (1994) Therapie akuter Durchfallerkrankungen bei Kindern. Empfehlungen der Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Gastroenterologie und Ernährung. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 142: 126–130Google Scholar
  78. Black RE (ed) (1992) Persistent diarrhea in children of developing countries. Acta Paediatr Supp1 381: 1–154Google Scholar
  79. Burgin-Wolff A, Gaze H, Hadziselimovic F, Huber H, Lentze MJ, Nüsslé D, Reymond-Berthet C (1991) Antigliadin and antiendomysium antibody determination for coeliac disease. Arch Dis Childh 66: 941–947PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Catassi C, Ratsch IM, Fabiani E, Ricci S, Bordicchia F, Pierdomenico R, Giorgi PL (1995) High prevalence of undiagnosed coeliac disease in 5280 Italian students screened by antigliadin antibodies. Acta Paediatr 84: 672–676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Dieterich W, Ehnis T, Bauer M, Donner P, Volta U, Riecken EO, Schuppan D (1997) Identification of tissue transglutaminase as the autoantigen of celiac disease. Nat Med 3: 797–801PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Holmes GK, Prior P, Lane MR, Pope D, Allan RN (1989) Malignancy in coeliac disease–effect of a gluten free diet. Gut 30: 333–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Marsh MN (1992) Gluten, major histocompatibility complex, and the small intestine. A molecular and immunobiologic approach to the spectrum of gluten sensitivity (“celiac sprue”). Gastroenterology 102: 330–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Working Group of European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (1990) Revised criteria for diagnosis of coeliac disease. Arch Dis Childh 65: 909–911Google Scholar
  85. Bergmann RL, Niggemann B, Bergmann KE, Wahn U (1997) Primäre Ernährungsprävention atopischer Erkrankungen. Eine kritische Standortbestimmung. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 145: 533–539Google Scholar
  86. Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Shannon FT (1990) Early solid feeding and recurrent childhood eczema: a 10 year longitudinal study. Pediatrics 86: 541–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Höst A (1994) Cow’s milk protein allergy and intolerance in infancy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol (Suppl 5 ) 5: 5–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Odze RD, Wershil BK, Leichtner AM,Antonioli DA (1995) Allergic colitis in infants. J Pediatr 126: 163–170Google Scholar
  89. Saarinen U, Kajosaari M (1995) Breastfeeding as prophylaxis against atopic disease: prospective follow-up study until 17 years old. Lancet 346: 1065–1069PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wright AL, Sherrill D, Holberg CJ, Halonen M, Martinez FD (1999) Breast-feading, maternal IgE, and total serum IgE in childhood. J Allergy Clin Immunol 104: 589–594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Holmberg C (1986) Congenital chloride diarrhea. Clin Gastroenterol 15: 583–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Martin MG (1998) The biology of inherited disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Part 1: gastrointestinal disorders. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 26: 321–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Martin MG, Turk E, Lostao MP, Kerner C, Wright EM (1996) Defects in Na+/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) trafficking and function cause glucose-galactose malabsorption. Nat Genet 12: 216–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Milla PJ,Aggett PJ, Wolff OH, Harries JT (1979) Studies in primary hypomagnesaemia: evidence for defective carrier-mediated small intestinal transport of magnesium. Gut 20: 1028–1033Google Scholar
  95. Online Mendelian Inheritance of Man (OMIM) Datenbank des NIH und NLM. http:// www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/OMIM/Google Scholar
  96. Poggi V, Sebastio G (1991) Molecular analysis of the lactase gene in the congenital lactase deficiency. Am J Hum Genet 49 (suppl): 105Google Scholar
  97. Sterchi EE, Mills PR, Fransen JAM et al. (1990) Biogenesis of intestinal lactase-phlorizin hydrolase in adults with lactose intolerance. Evidence for reduced biosynthesis and slowed-down maturation of enterocytes. J Clin Invest 86: 1329–1337Google Scholar
  98. Treem WR (1995) Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 21: 1–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wong MH (1995) Identification of a mutation in the ileal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter gene that abolishes transport activity. J Biol Chem 270: 27228–27234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Goulet OJ, Révillon Y, Jan D (1992) Which patients need small bowel transplantation for neonatal short bowel syndrome? Transplant Proc 24: 1058–1059PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Lentze MJ (1987) Intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome. Eur J Pediatr 148: 294–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kaufmann SS, Losche CA, Cupo JV et al. (1997) Influence of bacterial overgrowth and intestinal inflammation on duration of parenteral nutrition in children with short bowel syndrome. J Pediatr 131: 356–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sondheimer JM, Cadnapaphornchai M, Sontag M et al. (1998) Predicting the duration of dependence on parenteral nutrition after neonatal intestinal resection. J Pediatr 132: 80–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Vanderhoof JA, Langnas AN, Pinch LW (1992) Short bowel syndrome. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 14: 359–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Assmann B, Hoffmann GF, Wagner L et al. (1997) Dihydropyrimidase deficiency and congenital microvillous atrophy: coincidence or genetic relation? J Inherit Metab Dis 20: 681–688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Goulet O, Brousse N, Canioni D, Walker-Smith JA, Schmitz J, Phillips AD (1998) Syndrome of intractable diarrhea with persistent villous atrophy in early childhood: a clinicopathological survey of 47 cases. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 26: 151–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Herzog D, Atkinson P, Grant D, Paradis K, Williams S, Seiman E (1996) Combined bowel-liver transplantation in an infant with microvillous inclusion disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 22: 405–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Phillips A, Schmitz J (1992) Familial microvillous atrophy: a clinicopatho- logical survey of 23 cases. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 14: 380–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Boot AM, Bouquet J, Krenning EP, Muinck Keizer-Schrama SMPF de (1998) Bone mineral density and nutritional status in children with chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 42: 188–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Connell WR, Kam MA, Dickson M, Balkwil AM, Ritchie JK, LennardJones JE (1994) Longterm neoplasia risk after azathioprine treatment in inflammatory bowel disease. Lancet 343: 1249–1252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Faure C, Belarbi N, Mougenot JF et al. (1997) Ultrasonographic assessment of inflammatory bowel disease in children: comparison with ileocolonoscopy. J Pediatr 130: 147–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Ferry GD, Buller HA (1995) Mechanisms of growth retardation, drug therapy and nutritional support in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: a workshop sponsored by the North American and European Societies for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. Inflamm Bowel Dis 1: 313–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Griffiths AM, Ohlsson A, Sherman PM, Sutherland LR (1995) Meta-analysis of enteral nutrition as a primary treatment of active Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology 108: 1056–1067PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Gryboski JD (1993) Ulcerative colitis in children io years or younger. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 17: 24–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Hoffenberg EJ, Fidanza S, Sauaia A (1999) Serologic testing for inflammatory bowel disease. J Pediatr 134: 447–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Lew JCW, Bridger S, Mc Gregor C. Macpherson AJS, Lennard Jones JE (1999) Why children with inflammatory bowel disease are diagnosed at a younger age than their affected parent. Gut 44: 808–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Moody GA, Jayanthi V, Probert CSJ, Kay HM, Mayberry JF (1996) Longterm therapy with sulphasalazin protects against colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: a retrospective study of colorectal cancer risk and compliance with treatment in Leicestershire. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 8: 1179–1183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sandborn WI (1994) Pouchitis following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis: definition, pathogenesis, and treatment. Gastroenterology 107: 175–180Google Scholar
  119. Timmer A, Sutherland LR, Martin F, The Canadian Mesalamine For Remission of Crohn’s Disease Study Group (1998) Oral contraceptive use and smoking are risk factors for relapse in Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology 114: 1143–1150Google Scholar
  120. Cottom DG, London DR, Wilson BDR (1961) Neonatal oedema due to exudative enteropathy. Lancet 2: 1009–1012PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Niehues R, Hasilik M, Alton G et al. (1998) Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type Ib. Phosphomannose isomerase deficiency and mannose therapy. J Clin Invest 101: 1293–1295Google Scholar
  122. Shani M, Theodor E, Frand M, Goldman B (1974) A family with protein-losing enteropathy. Gastroenterology 66: 433–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Waldmann TA, Steinfeld JL, Dutcher TF, Davidson JD, Gordon RS (1961) The role of the gastrointestinal system in „idiopathic hypoproteinemia“. Gastroenterology 41: 197–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Apley J, Naish N (1958) Recurrent abdominal pain: a field survey of 1000 school children. Arch Dis Child 33: 165–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Camilleri M, Prather CM (1992) The irritable bowel syndrome: mechanism and a practical approach to management. Ann Intern Med 116: 1001–1008PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Lembo T, Munakata J, Mertz H et al. (1994) Evidence for the hypersensitivity of lumbar splanchnic afferents in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 107: 1686–1696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Loening-Baucke V, Yamada T (1995) Is the afferent pathway from the rectum impaired in children with chronic constipation and encopresis? Gastroenterology 109: 397–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Phillips SF, Wingate DL (eds) (1998) Functional disorders of the gut. Churchill Livingstone, London New YorkGoogle Scholar
  129. Pineiro-Carrero VM, Andres JM, Davis RH, Mathias JR (1988) Abnormal gastroduodenal motility in children and adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain. J Pediatr 113: 820–825PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Pelet A, Beneste O, Dery P et al. (1998) Various mechanisms cause RETmediated signaling defects in Hirschsprung’s disease. J Clin Invest 10l: 1415–1423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Rexcorla FJ, Morrison AM, Engles D, West KW, Grosfeld JL (1992) Hirschsprung’s disease. Evaluation of mortality and long-term function in 260 cases. Arch Surg 127: 934–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Cacoub P, Benhamou Y, Barbet P et al. (1993) Systemic lupus erythematosus and chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction. J Rheumatol 20: 377–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Di Lorenzo C, Lucanto C, Flores AF, Idries S, Hyman PE (1998) Effect of octreotide on gastrointestinal motility in children with functional gastrointestinal symptoms. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 27: 508–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Franken-EA J, Smith WL, Frey EE, Sato Y, Anuras S (1987) Intestinal motility disorders of infants and children: classification, clinical manifestations and roentgenology. Grit Rev Diagn Imaging 27: 203–236Google Scholar
  135. Goyal RK, Hirano I (1996) The enteric nervous system. N Engl J Med 334: 1106–1115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Kenny SE, Vanderwinden JM, Rintala RJ, Connell MG, Lloyd DA, Vanderhaegen JJ, De LM (1998) Delayed maturation of the interstitial cells of Cajal: a new diagnosis for transient neonatal pseudoobstruction. Report of two cases. J Pediatr Surg 33: 94–98Google Scholar
  137. Koletzko S, Jesch I, Faus-Keßler T et al. (1999) Rectal biopsies for diagnosis of intestinal neuronal dysplasia in children: a prospective multicenter study on interobserver variation and clinical outcome. Gut 44: 853–861PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Krijger RR de, Brooks A, Haarst HE van der, Hofstra RM, Bruining HA, Molenaar JC, Meijers C (1998) Constipation as the presenting symptom in de novo multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B. Pediatrics 102: 405–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Navarro J, Sonsino E, Boige N et al. (1990) Visceral neuropathies responColon irritabile und rezidivierende Bauchschmerzen, intestinale Motilitätsstörungen sible for chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in pediatric practice: analysis of 26 cases. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 8: 179–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Soudah HC, Hasler WL, Owyang C (1991) Effect of octreotide on intestinal motility and bacterial overgrowth in scleroderma. N Engl J Med 325: 1461–1467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Greydanus MP, Camilleri M, Colemont LJ, Phillips SF, Brown ML, Thomforde GM (1990) Ileocolonic transfer of solid chyme in small intestinal neuropathies and myopathies. Gastroenterology 99: 158–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Jayachandar J, Frank JL, Jonas MM (1988) Isolated intestinal myopathy resembling progressive systemic sclerosis in a child. Gastroenterology 95: 1114–1118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Leon SH, Schuffler MD, Kettler M, Rohrmann CA (1986) Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction as a complication of Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy. Gastroenterology 90: 455–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Schuffler MD, Pagon RA, Schwartz R, Bill AH (1988) Visceral myopathy of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts in infants. Gastroenterology 94: 892–898PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Shaw A, Shaffer HA, Anuras S (1985) Familial visceral myopathy: the role of surgery. Am J Surg 150: 102–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Smith VV, Milla PJ (1997) Histological phenotypes of enteric smooth muscle disease causing functional intestinal obstruction in childhood. Histopathology 31: 112–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Anuras S, Mitros FA, Soper RT et al. (1986) Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction in young children. Gastroenterology 91: 62–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Di Lorenzo C (1999) Pseudo-obstruction: current approaches. Gastroenterology 116: 980–987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Glassman M, Spivak W, Mininberg D, Madara J (1989) Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudoobstruction: a commonly misdiagnosed disease in infants and children. Pediatrics 83: 603–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Sonsino E, Mouy R, Foucaud P, Cezard JP, Aigrain Y, Bocquet L, Navarro J (1984) Intestinal pseudoobstruction related to cytomegalovirus infection of myenteric plexus. N Engl J Med 20: 196–197Google Scholar
  151. Blum NJ, Taubman B, Osborne ML (1997) Behavioral characteristics of children with stool toileting refusal. Pediatrics 99: 50–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Clayden GS (1992) Management of chronic constipation. Arch Dis Childh 67: 340–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Harrington L, Schuh S (1997) Complications of Fleet enema administration and suggested guidelines for use in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care 13: 225–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Iacono G, Cavataio F, Montalto G (1998) Intolerance of cow’s milk and chronic constipation in children. N Engl J Med 339: 1100–1104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Issenman RM, Filmer RB, Gorski PA (1999) A review of bowel and bladder control development in children: how gastrointestinal and uro-logic conditions relate to problems in toilet training. Pediatrics 103 (suppl): 1346–1352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Koletzko S (1993) Enkopresis im Kindesalter. Kontinenz 2: 162–168Google Scholar
  157. Loening-Bauke V (1993) Chronic constipation in children. Gastroenterology 105: 1557–1564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Loening-Bauke V (1997) Urinary incontinence and urinary tract infection and their resolution with treatment of chronic constipation of childhood. Pediatrics 100: 228–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Metcalf AM, Phillips SF, Zinsmeister AR, MacCarty RL, Beart RW, Wolff BG (1987) Simplified assessment of segmental colonic transit. Gastroenterology 92: 40–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Taubman B (1997) Toilet training and toileting refusal for stool only: a prospective study. Pediatrics 99: 54–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Brender JD, Marcuse EK, Weis NS, Koepsell TD (1985) Is childhood appendicitis familial? Am J Dis Child 139: 338–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Davidson PM (1999) Graded compression ultrasonography in the assessment of the „tough decision“ acute abdomen in childhood. Pediatr Surg Int 15: 32–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Duhamel P, Chapuis F, Neidhardt JP, Lauro C, Isaac S, Callot JL, Voiglio J (1998) Appendectomy: evaluation of medical record maintenance in a series of 200 cases. Ann Chir 52: 896–904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Gurbuz AT, Muckleroy SK, Davis-Merritt D (1996) Simultaneous acute appendicitis in monozygotic twins: coincidence or genetic? Am Surg 62: 407–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Monse T, Tiedtke A (1998) Actual aspecte of diagnosis and treatment of appendicitis in childhood. Zentralbl Chir 123 (Suppl 4): 80–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Valla J, Ordorica-Flores RM, Steyaert H et al. (1998) Umbilical one-puncture laparoscopic-assisted appendectomy in children. Surg Endosc 13: 83–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Williams N, Bello M (1998) Perforation rate relates to delayed presentation in childhood acute appendicitis. J R Coll Surg Edinb 43: 101–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Williams NM, Johnstone JM, Everson NW (1998) The diagnostic value of symptoms and signs in childhood abdominal pain. J R Coll Surg Edinb 43: 390–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Barton LL, Moussa SL, Villar RG, Hulett RL (1998) Gastrointestinal complications of chronic granulomatous disease: case report and literature review. Clin Pediatr 37: 231–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Gurbindo C, Seidman EG (1996) Gastrointestinal manifestations of primary immunodeficiency diseases. In: Walker WA, Durie PR, Hamilton JR, Walker-Smith JA, Watkins JB (eds) Pediatric gastrointestinal disease. Pathophysiology. Diagnosis. Management. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 585–605Google Scholar
  171. Karthaus M, Meier PN, Manns MP, Ganser A, Hertenstein B (1997) Gastrointestinale Komplikationen bei Stammzelltransplantation. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 122: 1121–1127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Karthaus M, Meier PN, Manns MP, Ganser A, Hertenstein B (1997) Hepatische Komplikationen bei Stammzelltransplantation. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 122: 1154–1160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Seidman EG, Russo P (1996) Gastrointestinal manifestations of AIDS and other secondary immunodeficiencies. In: Walker WA, Durie PR, Hamilton JR, Walker-Smith JA, Watkins JB (eds) Pediatric gastrointestinal disease. Pathophysiology. Diagnosis. Management. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 606–624Google Scholar
  174. Sigrudsson L, Reyes J, Putnam PE et al. (1998) Endoscopies in pediatric small intestinal transplant recipients: Five years experience. Am J Gastroenterol 93: 207–211Google Scholar
  175. Strober W, Sneller M (1991) IgA deficiency. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 66: 363–37Google Scholar
  176. Miller TA, Anderson RJ, Linas LS, Heurich WL, Berns AS, Gabow PA, Schrier RW (1978) Urinary diagnostic indices in acute renal failure. Ann Int Med 98: 47–50Google Scholar
  177. Azarow K, Messineo A, Pearl R et al. (1997) Congenital diaphragmatic hernia–a tale of two cities: the Toronto experience. J Pediatr Surg 32: 395–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Boyd PA, Bhahattacharjee A, Gould S, Manning N, Chamberlain P (1998) Outcome of prenatally diagnosed anterior abdominal wall defects. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 78: 209–2013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Calzolari E, Bianchi F, Dolk H, Milan M (1995) Omphalocele and gastroschisis in Europe: a survey of 3 million births. Am J Med Genet 58: 187–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Druschel CM (1995) A descriptive study of prune belly in New York State, 1983 to 1989. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 149: 70–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Kapur P, Caty MG, Glick PL (1998) Pediatric hernias and hydroceles. Pediatr Clin North Am 45: 773–789PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Langer JC (1998) Congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Chest Surg Clin N Am 8: 295–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. McGahren ED, Mallik K, Rodgers BM (1997) Neurological outcome is diminished in survivors of congenital diaphragmatic hernia requiring extracorporal membrane oxygenation. J Pediatr Surg 32: 1216–1220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. O’Donnell KA, Caty MG (1998) Pediatric umbilical problems. Pediatr Clin North Am 45: 791–799PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Skupski DW (1998) Prenatal diagnosis of gastrointestinal anomalies with ultrasound. What have we learned? Ann N Y Acad Sci 847: 53–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Sutherland RS, Mevorach RA, Kogan BA (1995) The prune-belly syndrome: current insights. Pediatr Nephrol 9: 770–778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Wiener ES, Touloukian RJ, Rodgers BM et al. (1996) Hernia survey of the section on surgery of the American Academy of Pediatrics. J Pe-diatr Surg 31: 166–169Google Scholar
  188. Wilson JM, Lund DP, Lillehei CW, Vacanti JP (1997) Congenital diaphragmatic hernia–a tale of two cities: the Boston experience. J Pediatr Surg 32: 401–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Bradley EL (1993) A clinically based classification system for acute pancreatitis. Summary of the International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta/GA, September 11–13,1992. Arch Surg 128: 586–590PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Durie PR (1991) Pancreatitis. In: Walker WA, Durie PR, Hamilton JR, Walker-Smith JA, Watkins JB (eds) Pediatric gastrointestinal disease, vol 2: pathophysiology, diagnosis, management. Decker, Philadelphia Toronto, pp 1209–1236Google Scholar
  191. Henker J (Hrsg) (1996) Erkrankungen des exokrinen Pankreas im Kindesalter. Bücherei des Pädiaters, Bd 103. Enke, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  192. Kamer JH van de, Bokkel Huinink H ten, Weijers HA (1949) Rapid method for determination of fat in feces. J Biol Chem 177: 347–355Google Scholar
  193. Keim V, Tannapfel A, Mössner J (1998) Hereditäre Pankreatitis. Pathogenetische Konzepte und Nachweis genetischer Veränderungen. Dtsch Ärzteblatt 95: 1936–1940Google Scholar
  194. Mössner J, Keim V, Niederau C, Büchler M, Singer MV, Lankisch PG, Göke B (1998) Leitlinien zur Therapie der chronischen Pankreatitis. Konsensuskonferenz der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselkrankheiten Halle, 21.-23. November 1996. Z Gastroentrol 36: 359–367Google Scholar
  195. Neumeister V, Henker J, Kaltenborn G, Sprössig Ch, Jaross W (1997) Simultaneous determination of fecal fat, nitrogen, and water by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. J Pediatr Gastroentrol 25: 388–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Strohmeyer G, Niederau C (Hrsg) (1997) Pankreaserkrankungen. Z Gastroentrol (Suppl) 1: 1–180Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. H. Reich
  • G. Hillmann
  • S. Koletzko
  • M. J. Lentze
  • K.-M. Keller
  • W. Nützenadel
  • K. L. Waag
  • J. Henker
  • S. Buderus

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations