Advertisement

An Innovation-Based Strategy for a Sustainable Environment

  • Nicholas A. Ashford
Part of the ZEW Economic Studies book series (ZEW, volume 10)

Abstract

This article explores a role for government to provide a solution-focused, technology-based approach for addressing and setting priorities for environmental problems. It is argued that there is a need for a significant industrial transformation or displacement of those technologies and sectors that give rise to serious environmental problems, especially those that have remained stagnant for some period of time and that are ripe for change. Achieving sustainable production and consumption requires (1) a shift in policy focus from problems to solutions, (2) an appreciation of the differences between targeting technological innovation and diffusion as a policy goal, (3) the realization that the most desirable technological responses do not necessarily come from the regulated or polluting firms, (4) understanding that comprehensive technological changes are needed that co-optimize productivity, environmental quality, and worker health and safety, and (5) an appreciation of the fact that in order to change its technology, a firm must have the willingness, opportunity,and capacity to change.

Keywords

innovation policy priority settings technology-based approach 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abernathy, W. and J. Utterback (1978), Patterns of Industrial Innovation, Technology Review (June-July), 41.Google Scholar
  2. Ashford, N. (1988), Science and Values in the Regulatory Process, Statistical Science 3 (3), 377–383.Google Scholar
  3. Ashford, N. A. (1993) Understanding Technological Responses of Industrial Firms to Environmental Problems: Implications for Government Policy, in: K. Fischer and J. Schot (eds.), Environmental Strategies for Industry: International Perspectives on Research Needs and Policy Implications, Washington DC, 277–307.Google Scholar
  4. Ashford, N. A. (1997), Industrial Safety: The Neglected Issue in Industrial Ecology, in: Ashford, N. A. and Côté, R. P. (eds.): The Special Issue on Industrial Ecology, Journal of Cleaner Production, 5(1/2), 115–121.Google Scholar
  5. Ashford, N. and C. Ayers (1985), Policy Issues for Consideration in Transferring Technology to Developing Countries, Ecology Law Review 12 (4), 871–905.Google Scholar
  6. Ashford, N., C. Ayers and R. Stone (1985), Using Regulation to Change the Market for Innovation. Harvard Environmental Law Review 9 (2), 419–466.Google Scholar
  7. Ashford, N. and C. Caldart (1996), Technology, Law and the Working Environment. Second Edition, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  8. Ashford, N., A. Cozakos, R.F. Stone and K. Wessel (1988), The Design of Programs to Encourage Hazardous Waste Reduction: An Incentives Analysis. Trenton.Google Scholar
  9. Ashford, N., J. Gobbell, J. Lachman, M. Matthiesen, A. Minzner and R. Stone (1993), The Encouragement of Technological Change for Preventing Chemical Accidents: Moving Firms from Secondary Prevention and Mitigation to Primary Prevention. Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  10. Ashford, N., D. Hattis, G. Heaton, A. Jaffe, S. Owen and W. Priest (1979), Environmental/Safety Regulation and Technological Change in the U.S. Chemical Industry, Report to the National Science Foundation, CPA No. 79–6. Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  11. Ashford, N., D. Hattis, G.R. Heaton, J.I. Katz, W.C. Priest and E.M. Zolt (1980), Evaluating Chemical Regulations: Trade–Off Analysis and Impact Assessment for Environmental Decision Making. NTIS # PB81–195067–1980. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  12. Ashford, N. and G. Heaton (1979), The Effects of Health and Environmental Regulation on Technological Change in the Chemical Industry: Theory and Evidence, in: C. Hill (ed.), Federal Regulation and Chemical Innovation, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  13. Ashford, N. and G. Heaton (1983), Regulation and Technological Innovation in the Chemical Industry, Law and Contemporary Problems 46 (3), 109–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ashford, N., G. Heaton and W.C. Priest (1979) Environmental, Health and Safety Regulation and Technological Innovation, in: C.T. Hill and J.M. Utterback (ed.) Technological Innovation for a Dynamic Economy, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Ashford, N. and R. Stone, (1985), Evaluating the Economic Impact of Chemical Regulation: Methodological Issues, CPA No. 85–01, February. Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  16. Ashford, N. and R. Stone (1991), Liability, Innovation and Safety in the Chemical Industry, in: Litan, R. and P. Huber (eds.),The Liability Maze: The Impact of Liability Law on Safety and Innovation, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  17. Becker, M. and Ashford, N. (1995), Exploiting Opportunities for Pollution Prevention in EPA Enforcement Agreements, Environmental Science and Technology 29 (5), 220A - 226A.Google Scholar
  18. Caldart, C. and Ashford, N. (1999) Negotiation as a Means of Developing and Implementing Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety Policy, Harvard Environmental Law Review 23 (1), 141–202.Google Scholar
  19. Coriat, B. (1995) Organisational Innovations: The Missing Link in European Competitiveness, in: Andreasen, L. E. et al. (eds.) Europe’s Next Step: Organisational Innovation, Competition and Employment, London, 3–32.Google Scholar
  20. CPA (Center for Policy Alternatives) (1975). National Support for Science and Technology: An Explanation of the Foreign Experience. CPA No. 75–121. Cambridge, Mass.: Center for Policy Alternatives, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  21. Cramer, J., J. Schot, F. van den Akker and G. Geesteranus (1989), The Need for a Broader Technology Perspective Towards Cleaner Technologies, Discussion paper for the ECE Seminar on Economic Implications of Low-Waste Technology, The Hague, The Netherlands, October 16–19.Google Scholar
  22. Cramer, J., J. Schot, F. van den Akker and G. Geesteranus (1990), Stimulating Cleaner Technologies through Economic Instruments: Possibilities and Constraints, UNEP Industry and Environment (May-June), 46–53.Google Scholar
  23. Gouldson, A. and J. Murphy (1998), Regulatory Realities: The Implementation and Impact of Industrial Environmental Regulation, London.Google Scholar
  24. Hearne, S. and M. Aucott (1992), Source Reduction versus Release Reduction: Why the TRI Cannot Measure Prevention, Pollution Prevention 2 (1), 3–17.Google Scholar
  25. Heaton, G., R. Repetto and R. Sobin (1991) Transforming Technology: An Agenda for Environmentally Sustainable Growth in the 21st Century, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  26. Hemmelskamp, J (1997), Environmental Policy Instruments and their Effects on Innovation, European Planning Studies 5(2), 177 et seq.Google Scholar
  27. Hornstein, D. T. (1992), Reclaiming Environmental Law: A Normative Critique of Comparative Analysis, Columbia Law Review 92 (3), 562–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Inform (1985), Cutting Chemical Wastes: What 29 Organic Chemical Plants Are Doing to Reduce Hazardous Waste. New York.Google Scholar
  29. Inform (1992) Environmental Dividends: Cutting More Chemical Wastes New York.Google Scholar
  30. Irwin, A. and P. Vergragt (1989), Re-thinking the Relationship between Environmental Regulation and Industrial Innovation: The Social Negotiation of Technical Change, Technology Analysis and Strategic Management 1 (1), 57–70.Google Scholar
  31. Karmali, A. (1990), Stimulating Cleaner Technologies through the Design of Pollution Prevention Policies: An Analysis of Impediments and Incentives, Manuscript submitted in partial fulfillment of degree in Master of Science in Technology and Policy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.Google Scholar
  32. Keeney, R. L. (1990), Mortality Risks Induced by Economic Expenditures, Risk Analysis 10 (1), 147–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Keeney, R. L. and R. L. Winkler (1985), Evaluating Decision Strategies for Equity of Public Risks, Operations Research 33, 955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kemp, R. (1994), Technology and Environmental Sustainability: The Problem of Technological Regime Shifts, Futures 26 (10), 1023–1046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kemp, R. (1997), Environmental Policy and Technical Change: A Comparison of the Technological Impact of Policy Instruments, Cheltenham.Google Scholar
  36. Klein, B. (1977), Dynamic Economies. Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  37. Kurz, R. (1987), The Impact of Regulation on Innovation. Theoretical Foundation, IAW Discussion Paper. Tuebingen.Google Scholar
  38. LaPierre, B. (1977), Technology-Forcing and Federal Environmental Protection Statues, Iowa Law Review 62, 771.Google Scholar
  39. Magat, W. (1979), The Effects of Environmental Regulation on Innovation, Law and Contemporary Problems 43, 4–25.Google Scholar
  40. Mishan, E.J. (1981), Introduction to Normative Economics Oxford. Mishan, E.J. (1982), Cost-Benefit Analysis London.Google Scholar
  41. Nacept (National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology) (1991), Permitting and Compliance Policy: Barriers to U.S. Environmental Technology Innovation, Report and Recommendations of the Technology Innovation and Economics Committee of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  42. Nacept (1992), Improving Technology Diffusion for Environmental Protection, Report and Recommendations of the Technology Innovation and Economics Committee of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  43. Nacept (1993), Transforming Environmental Permitting and Compliance Policies to Promote Pollution Prevention, Report and Recommendations of the Technology Innovation and Economics Committee of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  44. NAS (National Academy of Sciences), (1983), Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  45. NAS (1990), Tracking Toxic Substance at Industrial Facilities: Engineering Mass Balance versus Materials Accounting, Report of the National Academy of Sciences Committee to Evaluate Mass Balance Information for Facilities Handling Toxic Substances. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  46. OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) (1985), Environmental Policy and Technical Change Paris.Google Scholar
  47. OECD (1987), The Promotion and Diffusion of Clean Technologies in Industry Paris.Google Scholar
  48. OECD (1989), Economic Instruments for Environmental Protection. Paris. OTA ( See U.S. OTA )Google Scholar
  49. Porter; M. E. and C. van den Linden (1995) Green and Competitive: Ending the Stalemate Harvard Business Review September/October, 120–134. See also Porter and van den Linden, Towards a New Conceptualization of the Environment-Competitiveness Relationship, J. Economic Perspectives 9 (4), 97–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rennings, K. (1998), Towards a Theory and Policy of Eco-Innovation: Neoclassical and (Co-) Evolutionary Perspectives,ZEW Discussion Paper 98–24, Mannheim.Google Scholar
  51. Rest, K. and N. Ashford (1988), Regulation and Technological Options: The Case of Occupational Exposure to Formaldehyde, Harvard Journal of Law and Technology 1, 63–96.Google Scholar
  52. Rip, A. and H. van den Belt (1988), Constructive Technology Assessment: Toward a Theory,Zoetermeer.Google Scholar
  53. Rothwell, R. and V. Walsh (1979), Regulation and Innovation in the Chemical Industry, Paper prepared for an OECD workshop, Paris, France, September 20–21.Google Scholar
  54. Schot, J. (1992), Constructive Technology Assessment and Technology Dynamics: Opportunities for the Control of Technology, Science, Technology, and Human Values 17 (1), 36–56.Google Scholar
  55. Shrader-Frechette, K. S. (1991), Risk and Rationality Berkeley.Google Scholar
  56. Stewart, R. (1981), Regulation, Innovation, and Administrative Law: A Conceptual Framework., California Law Review 69 (September), 1256–1377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Strasser, K. (1997), Cleaner Technology, Pollution Prevention, and Environmental Regulation, Fordham Environmental Law Journal 9 (1).Google Scholar
  58. Sunstein, C. (1990), After the Rights Revolution: Reconceiving the Regulatory State. Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  59. Travis, C., S. Richter, E. Crouch, R. Wilson and E. Klema (1987), Cancer Risk Management, Environmental Science and Technology 21 (5), 415–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tribe, Lawrence (1984), Seven Deadly Sins of Straining the Constitution through a Pseudo-Scientific Sieve, Hastings Law Journal 36, 155–172.Google Scholar
  61. U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Science Advisory Board (1990), Reducing Risk: Setting Priority and Strategies for Environmental Protection,Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  62. U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Science Advisory Board (1991), Pollution Prevention: Progress in Reducing Industrial Pollutants, EPA 21P - 3003, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  63. U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Science Advisory Board, Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation (1992), Preserving Our Future Today: Strategies and Framework, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  64. U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Science Advisory Board (1994), Technology Innovation Strategy, EPA 543-K-93 002, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  65. U.S. GAO (General Accounting Office) (1992), Risk-Risk Analysis: OMB’s Review of a Proposed OSHA Rule, GAO/PEMD-92–33, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  66. U.S. OTA (Office of Technology Assessment) (1986), Serious Reduction of Hazardous Wastes, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  67. U.S. OTA (Office of Technology Assessment) (1995), Gauging Control Technology and Regulatory Impacts in Occupational Safety and Health: An Appraisal of OSHA’s Analytic Approach, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  68. Zurer, P. (1992), CFC Substitute Cause Benign Tumors in Rats, Chemical and Engineering News 21 (September), 6.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicholas A. Ashford
    • 1
  1. 1.Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT (E40-239)CambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations