Advertisement

Occupational Skin Diseases in Farmers and Farm Workers

  • P. Susitaival

Abstract

Farming in different areas of world varies with respect to climate, crops, animals tended and chemicals used. Farmers and farm workers are exposed to numerous skin irritants and allergens, including chemicals, animal dander, flours, other organic dusts, plants, zoonotic infections and sunlight. Many farmers service their own machinery and do construction work. Environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and frequent washing can cause skin problems and change the susceptibility of the skin to irritants and allergens. Systematic registering of farmers’ work-related diseases is done only in few countries. In the U.S., two-thirds of occupational diseases in agriculture reported between 1973 and 1984 were skin diseases (Mathias and Morrison 1988). In California, the highest rates of occupational skin diseases have been in farm workers (Mathias 1989).

Keywords

Contact Dermatitis Allergic Contact Dermatitis Farm Worker Natural Rubber Latex Hand Eczema 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrams K, Hogan DJ, Maibach HI (1991) Pesticide-related dermatoses in agricultural workers. Occup Med 6:463–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams RM, Daily AD, Brancaccio RR, Dhillon IPS, Gendler EC (1990) Alstromeria. A new and potent allergen in florists. Dermatol Clin 8:73–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ames RG, Brown SK, Rosenberg J, Jackson RJ, Stratton JW, Quenon SG (1989) Health symptoms and occupational exposure to flea control products among California pet handlers. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 50:466–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Astarita C, Di Martino P, Scala G, Franzese A, Sproviero S (1996) Contact allergy: another risk to Tetranychus urticae. J Allergy Clin Immunol 98:732–738PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhargava RK, Singh V, Soni V (1977) Erythema multiforma resulting from insecticide spray. Arch Dermatol 113:686PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Botella R, Sastre A, Castells A (1985) Contact dermatitis to paraquat. Contact Dermatitis 13:123–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brancaccio RR, Chamales MH (1977) Contact dermatitis and depigmentation produced by the herbicide Carbyne. Contact Dermatitis 3:108–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brasch J, Hessler H-J, Christophers E (1991) Occupational (photo)allergic contact dermatitis from azaperone in a piglet dealer. Contact Dermatitis 25:258–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bruze M, Björkner B, Hellström AC (1996) Occupational dermatoses in nursery workers. Am J Contact Dermat 7:100–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bruynzeel DP (1997) Bulb dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 37:70–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bruynzeel DP, van Ketel WG (1986) Contact dermatitis due to chlorothalonil in floriculture. Contact Dermatitis 14:67–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bruynzeel DP, Tafelkruijer J, Wilks MF (1995) Contact dermatitis due to a new fungicide used in the tulip bulb industry. Contact Dermatitis 33:8–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bukowski J, Brown C, Korn LR, Meyer LW (1996) Prevalence of and potential risk factors for symptoms associated with insecticide use among animal groomers. J Occup Environ Med 38:528–534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Camarasa JG (1975) Difolatan dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 1:127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cole DC, Caprio FC, Math JJM, Léon N (1997) Dermatitis in Ecuadorean farm workers. Contact Dermatitis 37:1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Condé-Salazar L, Guimaraens D, Gonzalez MA, Molina A (1995) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from nitrofurazone. Contact Dermatitis 32:307–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cronin E (1979) Contact dermatitis from barley dust. Contact Dermatitis 5:196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cronin E (1980) Pesticides. In: Cronin E (ed) Contact dermatitis. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 393–413Google Scholar
  19. Danese P, Zanca A, Bertazzoni MG (1994) Occupational contact dermatitis from tylosin. Contact Dermatitis 30:122–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dannaker CJ, Maibach HI, O’Malley M (1993) Contact urticaria and anaphylaxis to the fungicide chlorthalonil. Cutis 52: 312–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. de Groot AC (1994) Patch testing: test concentrations and vehicles for 3700 chemicals, 2nd edn. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  22. de Groot A, Conemans JMH (1990) Contact allergy to furazolidone. Contact Dermatitis 22:202–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Derharsching J (1994) Photo allergisches Kontaktekzem auf Olaquindox. Z Hautkr 6:548Google Scholar
  24. Diepgen TL, Häberle M, Bäurle G (1989) Fallstricke in der Berufsdermatologie: Das aerogene Kontaktekzem auf Pflanzen. Derm Beruf Umwelt 37:23–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dunkel FG, Elsner P, Pevny I, Burg G (1990) Olaquindix-induced photoallergic contact dermatitis and persistent light reaction. Am J Contact Dermat 4:235–239Google Scholar
  26. Edmiston S, Maddy KT (1987) Summary of illnesses and injuries reported in California by physicians in 1986 as potentially related to pesticides. Vet Hum Toxicol 29:391–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ehntholt DJ, Cerundolo DL, Bodek I, Schwope AD, Royer MD, Nielsen AP (1990) A test method for the evaluation of protective glove materials used in agricultural pesticide operations. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 51:462–468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Epstein S (1948) Milker’s eczema. J Allergy 19:333–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fitzgerald DA, English JSC (1992) Compositae dermatitis presenting as hand eczema. Contact Dermatitis 27:256–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Frain-Bell W, Johnson BE (1979) Contact allergic sensitivity to plants and photosensitivity dermatitis and actinic reticuloid syndrome. Br J Dermatol 101:503–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fregert S (1967) Allergic contact dermatitis from the pesticides captan and phaltan. Contact Dermatitis Newslett 2:28Google Scholar
  32. Gamsky TE, McCurdy SA, Wiggins P, Samuels SJ, Berman B, Schenker MB (1992) Epidemiology of dermatitis among California farm workers. J Occup Med 34:304–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Garcia-Bravo B, Rodriguez-Pichardo A, de Pierola SF, Camacho F (1995) Airborne erythema-multiforme-like eruption due to pyrethrum. Contact Dermatitis 33:433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Garcia-Perez A, Garcia-Bravo B, Beneit JV (1984) Standard patch tests in agricultural workers. Contact Dermatitis 10:151–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gauchía R, Rodríguez-Serna M, Silvestre JF, Linana JJ, Aliaga A (1996) Allergic contact dermatitis from streptomycin in a cattle breeder. Contact Dermatitis 35:374–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. George AO (1989) Contact leukoderma from paraquat dichloride? Contact Dermatitis 20:225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Guerra L, Venturo N, Tardio M, Tosti A (1991) Airborne contact dermatitis from animal feed antibiotics. Contact Dermatitis 25:333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Guo YL, Wang B-Jr, Lee C-C, Wang J-D (1996) Prevalence of dermatoses and skin sensitization associated with use of pesticides in fruit farmers of southern Taiwan. Occup Environ Med 53:427–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Haenen C, de Moor A, Dooms-Goossens A (1996) Contact dermatitis caused by the insecticides omethoate and dimethoate. Contact Dermatitis 35:54–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hannuksela M (1997) Immediate and delayed type protein contact dermatitis. In: Amin S, Lahti A, Maibach H (eds) Contact urticaria syndrome. CRC. Boca Raton. pn 270–200Google Scholar
  41. Hausen BM, Oestmann G (1988) Untersuchungen über die Häufigkeit berufsbedingter allergischer Hauterkrankungen auf einem Blumengrossmarkt. Derm Beruf Umwelt 36:117–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hausen BM, Emde L, Marks V (1993) An investigation of the allergenic constituents of Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pous & Vezda (‘silver moss’, ‘reindeer moss’, ‘reindeer lichen’). Contact Dermatitis 28:70–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Higo A, Ohtake N, Saruwatari K, Kanzaki T (1996) Photoallergic contact dermatitis from mancozeb, an agricultural fungicide. Contact Dermatitis 35:183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hindson PC, Diffey B (1984) Phototoxity of a weedkiller: a correction. Contact Dermatitis 11:260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hogan DJ, Lane PR (1985) Allergic contact dermatitis due to a herbicide (barban). Can Med Assoc T 132:387–389Google Scholar
  46. Iden DL, Schroeder AL (1977) Allergic contact dermatitis to herbicides. Arch Dermatol 113:983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Iliev D, Elsner P (1997) Allergic contact dermatitis from the fungicide Rondo-M and the insecticide Alfacron. Contact Dermatitis 36:51–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jagtmann BA (1991) Foto-allergisch Contacteczeem door het Varkensvoeder additief Olaquindox. Ned Tijdschr Derm Venereol 1:77–78Google Scholar
  49. Jung H-D, Ramsauer E (1987) Akute Pesticid-Intoxication kombiniert mit epikucaner Sensibilierung durch den organischen Phosphorsäureester Mevinphos (PD-5). Aktuel Dermatol 13:82–83Google Scholar
  50. Kalveram K-J, Kästner H, Forck G (1986) Nachweis von spezifischen IgE-Antikörpern bei Tierärzten mit Kontakturticaria. Z Hautkr 61:75–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kanerva L, Susitaival P (1996) Cow dander: the most common cause of occupational contact urticaria in Finland. Contact Dermatitis 35:309–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kangas J, Manninen A, Liesivuori J (1995) Occupational exposure to pesticides in Finland. Int J Environ Anal Chem 58:423–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kauppinen T, Vaaranen V, Vasama M, Toikkanen J, Jolanki R (1994) Ammattitaudit. Katsauksia 130. Työterveyslaitos, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  54. Kauppinen T, Vaaranen V, Vasama M, Toikkanen J, Jolanki R (1995) Ammattitaudit. Katsauksia 132. Työterveyslaitos, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  55. Koch P (1996) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis and airborne contact dermatitis from 5 fungicides in a vineyard worker. Cross-reactions between fungicides of the dithiocarbamate group? Contact Dermatitis 34:324–329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Koch P, Bahmer FA (1989) Photoallergische Dermatose durch das Herbizid Phenmedipham. Derm Beruf Umwelt 37:203–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Lahti A (1986) Contact urticaria to plants. Clin Dermatol 4: 127–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lamminpää A, Estlander T, Jolanki R, Kanerva L (1996) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants. Contact Dermatitis 34330–335Google Scholar
  59. LaQuesne PM, Maxwell IC, Butterworth ST (1980) Transient facial sensory symptoms following exposure to synthetic pyrethroids: a clinical and electrophysiological assessement. Neurotoxicology 2:1–11Google Scholar
  60. Li W-M (1986) The role of pesticides in skin disease. Int J Dermatol 25:295–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lings S (1994) Malkehånd. Ugeskr Laeger 1567028–7031Google Scholar
  62. Lisi P (1992a) Pesticides in occupational dermatitis. Clinics in Dermatology 10:175–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lisi P (1992b) Sensitization risk of pyrethroid insecticides. Contact Dermatitis 26:349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lisi P, Caraffini S, Assalve D (1987) Irritation and sensitization potential of pesticides. Contact Dermatitis 17:212–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lord JT, Moats R, Jones J (1984) Too much golf. J Forensic Sci Soc 24:359Google Scholar
  66. Maibach HI (1986) Irritation, sensitization, photoirritation and photosensitization assays with a glyphosate herbicide. Contact Dermatitis 15:152–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Malanin G, Kalimo K (1992) Occupational contact dermatitis due to delayed allergy to pig epithelia. Contact Dermatitis 26: 134–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Marks JG, Fowler JF Jr, Sherertz EF, Rietschell RL (1995) Prevention of poison ivy and poison oak allergic contact dermatitis by quaternium-18 bentonite. J Am Acad Dermatol 33:212–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mathias CGT (1983) Persistent contact dermatitis from the insecticide dichlorvos. Contact Dermatitis 9:217–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mathias CGT (1989) Epidemiology of occupational skin disease in agriculture. In: Dosman JA, Cockroft DW (eds) Principles of health and safety in agriculture. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 285–287Google Scholar
  71. Mathias CGT, Morrison JH (1988) Occupational skin diseases, United States. Results from the bureau of labor statistics annual survey of occupational injuries and illnesses, 1973 through 1984. Arch Dermatol 124:1519–1524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Matsushita T, Arimatsu Y, Nomura S (1976) Experimental study on contact dermatitis caused by dithiocarbamates maneb, mancozeb, zineb, and their related compounds. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 37:169–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Matsushita T, Yoshioka M, Aoyama K, Ariimatsu Y, Nomura S (1977) Experimental study on contact dermatitis caused by fungicides benomyl and thiophanate methyl. Ind Health 15:141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Matsushita T, Nomura S, Wakatsuki T (1980) Epidemiology of contact dermatitis from pesticides in Japan. Contact Dermatitis 6:255–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Matsushita T, Ayoama K, Manda F, Ueda A, Yoshida M, Okamura J (1989) Occupational dermatoses in farmers growing okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.). Contact Dermatitis 21:321–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McCurdy SA, Wiggins P, Schenker MB, Munn S, Shaieb AM, Weinbaum Z, Goldsmith D, McGillis T, Berman B, Samuels S (1989) Assessing dermatitis in epidemiologic studies: Occupational skin disease among California grape and tomato harvesters. Am J Ind Med 16:147–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mehler LN, O’Malley MA, Krieger RI (1992) Acute pesticide morbidity and mortality: California. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 129:51–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Milby TH, Epstein WI (1964) Allergic contact sensitivity to malathion. Arch Environ Health 9:434–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mitchell JC, Dupuis G, Towers GNH (1972) Allergic contact dermatitis from pyrethrum. Br J Dermatol 86:568–573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nater JP, Grosfeld JCM (1979) Allergic contact dermatitis from Betanol (phenmedipham). Contact Dermatitis 5:59–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nater JP, Terpsta H, Bleumink E (1979) Allergic contact sensitization to the fungicide maneb. Contact Dermatitis 5:24–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nelder KH (1972) Contact dermatitis from animal feed additives. Arch Dermatol 106:722–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Nurse DS (1978) Dermatitis danger to dairy farmers. Med J Aust 1:223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. O’Malley MA, Mathias CGT (1988) Distribution of lost-work-time claims for skin disease in California agriculture: 1978–1983. Am J Ind Med 14:715–720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. O’Malley MAO, Mathias CGT, Coye MJ (1989) Epidemiology of pesticide-related skin disease in California agriculture. In: Dosman JA, Cockroft DW (eds) Principles of health and safety in agriculture. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 301–304Google Scholar
  86. Pasricha JS, Gupta R (1983) Contact dermatitis due to calcium ammonium nitrate. Contact Dermatitis 9:149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pecegueiro M (1990) Contact dermatitis due to nickel in fertilizers. Contact Dermatitis 22:114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Peluso AM, Tardio M, Adamo F, Venturo N (1991) Multiple sensitization due to bis-dithiocarbamate and thiophthalimide pesticides. Contact Dermatitis 25:327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Penagos H, Jimenez V, Fallas V, O’Malley M, Maibach HI (1996) Chlorothalonil, a possible cause of erythema dyschromicum perstans (ashy dermatitis). Contact Dermatitis 35:214–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pentel MT, Andreozzi RJ, Marks JG Jr (1994) Allergic contact dermatitis from the herbicides trifluralin and benefin. J Am Acad Dermatol 31:1057–1058PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pevny I (1980) Pesticide allergy: allergic contact dermatitis of a vintner. Derm Beruf Umwelt 28:186–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Pigatto PD, Polenghi MM, Altomare GF (1987) Occupational dermatitis in bakers: a clue for atopic contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 16:263–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Powell FC, Muller SA (1982) Kerion on the glabrous skin. J Am Acad Dermatol 7:490–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Quirce S, Olaguibel JM, Muro MD, Tabar AI (1992) Occupational dermatitis in a ewe milker. Contact Dermatitis 27:56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rademaker M (1996) Allergic contact dermatitis from kiwi fruit vine (actinidia chinensis). Contact Dermatitis 34:221–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Richter G (1980) Allergic contact dermatitis from methylisothiosyanate in soil disinfectants. Contact Dermatitis 6:183–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rietschel RL, Fowler JF (eds) (1995) Fisher’s contact dermatitis, 4th edn. Williams and Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  98. Rodriguez A, Echechipía A, Muro MD (1994) Occupational contact dermatitis from vitamin B12. Contact Dermatitis 31:271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ronnen M, Klin B, Suster S (1995) Mixed diquat/paraquatinduced burns. Int J Dermatol 34:23–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rook A (1981) Dermatitis from Alstromeria; altered clinical pattern and probable increasing incidence. Contact Dermatitis 7:355–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rycroft RJG, Menné T, Frosch PJ (eds) (1995) Textbook of contact dermatitis, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  102. Sabouraud S, Testud F, Rogerie M-J, Descotes J, Evreux J-C (1997) Occupational depigmentation from dinoterbe. Contact Dermatitis 36:227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Salo H, Hannuksela M, Hausen B (1981) Lichen picker’s dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 7:9–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sanchez M, Hernandez V, Morena V, Guardia P, Gonzalez J, Monteiserín J, García-Bravo, Condé J (1997) Immunologic contact urticaria caused by asparagus. Contact Dermatitis 37:181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Saunders LD, Ames RG, Knaak JB, Jackson RI (1987) Outbreak of Omite-CR-induced dermatitis among orange pickers in Tulare County, California. J Occup Med 29:409–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Savini C, Morelli R, Piancastelli E, Restani S (1989) Contact dermatitis due to ethoxyquin. Contact Dermatitis 21:342–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Savitt LE (1972) Contact dermatitis due to benomyl insecticide. Arch Dermatol 105:926–927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Schauder S, Schröder W, Geier J (1996) Olaquindox-induced airborne photoallergic contact dermatitis followed by transient or persistent light reactions in 15 pig breeders. Contact Dermatitis 35:344–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Schena D, Barba A (1992) Erythema-multitorme-like contact dermatitis from dimethoate. Contact Dermatitis 27:116–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schneider W, Coppenrathu R, Ruther H (1960) Über TierhaarAllergie. Berufsdermatosen 8:1–13Google Scholar
  111. Schouten LJ, Meijer H, Huveneers JA, Kiemeney LA (1996) Urban-rural differences in cancer incidence in the Netherlands. 1989–1991. Int J Epidemiol 25:729–736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Schrijvers CT, Stronks K, van de Mheen DH, Coebergh JW, Mackenbach JP (1994) Validation of cancer prevalence data from a postal survey by comparison with cancer registry records. Am J Epidemiol 139:408–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Schubert H (1978) Contact dermatitis to sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate. Contact Dermatitis 4:370–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Schubert H (1979) Allergisches Kontaktekzem durch Propachlor. Dermatol Monatsschr 165:495–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Scott KW, Dawson TAJ (1974) Photo-contact dermatitis arising from the presence of quindoxin in animal feeding stuffs. Br J Dermatol 90:543–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sharma VK, Kaur S (1990) Contact sensitization by pesticides in farmers. Contact Dermatitis 23:77–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Sirieix-Sorhouet M, Sirieix P, Ducoms G (1991) Ewe milkers and hand eczema. Contact Dermatitis 25:135–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Stinchi C, Guerrini V, Ghetti E, Tosti A (1997) Contact dermatitis from lichens. Contact Dermatitis 36:309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Stoermer D (1985) Beruflich bedingtes Kontakteczeem durch das Pesticid Dichlorvos. Dermatol Monatsschr 171:245–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Stoke JCJ (1979) Captafol dermatitis in the timber industry. Contact Dermatitis 5:284–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Strauss JS (1959) An epidemic of human ringworm due to Trichophyton Verrucosum. N Engl J Med 261:331–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Susitaival P (1984) Tricophyton verrucosum in humans. Duodecim 12:712–715Google Scholar
  123. Susitaival P (1996) Epidemiological study of hand dermatoses and other skin diseases in a cohort of Finnish farmers. Kuopio University, KuopioGoogle Scholar
  124. Susitaival P, Husman L, Hollmén A, Horsmanheimo M, Husman K, Hannuksela M (1995) Hand eczema in Finnish farmers — A questionnaire based clinical study. Contact Dermatitis 32: 150–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Susitaival P, Kirk J, Schenker M (1998) Work related skin symptoms in California Veterinarians. Am J Contact Dermat 9:66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Suskind RR (1967) Dermatitis in the forest product industries. Arch Environ Health 15:322–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sussman GL, Lem D, Liss G, Beezhold D (1995) Latex allergy in housekeeping personnel. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 74:415–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Sykes RA, Mani MM, Hiebert JM (1986) Chemical burns: retrospective review. J Burn Care Rehabil 7:343–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. ter Lintum JCA, Nater JP (1974) Allergic contact dermatitis caused by rubber chemicals in dairy workers. Derm Beruf Umwelt 148:42–44Google Scholar
  130. Thune P (1977) Contact allergy due to lichens in patients with a history of photosensitivity. Contact Dermatitis 3:267–272 Timmer C, Coenraads PJ (1996) Allergic contact dermatitis from cow hair and dander. Contact Dermatitis 34:292–293Google Scholar
  131. Tuomi M-L, Räsänen L (1995) Contact allergy to tylosin and cobalt in a pig farmer. Contact Dermatitis 33:285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Turjanmaa K (1987) Incidence of immediate allergy to latex gloves in hospital personnel. Contact Dermatitis 17:270–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Vaaranen V, Vasama M, Toikkanen J, Jolanki R (eds) (1991) Ammattitaudit. Katsauksia 114. Työterveyslaitos, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  134. Vaaranen V, Vasama M, Toikkanen J, Jolanki R (eds) (1992) Ammattitaudit. Katsauksia 121. Työterveyslaitos, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  135. Vaaranen V, Vasama M, Toikkanen J, Jolanki R, Kauppinen T (eds) (1993) Ammattitaudit. Katsauksia 125. Työterveyslaitos, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  136. van Ginkel CJW, Sabapathy NN (1995) Allergic contact dermatitis from the newly introduced fungicide fluazinam. Contact Dermatitis 32:160–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. van Joost TH, Naafs B, van Ketel WG (1983) Sensitization to benomyl and related pesticides. Contact Dermatitis 9:153–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. van Ketel WG (1976) Sensitivity to the pesticide benomyl. Contact Dermatitis 2:290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. van Ketel WG, van Diggelen MW (1982) A farmer with allergy to cows. Contact Dermatitis 8:279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Veien NK, Hattel T, Justesen O, Noerholm A (1980) Occupational contact dermatitis due to spiramycin and/or tylosin in farmers. Contact Dermatitis 6:410–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Veraldi S, Schianchi-Veraldi R (1990) Contact urticaria from kiwi fruit. Contact Dermatitis 22:224Google Scholar
  142. Vilaplana J, Grimalt F, Romaguera C (1990) Contact dermatitis from furaltadone in animal feed. Contact Dermatitis 22: 232–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Weltfriend S, Kwangsukstith C, Maibach HI (1995) Contact urticaria from cucumber pickle and strawberry. Contact Dermatitis 32:173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Winter CK, Kurtz PH (1985) Factors influencing grape workers susceptibility to skin rashes. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 35:418–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Won JH, Ahn SK, Kim S-C (1993) Allergic contact dermatitis from the herbicide Alachlor. Contact Dermatitis 28:38–5oPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Wood WS, Fulton R (1972) Allergic contact dermatitis from ethoxyquin in apple packers. Contact Dermatitis Newslett 11:295–296Google Scholar
  147. Wrangsjö K, Osterman K, van Hage-Hamsten M (1994) Gloverelated skin symptoms among operating theatre and dental care unit personnel (II). Clinical examination, tests and laboratory findings indicating latex allergy. Contact Dermatitis 30:139–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Zaynoun S, Johnson BE, Frain-Bell W (1976) The investigation of quindoxin photosensitivity. Contact Dermatitis 2:343–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Susitaival

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations