Sound Production in Crustacea with Special Reference to the Alpheidae

  • Barbara Schmitz
Conference paper


Sound production is known for many crustacean species of the subclasses Cirripedia (barnacles) and Malacostraca (orders: Stomatopoda, Amphipoda, and Decapoda). Table 1 lists species, mechanisms and references; underwater sound production is shown above the black bar and sound production of semiterrestrial decapods below it. Thus, stridulatory and snapping devices have been found in more than 20 crustacean families and 50 genera. Interestingly, the mechanism of sound production — especially in the Brachyura — may vary within one genus and match in members of different genera, respectively.


Sound Pressure Level Cavitation Bubble Sound Production Fiddler Crab Sound Emission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahn J, Hamada E, Saito K (1993a) On the components of high frequency of the snapping shrimp sounds. J Tokyo Univ Fish 80: 69–73Google Scholar
  2. Ahn J, Hamada E, Saito K (1993b) Study on positioning of snapping shrimps and the source levels of their sounds. J Tokyo Univ Fish 80: 75–81Google Scholar
  3. Au WWL, Banks K (1998) The acoustics of the snapping shrimp Synalpheus pameomeris in Kaneohe Bay. J Acoust Soc Am 103: 41–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balss H (1921) Über Stridulationsorgane bei dekapoden Crustaceen. Naturwiss Wschr 20, 49: 697–701Google Scholar
  5. Brooks WK, Herrick FH (1891) The embryology and metamorphosis of the macroura. Mem Nat Akad Sci Wash 5: 319–576Google Scholar
  6. Budelmann BU (1992) Hearing in Crustacea. In: Webster DB, Fay RR, Popper AN (eds) The evolutionary biology of hearing. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 131–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Busnel RG, Dziedzic A (1962) Rythme du bruit de fond de la mer a proximité des côtes et relations avec l’activité acoustique des populations d’un cirripède fixe immergé. Cah Océan XIVe année 5: 293–322Google Scholar
  8. Carhart RR (1946) Underwater noise caused by snapping shrimp. University of California, Division of War Research, San Diego, pp 1–74Google Scholar
  9. Cato DH, Bell MJ (1992) Ultrasonic ambient noise in Australian shallow waters at frequencies up to 200kHz. Materials Research Laboratory, Techn Rep MRL-TR-91–23, Ascot Vale, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  10. Cohen MJ, Dijkgraaf S (1961) Mechanoreception. In: Waterman TH (ed) The physiology of Crustacea, vol II: Sense organs, integration, and behavior. Academic Press, New York, pp 65–108Google Scholar
  11. Dobrin MB (1946) Recording sound of undersea life. Trans N Y Acad Sci 11: 91–96Google Scholar
  12. Dumortier B (1963a) Morphology of sound emission apparatus in Arthropoda. In: Busnel RG (ed) Acoustic behaviour of animals. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 277–345Google Scholar
  13. Dumortier B (1963b) Ethological and physiological study of sound emissions in Arthropoda. In: Busnel RG (ed) Acoustic behaviour of animals. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 583–654Google Scholar
  14. Epifanio CL (1997) Acoustic Daylight: Passive acoustic imaging using ambient noise. San Diego: Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, 311ppGoogle Scholar
  15. Everest FA, Young RW, Johnson MW (1948) Acoustical characteristics of noise produced by snapping shrimp. J Acoust Soc Am 20: 137–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fish JF (1966) Sound production in the American lobster, Homarus americanus H. Milne Edwards (Decapoda, Reptantia). Crustaceana 11: 105–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fish MP (1964) Biological sources of sustained ambient sea noise. In: Tavolga WN (ed) Marine bio-acoustics. Pergamon Press, London, pp 175–194Google Scholar
  18. Frings H (1964) Problems and prospects in research on marine invertebrate sound production and reception. In: Tavolga WN (ed) Marine bio-acoustics. Pergamon Press, London, pp 155–173Google Scholar
  19. Goodall C, Chapman C, Neil D (1990) The acoustic response threshold of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.) in a free sound field. In: Wiese K, Krenz W-D, Tautz J, Reichert H, Mulloney B (eds) Frontiers in crustacean neurobiology. Birkhäuser, Basel, pp 106–113Google Scholar
  20. Gruner H-E (1993) Lehrbuch der speziellen Zoologie. Band I: Wirbellose, 4. Teil: Arthropoda. Gustav Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  21. Guinot-Dumortier D, Dumortier B (1960) La stridulation chez les crabes. Crustaceana 1: 117–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hawkins AD, Myrberg AA Jr (1983) Hearing and sound communication under water. In: Lewis B (ed) Bioacoustics, a comparative approach. Academic Press, London, pp 347–405Google Scholar
  23. Hazlett BA (1972) Ritualization in marine Crustacea. In: Winn HE, Olla BL (eds) Behavior of marine animals, vol 1: Invertebrates. Plenum Press, New York, pp 97–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hazlett BA, Winn HE (1962) Sound production and associated behavior of Bermuda crustaceans (Panulirus, Gonodactylus, Alpheus, and Synalpheus). Crustaceana 4: 25–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Herberholz J, Schmitz B (1998) Role of mechanosensory stimuli in intraspecific agonistic encounters of the snapping shrimp (Alpheus heterochaelis). Biol Bull 195: 156–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Herberholz J, Schmitz B (1999) Flow visualization and high speed video analysis of water jets in the snapping shrimp (Alpheus heterochaelis). J Comp Physiol A 185: 41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Horch K (1975) The acoustic behavior of the ghost crab Ocypode cordimana Latreille, 1818 (Decapoda, Brachyura). Crustaceana 29: 193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Johnson MW, Everest FA, Young RW (1947) The role of snapping shrimp (Crangon and Synalpheus) in the production of underwater noise in the sea. Biol Bull 93: 122–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kent WS (1877) Sound-producing arthropods. Nature 17: 11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Knowlton RE, Moulton JM (1963) Sound production in the snapping shrimps Alpheus (Crangon) and Synalpheus. Biol Bull 125: 311–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Knudsen VO, Alford RS, Emling JW (1948) Underwater ambient noise. J Mar Res 7: 410–429Google Scholar
  32. Loye DP, Proudfoot DA (1946) Underwater noise due to marine life. J Acoust Soc Am 18: 446–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. MacGinitie GE (1937) Notes on the natural history of several marine Crustacea. Am Midl Nat 18: 1031–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. MacGinitie GE, MacGinitie N (1949) Natural history of marine animals. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Markl H (1978) Adaptive radiation of mechanoreception. In: Ali MA (ed) Sensory ecology. Review and perspectives. Plenum Press, New York, pp 319–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Meyer-Rochow VB, Penrose JD (1976) Sound production by the Western rock lobster Panulirus longipes (Milne Edwards). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 23: 191–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Meyer-Rochow VB, Penrose JD, Oldfield BP, Bailey WJ (1982) Phonoresponses in the rock lobster Panulirus longipes (Milne Edwards). Behavioral and Neural Biology 34: 331–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Moulton JM (1957) Sound production in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Latreille). Biol Bull 113:286–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nolan AN, Salmon M (1970) The behavior and ecology of snapping shrimp (Crustacea: Alpheus heterochelis and Alpheus normanni). Forma Functio 2: 289–335Google Scholar
  40. Offutt GC (1970) Acoustic stimulus perception by the American lobster Homarus americanus (Decapoda). Experientia 26: 1276–1278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Read AT, Govind CK (1991) Composition of external setae during regeneration and transformation of the bilaterally asymmetric claws of the snapping shrimp, Alpheus heterochelis. J Morphol 207: 103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Readhead ML (1997) Snapping shrimp noise near Gladstone, Queensland. J Acoust Soc Am 101: 1718–1722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ritzmann R (1973) Snapping behavior of the shrimp Alpheus californiens is. Science 181: 459–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ritzmann RE (1974) Mechanisms for the snapping behavior of two alpheid shrimp, Alpheus californiens is and Alpheus heterochelis. J Comp Physiol 95: 217–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Salmon M, Atsaides SP (1968) Visual and acoustical signalling during courtship by fiddler crabs (genus Uca). Am Zool 8: 623–639Google Scholar
  46. Salmon M, Horch K (1973) Vibration reception by the fiddler crab, Uca minax. Comp Biochem Physiol 44: 527–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Salmon M, Hyatt GW (1983) Communication. In: Bliss DE (ed) The biology of Crustacea. Academic Press, New York, pp 1–40Google Scholar
  48. Sandeman DC, Wilkens LA (1982) Sound production by abdominal stridulation in the Australian Murray river crayfish, Euastacus armatus. J Exp Biol 99: 469–472Google Scholar
  49. Schein H (1975) Aspects of the aggressive and sexual behaviour of Alpheus heterochaelis Say. Mar Behav Physiol 3: 83–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schmitt WL (1965) Crustaceans. The University of Michigan Press, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  51. Schmitz B, Herberholz J (1998a) Snapping behaviour in intraspecific agonistic encounters in the snapping shrimp (Alpheus heterochaelis). J Biosci 23: 623–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Schmitz B, Herberholz J (1998b) Snapping movements and laser Doppler anemometry analysis of water jets in the snapping shrimp Alpheus heterochaelis. In: Eisner N, Wehner R (eds) New neuroethology on the move. Proc 26th Göttingen Neurobiology Conf, vol II. Thieme, Stuttgarts 241Google Scholar
  53. Schöne H (1961) Complex behavior. In: Waterman TH (ed) The physiology of Crustacea, vol II: Sense organs, integration, and behavior. Academic Press, New York, pp 465–520Google Scholar
  54. Schultz S, Wuppermann K, Schmitz B (1998) Behavioural interactions of the snapping shrimp (Alpheus_heterochaelis) with conspecifics and sympatric crabs (Eurypanopeus depressus). Zoology — Analysis of Complex Systems 101 [Suppl I]: (DZG 91.1), Gustav Fischer, Jena, p 85Google Scholar
  55. Sullivan J, Schmitz B (1997) The mechanosensory system of snapper and pincer claw in snapping shrimp (Alpheus heterochaelis). In: Eisner N, Wässle H (eds) From membrane to mind. Proc 25th Göttingen Neurobiology Conf, vol II. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 25Google Scholar
  56. Takemura A (1971) Studies on underwater sounds. III. On the mechanism of sound production and the underwater sounds produced by Linuparus trigonus. Mar Biol 9: 87–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Takemura A, Mizue K (1968) Studies on the underwater sound -1. On the underwater sound of genus Alpheus Fabricius in the coastal waters of Japan. Bull Fac Fish Nagasaki Univ 26: 37–48Google Scholar
  58. Versluis M, Schmitz B, von der Heydt A, Lohse D (2000) How snapping shrimp snap: through cavitating bubbles. Science 289: 2114–2117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Volz P (1938) Studien über das “Knallen” der Alpheiden. Nach Untersuchungen an Alpheus dentipes Guérin und Synalpheus laevimanus (Heller). Z Morph Ökol Tiere 34: 272–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Williams AB (1984) Shrimps, lobsters, and crabs of the Atlantic coast of the Eastern United States, Maine to Florida. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  61. Wood-Mason J (1878) Stridulating crustaceans. Nature 18: 53CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barbara Schmitz
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für ZoologieTU MünchenGarchingGermany

Personalised recommendations