Degradation of Dissolved Organic Matter in Humic Waters by Bacteria

  • Lars J. Tranvik
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 133)

Abstract

The standing stock of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface waters depends on import, washout, indigenous primary production and processes of internal loss, including abiotic mineralization (particularly photooxidation), microbial mineralization and flocculation followed by sedimentation. The DOM in such waters is a complex mixture of different compounds. Some of these, such as free and combined amino acids and carbohydrates, have in many cases been identified and quantified. Although the bulk of the DOM has not been described in detail, a major constituent of it is generally humic matter. The composition of the fraction of the DOM that is utilized and mineralized by bacteria, however, is poorly known. This chapter concerns both the importance of microbial utilization for the dynamics of DOM, and the importance of recalcitrant DOM as a substrate for microbial growth in humic waters. The impact of such factors as flocculation and photochemical processes upon the microbial degradation will also be discussed. The further consequences which the production of bacterial biomass can have on the structure and function of the ecosystem through the consumption of DOM will be considered as well, but is elucidated in greater detail in Chapter 11.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allard B, Borén H, Pettersson C, Zhang G (1994) Degradation of humic substances by UV radiation. Environ Int 20: 97–101Google Scholar
  2. Amon RMW, Benner R (1994) Rapid cycling of high-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter in the ocean. Nature 369: 549–551Google Scholar
  3. Amon RMW, Benner R (1996) Bacterial utilization of different size classes of dissolved organic matter. Limnol Oceanogr 41: 41–51Google Scholar
  4. Antia NJ, Harrison PJ, Oliveira L (1991) The role of dissolved organic nitrogen in phytoplankton nutrition, cell biology and ecology. Phycologia 30: 1–89Google Scholar
  5. Azam F, Fenchel T, Field JG, Gray JS, Meyer-Reil L-A, Thingstad F (1983) The ecological role of water-column microbes in the sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 10: 257–263Google Scholar
  6. Backlund P (1992) Degradation of aquatic humic material by ultraviolet light. Chemosphere 25: 1869–1878Google Scholar
  7. Bédard C, Knowles R (1991) Hypolimnetic 02 consumption, denitrification, and methanogenesis in a thermally stratified lake. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 48: 1048–1054Google Scholar
  8. Bertilsson S, Allard B (1996) Sequential photochemical and microbial degradation of refractory dissolved organic matter in a humic freshwater system. Arch Hydrobiol 48: 133–141Google Scholar
  9. Bianchi TS, Freer ME, Wetzel RG (1996) Temporal and spatial variability, and the role of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in methane fluxes from Sabine River floodplain (southeast Texas, U.S.A. ). Arch Hydrobiol 136: 261–287Google Scholar
  10. Boon PI, Mitchell A (1995) Methanogenesis in the sediments of an Australian freshwater wetland: comparison with aerobic decay, and factors controlling methanogenesis. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 18: 175–190Google Scholar
  11. Bowling LC, Salonen K (1990) Heat uptake and resistance to mixing in small humic forest lakes in southern Finland. Aust J Mar Freshw Res 41: 747–760Google Scholar
  12. Brophy JE, Carlson DJ (1989) Production of biologically refractory dissolved organic carbon by natural seawater microbial populations. Deep Sea Res 36: 497–507Google Scholar
  13. Burnison BK, Leppard GG (1983) Isolation of colloidal fibrils from lake water by physical separation techniques. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 40: 373–381Google Scholar
  14. Bushaw KL, Zepp RG, Tarr MA, Schulz-Jander D, Bourbonniere RA, Hodson RE, Miller WL, Bronk DA, Moran MA (1996) Photochemical release of biologically available nitrogen from dissolved organic matter. Nature 381: 404–407Google Scholar
  15. Carlson DJ, Mayer ML, Brann ML, Mague TH (1985) Binding of monomeric organic compounds to macromolecular dissolved organic matter in seawater. Mar Chem 16: 141–153Google Scholar
  16. Carlsson P, Segatto AZ, Granéli E (1993) Nitrogen bound to humic matter of terrestrial origin–a nitrogen pool for coastal phytoplankton. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 97: 105–116Google Scholar
  17. Carlsson P, Granéli E, Tester P, Boni L (1995) Influences of river transported humic substances and copepod grazing on a coastal plankton community. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 127: 213–221Google Scholar
  18. Cole JJ, Pace ML (1995) Bacterial secondary production in oxic and anoxic freshwaters. Limnol Oceanogr 40: 1019–1027Google Scholar
  19. Corpe WA, Jensen TE (1992) An electron microscopic study of picoplanktonic organisms from a small lake. Microb Ecol 24: 181–197Google Scholar
  20. Cotner JB, Heath RT (1990) Iron redox effects on photosensitive phosphorus release from dissolved humic materials. Limnol Oceanogr 35: 1175–1181Google Scholar
  21. Coveney MF, Wetzel RG (1992) Effects of nutrients on specific growth rate of bacterioplankton in oligotrophic lake water cultures. Appl Environ Microbiol 58: 150–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. De Haan H (1974) Effect of a fulvic acid fraction on the growth of a Pseudomonas from Tjeukemeer (the Netherlands). Freshw Biol 4: 301–310Google Scholar
  23. De Haan H (1977) Effect of benzoate on microbial decomposition of fulvic acids in Tjeukemeer (The Netherlands). Limnol Oceanogr 22: 38–44Google Scholar
  24. De Haan H, Jones RI, Salonen K (1987) Does ionic strength affect the configuration of aquatic humic substances, as indicated by gel filtration? Freshw Biol 17: 453–459Google Scholar
  25. De Haan H, Jones RI, Salonen K (1990) Abiotic transformations of iron and phosphate in humic water revealed by double isotope labeling and gel filtration. Limnol Oceanogr 35: 491–497Google Scholar
  26. Del Giorgio PA, Gasol JM (1995) Biomass distribution in freshwater plankton communities. Am Nat 146: 135–152Google Scholar
  27. Del Giorgio PA, Peters RH (1993) Balance between phytoplankton production and plankton respiration in lakes. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 50: 282–289Google Scholar
  28. Egli T (1996) The ecological and physiological significance of the growth of heterotrophic microorganisms with mixtures of substrates. Adv Microb Ecol 14: 305–386Google Scholar
  29. Fallon RD, Harrits S, Hanson RS, Brock TD (1980) The role of methane in internal carbon cy-cling in Lake Mendota during summer stratification. Limnol Oceanogr 25: 357–360Google Scholar
  30. Fenchel T, Finlay BJ (1995) Ecology and evolution in anoxic worlds. Oxford University Press,OxfordGoogle Scholar
  31. Francko DA, Heath RT (1979) Functionally distinct classes of complex phosphorus in lake water. Limnol Oceanogr 24: 463–473Google Scholar
  32. Francko DA, Heath RT (1982) UV-sensitive complex phosphorus: association with dissolved humic material and iron in a bog lake. Limnol Oceanogr 27: 564–569Google Scholar
  33. Geller A (1985) Degradation and formation of refractory DOM by bacteria during simultaneous growth on labile substrates and persistent lake water constituents. Schweiz Z Hydrol 47: 27–44Google Scholar
  34. Geller A (1986) Comparison of mechanisms enhancing biodegradability of refractory lake water constituents. Limnol Oceanogr 31: 755–764Google Scholar
  35. Gjessing ET, Källgvist T (1991) Algicidal and chemical effect of UV-radiation of water containing humic substances. Water Res 25: 491–494Google Scholar
  36. Granéli E, Moreira MO (1990) Effects of river water of different origin on the growth of marine dinoflagellates and diatoms in laboratory cultures. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 136: 89–106Google Scholar
  37. Hamilton SK, Sippel SJ, Melack JM (1995) Oxygen depletion and carbon dioxide and methane production in waters of the Pantanal wetland of Brazil. Biogeochemistry 30: 115–141Google Scholar
  38. Happell JD, Chanton JP (1993) Carbon remineralization in a north Florida swamp forest: effects of water level on the pathways and rates of soil organic matter decomposition. Global Biogeochem Cycles 7: 475–490Google Scholar
  39. Harvey GR, Boran DA, Chesal LA, Tokar JM (1983) The structure of marine fulvic and humic acids. Mar Chem 12: 119–132Google Scholar
  40. Hessen DO (1985) The relation between bacterial carbon and dissolved humic compounds in oligotrophic lakes. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 31: 215–223Google Scholar
  41. Hessen DO, Nygaard K (1992) Bacterial transfer of methane and detritus: implications for the pelagic carbon budget and gaseous release. Arch Hydrobiol 37: 139–148Google Scholar
  42. Hessen DO, Andersen T, Lyche A (1990) Carbon metabolism in a humic lake; pool sizes and cycling through zooplankton. Limnol Oceanogr 35: 84–99Google Scholar
  43. Hessen DO, Nygaard K, Salonen K, Vähätalo A (1994) The effect of substrate stoichiometry on microbial activity and carbon degradation in humic lakes. Environ Int 20: 67–76Google Scholar
  44. Hobbie JE (1988) A comparison of the ecology of planktonic bacteria in fresh and salt water. Limnol Oceanogr 33: 750–764Google Scholar
  45. Hollibaugh JT, Azam F (1983) Microbial degradation of dissolved proteins in seawater. Limnol Oceanogr 28: 1104–1116Google Scholar
  46. Ishiwatari R (1992) Macromolecular material (humic substances) in the water column and sediments. Mar Chem 39: 151–166Google Scholar
  47. Jones RI, Salonen K, De Haan H (1988) Phosphorus transformations in the epilimnion of humic lakes: abiotic interactions between dissolved humic materials and phosphate. Freshw Biol 19: 357–369Google Scholar
  48. Jorgensen NOG, Kroer N, Coffin RB, Yang XH, Lee C (1993) Dissolved free amino acids, combined amino acids, and DNA as sources of carbon and nitrogen to marine bacteria. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 98: 135–148Google Scholar
  49. Jorgensen NOG, Kroer N, Coffin RB (1994) Utilization of dissolved nitrogen by heterotrophic bacterioplankton: effects of substrate C/N ratio. Appl Environ Microbiol 60: 4124–4133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Jumars PA, Pentry DL, Baross JA, Perry MJ, Frost BW (1989) Closing the microbial loop: dissolved carbon pathway to heterotrophic bacteria from incomplete ingestion and absorption in animals. Deep Sea Res 36: 483–496Google Scholar
  51. Kaiser E, Herndl GJ (1997) Rapid recovery of marine bacterioplankton activity after inhibition by UV radiation in coastal waters. Appl Environ Microbiol 63: 4026–4031PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Karentz D, Bothwell ML, Coffin RB, Hanson A, Herndl GJ, Kilham SS, Lesser MP, Lindell M, Moeller RE, Morris DP, Neale PJ, Sanders RW, Weiler CS, Wetzel RG (1994) Impact of UV-B radiation on pelagic freshwater ecosystems: report of working group on bacteria and phytoplankton. Arch Hydrobiol Beih 43: 31–69Google Scholar
  53. Keil RG, Kirchman DL (1994) Abiotic transformation of labile protein to refractory protein in sea water. Mar Chem 45: 187–196Google Scholar
  54. Kepkay PE (1994) Particle aggregation and the biological reactivity of colloids. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 109: 293–304Google Scholar
  55. Kepkay PE, Johnson BD (1989) Coagulation on bubbles allows the microbial respiration of oceanic dissolved organic carbon. Nature 385: 63–65Google Scholar
  56. Kieber DJ, Mopper K (1987) Photochemical formation of glyoxylic and pyruvic acids in seawater. Mar Chem 21: 135–149Google Scholar
  57. Kieber DJ, McDaniel J, Mopper K (1989) Photochemical source of biological substrates in sea water: implications for carbon cycling. Nature 341: 637–639Google Scholar
  58. Kieber DJ, Zhou X, Mopper K (1990) Formation of carbonyl compounds from UV-induced photodegradation of humic substances in natural waters: fate of riverine carbon in the sea. Limnol Oceanogr 35: 1503–1515Google Scholar
  59. Killops SD, Killops VJ (1993) An introduction to organic geochemistry. Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  60. Koike I, Hara S, Terauchi K, Kogure K (1990) Role of sub-micrometre particles in the ocean. Nature: 242–244Google Scholar
  61. Kortelainen P (1993) Content of total organic carbon in Finnish lakes and its relationship to catchment characteristics. Can J Aquat Sci 50: 1477–1483Google Scholar
  62. Kroer N, Jorgensen NOG, Coffin RB (1994) Utilization of dissolved nitrogen by heterotrophic bacterioplankton: a comparison of three ecosystems. Appl Environ Microbiol 60: 4116–4123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Krumholz LR, Hollenback JL, Roskes SJ, Ringelberg DB (1995) Methanogenesis and methano-trophy within a Sphagnum peatland. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 18: 215–224Google Scholar
  64. Lara R, Thomas DN (1995) Formation of recalcitrant organic matter: humification dynamics of algal derived dissolved organic carbon and its hydrophobic fractions. Mar Chem 51: 193–199Google Scholar
  65. Larsson U, Hagström A (1979) Phytoplankton exudate release as an energy source for the growth of pelagic bacteria. Mar Bio! 52: 199–206Google Scholar
  66. Law AT, Button DK (1977) Multiple-carbon-source-limited growth kinetics of a marine coryneform bacterium. J Bacteriol 129: 115–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lee C, Wakeham SG (1992) Organic matter in the water column: future research challenges. Mar Chem 39: 95–118Google Scholar
  68. Leff LG, Meyer JL (1991) Biological availability of dissolved organic carbon along the Ogeechee River. Limnol Oceanogr 36: 315–323Google Scholar
  69. Lindell MJ, Granéli W, Tranvik LJ (1995) Enhanced bacterial growth in response to photochemical transformation of dissolved organic matter. Limnol Oceanogr 40: 195–199Google Scholar
  70. Lindell M, Granéli W, Tranvik L (1996) Impact of sunlight on bacterial growth in lakes of different humic content. Aquat Microb Ecol 11: 135–141Google Scholar
  71. Lovell CR, Konopka A (1985) Primary and bacterial production in two dimictic Indiana lakes. Appl Environ Microbiol 49: 485–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Lovley DR, Coates JD, Blunt-Harris EL, Phillips EJP, Woodward JC (1996) Humic substances as electron acceptors for microbial respiration. Nature 382: 445–448Google Scholar
  73. McDonough RJ, Sanders RW, Porter KG, Kirchman DL (1986) Depth distribution of bacterial production in a stratified lake with an anoxic hypolimnion. Appl Environ Microbiol 52: 992–1000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Meyer JL, Edwards RT, Risley R (1987) Bacterial growth on dissolved organic matter from a blackwater river. Microb Ecol 13: 13–29Google Scholar
  75. Meyers-Schulte KJ, Hedges JI (1986) Molecular evidence for a terrestrial component of organic matter dissolved in ocean water. Nature 321: 61–63Google Scholar
  76. Middelboe M, Sendergaard M (1995) Concentration and bacterial utilization of sub-micron particles and dissolved organic carbon in lakes and a coastal area. Arch Hydrobiol 133: 129–147Google Scholar
  77. Mopper K, Stahovec WL (1986) Sources and sinks of low molecular weight organic carbonyl compounds in seawater. Mar Chem 19: 305–321Google Scholar
  78. Mopper K, Zhou X, Kieber RJ, Kieber DJ, Sikorski RJ, Jones RD (1991) Photochemical degradation of dissolved organic carbon and its impact on the oceanic carbon cycle. Nature 353: 60–62Google Scholar
  79. Moran MA, Hodson RE (1990) Bacterial production on humic and non-humic components of dissolved organic carbon. Limnol Oceanogr 35: 1744–1756Google Scholar
  80. Moran MA, Hodson RE (1994) Support of bacterioplankton production by dissolved humic substances from three marine environments. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 110: 241–247Google Scholar
  81. Morris DP, Lewis WM (1992) Nutrient limitation of bacterioplankton growth in Lake Dillon, Colorado. Limnol Oceanogr 37: 1179–1192Google Scholar
  82. Münster U (1993) Concentrations and fluxes of organic carbon substrates in the aquatic environment. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek J Microbiol 63: 243–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Nissenbaum A, Kaplan IR. (1972) Chemical and isotopic evidence for the in situ origin of marine humic substances. Limnol Oceanogr 17: 570–582Google Scholar
  84. Ochs CA, Cole JJ, Likens GE (1995) Spatial and temporal patterns of bacterioplankton biomass and production in an oligotrophic lake. J Plankton Res 17: 365–391Google Scholar
  85. Palenik B, Morel FMM (1990) Comparison of cell-surface L-amino acid oxidases from several marine phytoplankton. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 59: 195–201Google Scholar
  86. Pedrós-Alid C, Guerrero R (1993) Microbial ecology in Lake Cfso. Adv Microb Ecol 13: 389–398Google Scholar
  87. Pomeroy LR (1974) The ocean’s food web: a changing paradigm. Bioscience 9: 499–504Google Scholar
  88. Pulliam WM (1993) Carbon dioxide and methane exports from a southeastern floodplain swamp. Ecol Monogr 63: 29–53Google Scholar
  89. Reitner B, Herzig A, Herndl GJ (1997) Role of ultraviolet-B radiation on photochemical and mi- crobial oxygen consumption in a humic-rich shallow lake. Limnol Oceanogr 42: 950–960Google Scholar
  90. Rudd JWM, Hamilton RD (1978) Methane cycling in a eutrophic shield lake and its effects on whole lake metabolism. Limnol Oceanogr 23: 337–348Google Scholar
  91. Salonen K, Kolonen K, Arvola L (1983) Respiration of plankton in two small, polyhumic lakes. Hydrobiologia 101: 65–70Google Scholar
  92. Saunders G (1976) Decomposition in fresh water. In: Anderson J, Macfadyen A (eds) The role of terrestrial and aquatic organisms in decomposition processes. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  93. Schindler DW, Bayley SE, Curtis PJ, Parker BR, Stainton MP, Kelly CA (1992) Natural and man-caused factors affecting the abundance and cycling of dissolved organic substances in Precambrian shield lakes. Hydrobiologia 229: 1–21Google Scholar
  94. Sherr EB (1988) Direct use of high molecular weight polysaccharide by heterotrophic flagellates. Nature 335: 348–351Google Scholar
  95. Sondergaard M, Middelboe M (1995) A cross-system analysis of labile dissolved organic carbon. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 118: 283–294Google Scholar
  96. Stewart AJ, Wetzel RG (1981) Dissolved humic materials: photodegradation, sediment effects, and reactivity with phosphate and calcium carbonate precipitation. Arch Hydrobiol 92: 265–286Google Scholar
  97. Strome DJ, Miller MC (1978) Photolytic changes in dissolved humic substances. Verh Int Verein Limnol 20: 1248–1254Google Scholar
  98. Stuermer DH, Harvey GR (1974) Humic substances from seawater. Nature 250: 480–481Google Scholar
  99. Sun L, Perdue EM, Meyer JL, Weis J (1997) Using elemental composition to predict bioavailabil-ity of dissolved organic matter in a Georgia river. Limnol Oceanogr 42: 714–721Google Scholar
  100. Sunda WG, Kieber DJ (1994) Oxidation of humic substances by manganese oxides yields low- molecular-weight organic substrates. Nature 367: 62–64Google Scholar
  101. Thurman EM (1985) Organic geochemistry of natural waters. Junk, BostonGoogle Scholar
  102. Thurman EM, Malcolm RL (1981) Preparative isolation of aquatic humic substances. Environ Sci Technol 15: 463–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Toolan T, Wehr JD, Findlay S (1991) Inorganic phosphorus stimulation of bacterioplankton production in a mesoeutrophic lake. Appl Environ Microbiol 57: 2074–2078PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Tranvik Li (1988) Availability of dissolved organic carbon for planktonic bacteria in oligotrophic lakes of differing humic content. Microb Ecol 16: 311–322Google Scholar
  105. Tranvik LJ (1989) Bacterioplankton growth, grazing mortality, and quantitative relationship to primary production in a humic and a clearwater lake. J Plankton Res 11: 985–1000Google Scholar
  106. Tranvik Li (1990) Bacterioplankton growth on fractions of dissolved organic carbon of different molecular weights from humic and clear waters. Appl Environ Microbiol 56: 1672–1677Google Scholar
  107. Tranvik LJ (1992) Allochthonous organic matter as an energy source for pelagic bacteria and the concept of the microbial loop. Hydrobiologia 229: 107–114Google Scholar
  108. Tranvik LJ (1993) Microbial transformation of labile dissolved organic matter into humic-like matter in seawater. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 12: 177–183Google Scholar
  109. Tranvik LJ (1994a) Effects of colloidal organic matter on the growth of bacteria and protists in lake water. Limnol Oceanogr 39: 1276–1285Google Scholar
  110. Tranvik Li (1994b) Colloidal and dissolved organic matter excreted by a mixotrophic flagellate during bacterivory and autotrophy. Appl Environ Microbiol 60: 1884–1888Google Scholar
  111. Tranvik Li, Jorgensen NOG (1995) Colloidal and dissolved organic matter in lake water: carbohydrate and amino acid composition, and ability to support bacterial growth. Biogeochemistry 30: 77–97Google Scholar
  112. Tranvik LJ, Kokalj S (1998) Decreased biodegradability of algal DOC due to interactive effects of UV radiation and humic matter. Aquat Microb Ecol 32, in pressGoogle Scholar
  113. Tranvik LJ, Sieburth J McN (1989) Effects of flocculated humic matter on free and attached pelagic microorganisms. Limnol. Oceanogr. 34: 688–699Google Scholar
  114. Tranvik LJ,. Granéli W, Gahnström G (1994) Microbial activity in acidified and limed humic lakes. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 51: 2529–2536Google Scholar
  115. Turk V, Rehnstam A-S, Lundberg E, Hagström A (1993) Release of bacterial DNA by marine nanoflagellates, an intermediate step in phosphorus regeneration. Appl Environ Microbiol 58: 3744–3750Google Scholar
  116. Wells ML, Goldberg ED (1991) Occurrence of small colloids in sea water. Nature 353: 342–344Google Scholar
  117. Westermann P (1993) Wetland and swamp microbiology. In: Ford TE (ed) Aquatic microbiology–an ecological approach. Blackwell, Boston, pp 215–238Google Scholar
  118. Wetzel RG (1983) Limnology. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  119. Wetzel RG (1984) Detrital dissolved and particulate organic carbon functions in aquatic ecosystems. Bull Mar Sci 35: 503–509Google Scholar
  120. Wetzel RG (1992) Gradient-dominated ecosystems: sources and regulatory functions of dissolved organic matter in freshwater ecosystems. Hydrobiologia 229: 181–198Google Scholar
  121. Wetzel RG (1995) Death, detritus, and energy flow in aquatic ecosystems. Freshw Biol 33: 83–89Google Scholar
  122. Wetzel RG, Hatcher PG, Bianchi TS (1995) Natural photolysis of recalcitrant dissolved organic matter to simple substrates for rapid bacterial metabolism. Limnol Oceanogr 40: 1369–1380Google Scholar
  123. Williams PJLeB (1981) Incorporation of microheterotrophic processes into the classical para-digm of the planktonic food web. Kieler Meeresforsch Sonderh 5: 1–28Google Scholar
  124. Williams PM, Druffel ERM (1987) Radiocarbon in dissolved organic carbon in the North Pacific Ocean. Nature 330: 246–248Google Scholar
  125. Zweifel UL, Norrman B, Hagström A (1993) Consumption of dissolved organic carbon by marine bacteria and demand for inorganic nutrients. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 101: 23–32Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lars J. Tranvik

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations