Advancing the Art of Simulation in the Social Sciences
Advancing the state of the art of simulation in the social sciences requires appreciating the unique value of simulation as a third way of doing science, in contrast to both induction and deduction. This essay offers advice for doing simulation research, focusing on the programming of a simulation model, analyzing the results and sharing the results with others. Replicating other people’s simulations gets special emphasis, with examples of the procedures and difficulties involved in the process of replication. Finally, suggestions are offered for building of a community of social scientists who do simulation.
KeywordsRational Choice Social Science Citation Index Simulation Research Organizational Code Artificial Society
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Axelrod, R. (1987). The evolution of strategies in the iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma. In Genetic algorithms and simulated annealing, Lawrence Davis (ed.). London: Pitman; Los Altos, CA: Morgan Kaufman, 32–41.Google Scholar
- Axelrod, R. (1997a). The dissemination of culture: a model with local convergence and global polarization. Journal of conflict resolution, 41, 203–26. Reprinted in Axelrod (1997b).Google Scholar
- Axelrod, R. (1997b). The complexity of cooperation: agent-based models of competition and collaboration. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Cyert, R. and March, J. G. (1963). A behavioral theory of the firm. Englewood Cliffs, N. J., Prentice-Hall, 1963.Google Scholar
- Epstein, J. & Axtell, R. (1996). Growing artificial societies: social science from the bottom up. Washington, DC: Brookings and Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Kauffman, S., Macready, W. G., & Dickinson, E. (1994). Divide to coordinate: coevolutionary problem solving. Santa Fe Institute Working Paper, 94–06031.Google Scholar
- Kauffman, S., (1995). At home in the universe. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. See especially 252–64.Google Scholar
- Poundstone, W. (1985). The recursive universe. Chicago, IL: Contemporary Books.Google Scholar
- Riolo, R. (1997). The effects of tag–mediated selection of partners in evolving populations playing the iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma. Santa Fe Institute Working Paper, 97–02–016.Google Scholar
- Schelling, T. (1974). On the ecology of micromotives. In The corporate society, Robert Morris (ed.). 19–64 (See especially 43–54).Google Scholar
- Schelling, T. (1978). Micromotives and macro behavior. New York: W. W. Norton. (See especially 137–55.)Google Scholar