Industrial enterprises have discovered the many benefits of including services in traditional purely physical product portfolios. Michelin’s pay-by-the-mile service for corporate fleets (Michelin North America Inc, 2018) and Philips’ light-as-a-service offer (Philips Electronics Nederland B.V., 2018) are only some examples of a trend which had started several years ago. Rolls-Royce introduced its powerby-the-hour service around 60 years ago (Peters, 2018) and thereby no longer transferred the ownership of the turbine engines to its customer.
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