Advertisement

Energiepolitik

  • Nils Wartenberg
  • Fabian Stein
  • Barbara DarimontEmail author
Chapter
  • 48 Downloads

Zusammenfassung

Das immense Wirtschaftswachstum in der VR China führt zu einem stark steigenden Energiebedarf, sodass China zum weltweit größten Verbraucher von Energie avancierte. Bisher war Kohle die Hauptenergiequelle zur Deckung des wachsenden Bedarfs. Die steigende gesundheitliche Belastung der Bevölkerung durch Smog und durch die Überschreitung der durch die Regierung gesetzten Kohlenstoffdioxidziele in weiten Teilen Chinas lässt neue Energieträger in den Vordergrund treten. Neben den erneuerbaren Energien, wie Windkraft, Solarkraft, Wasserkraft und Erdwärme, gehört die Kernkraft zu den wichtigsten neuen Energielieferanten.

Literatur

  1. Ahmed, Saeed, Anzar Mahmood, Ahmad Hasan, Guftaar A. S. Sidhu, und Muhammad F. U. Butt. 2016. A comparative review of China, India and Pakistan renewable energy sectors and sharing opportunities. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 57(5): 216–225.Google Scholar
  2. Aldrich, Daniel P. 2008. Site fights: Divisive facilities and civil society in Japan and the West. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Asian Metal. 2019. Silicon Metal 5-5-3 delivered China RMB/mt. Asian Metal. New York. http://www.asianmetal.com/SiliconPrice/Silicon.html. Zugegriffen am 12.06.2019.
  4. Ball, Jeffrey, Dan Reicher, Xiaojin Sun, und Caitlin Pollock. 2017. The new solar system: China’s evolving solar industry and its implications for competitive solar power in the United States and the world. Stanford Universität, Stanford. https://www-cdn.law.stanford.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/2017-03-20-Stanford-China-Report.pdf. Zugegriffen am 04.08.2019.
  5. Baranuik, Chris. 2018. How China‘s giant solar farms are transforming world energy. London: BBC. http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20180822-why-china-is-transforming-the-worlds-solarenergy. Zugegriffen am 14.06.2019.
  6. BBC. 2012. China’s Three Gorges Dam may displace another 100,000. BBC, London. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-17754256. Zugegriffen am 19.06.2019.
  7. Behrens, Christoph. 2016. Maos Monstrum am Gelben Fluss. Süddeutsche Zeitung, München. https://www.sueddeutsche.de/wissen/china-maos-monstrum-1.3312059. Zugegriffen am 09.06.2019.
  8. Boyle, Matthew. 2018. Which country uses the most solar power? Finder, London. https://www.finder.com/uk/nation-most-solar-power. Zugegriffen am 12.06.2019.
  9. CGN. 2019. CGN – About us. http://en.cgnpc.com.cn/encgn/c100028/Profile.shtml. Zugegriffen am 26.08.2019.
  10. Chen, Yanxin, Guillaume Martin, Christine Chabert, Romain Eschbach, Hui He, und Guo-an Ye. 2018. Prospects in China for nuclear development up to 2050 Progress in Nuclear Energy. 103:81–90Google Scholar
  11. Chinesische Regierung. o. J. The organizational structure of the State Council. http://english1.english.gov.cn/links.htm. Zugegriffen am 04.08.2019.
  12. Clark, Campbell, und Shawn McCarthy. 2012. Harper relaxes accountability rules for China’s use of uranium. The Globe and Mail, Toronto. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/harper-relaxes-accountability-rules-for-chinas-use-of-uranium/article4171375/. Zugegriffen am 11.06.2019.
  13. Clark, Pilita. 2014. Troubled waters: The Mekong River crisis. Financial Times, London. https://www.ft.com/content/1add7210-0d3d-11e4-bcb2-00144feabdc0. Zugegriffen am 10.06.2019.
  14. CNNC. 2016. CNNC – About us. http://en.cnnc.com.cn/2016-02/01/c_49164.htm. Zugegriffen am 16.06.2019.
  15. Colville, Finlay. 2019. Top 10 solar module suppliers in 2018. PV Tech, London. https://www.pv-tech.org/editors-blog/top-10-solar-module-suppliers-in-2018. Zugegriffen am 06.06.2019.
  16. Cong, Weike. 2009. Nuclear industry in China – CNNC presentation at the International Atomic Energy Agency. http://www-pub.iaea.org/mtcd/meetings/PDFplus/2009/cn175/URAM2009/Session%201/8_33_Cong_China.pdf. Zugegriffen am 28.06.2019.
  17. Cusick, Daniel. 2016. China blows past the U.S. in wind power. Scientific American, New York. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/china-blows-past-the-u-s-in-wind-power/?redirect=1. Zugegriffen am 24.05.2019.
  18. Dickson, Cora. 2016. Top markets report renewable energy. International Trade Administration, Washington, DC. https://www.trade.gov/topmarkets/pdf/Renewable_Energy_Top_Markets_Report.pdf. Zugegriffen am 04.08.2019.
  19. Ding, Qingfen, und Yiyu Liu. 2012. Nation plans to import more uranium. China Daily, Peking. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/cndy/2012-03/13/content_14818316.htm. Zugegriffen am 19.06.2019.
  20. Dodson, Bill. 2012. China fast forward. The technologies, green industries and innovations driving the Mainland’s future. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  21. Dudley, Dominic. 2019. China is set to become the world’s renewable energy superpower, according to new report. Forbes, New York. https://www.forbes.com/sites/dominicdudley/2019/01/11/china-renewable-energy-superpower/#51801dc2745a. Zugegriffen am 20.04.2019.
  22. Economist. 2018. China is rapidly developing is clean-energy technology. The Economist,15. Mai 2018. https://www.economist.com/special-report/2018/03/15/china-is-rapidly-developing-its-clean-energy-technology. Zugegriffen am 04.08.2019.
  23. EDF Energy. 2015. Press release: Agreements in place for construction of Hinkley Point C nuclear power station, London. https://www.edfenergy.com/energy/nuclear-new-build-projects/hinkley-point-c/news-views/agreements-in-place. Zugegriffen am 12.06.2019.
  24. Efstathiou, Jim. 2019. Global clean energy funding dips 8% as China cools solar boom. New York: Bloomberg. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-01-16/global-clean-energy-funding-dips-8-as-china-cools-solar-boom. Zugegriffen am 06.06.2019.
  25. Executive Office of the President of the United States. 2018. Section 201 cases: Imported large residential washing machines and imported solar cells and modules. https://ustr.gov/about-us/policy-offices/press-office/fact-sheets/2018/january/section-201-cases-imported-large. Zugegriffen am 07.06.2019.
  26. Faul, Jeffrey F. 2011. Chinas uranium procurement strategies. Hg. v. NUKEM Inc. World nuclear Fuel Market Conference, Seville. https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/13997230/chinas-uranium-procurement-strategies-wnfm-june-6-nukem. Zugegriffen am 26.08.2019.
  27. Frauenhofer ISE. 2019. Photovoltaics Report. https://www.ise.fraunhofer.de/content/dam/ise/de/documents/publications/studies/Photovoltaics-Report.pdf. Zugegriffen am 04.08.2019.
  28. Global Energy Observatory. 2018. Sanmenxia Hydroelectric Power Plant China. Global Energy Observatory, Los Alamos. http://globalenergyobservatory.org/geoid/44153. Zugegriffen am 09.06.2019.
  29. Graham-Harrison, Emma. 2009. China says Three Gorges Dam cost $37 billion. London: Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/idUSPEK84588. Zugegriffen am 09.06.2019.
  30. Green, Jim. 2014. China’s nuclear power plans: Safety and security challenges. Nuclear Monitor Issue, 796. Amsterdam: World Information Service on Energy. https://www.wiseinternational.org/nuclear-monitor/796/chinas-nuclear-power-plans-safety-and-security-challenges#. Zugegriffen am 11.06.2019.
  31. Guyton, Patrick. 2012. Baustelle Siemens. Der Tagesspiegel, 24.11.2012, Berlin. https://www.tagesspiegel.de/wirtschaft/baustelle-siemens/7432038.html. Zugegriffen am 04.08.2019.
  32. Henze, Veronika. 2019. Clean energy investment exceeded $300 billion once again in 2018. London/New York: Bloomberg NEF. https://about.bnef.com/blog/clean-energy-investment-exceeded-300-billion-2018/. Zugegriffen am 10.06.2019.
  33. Hook, Leslie, und Lucy Hornby. 2018. China’s solar desire dims. Financial Times, 08.06.2018. London. https://www.ft.com/content/985341f4-6a57-11e8-8cf3-0c230fa67aec. Zugegriffen am 04.08.2019.
  34. International Energy Agency. 2017. World energy outlook 2017: China. Paris: International Energy Agency. https://www.iea.org/weo/china/. Zugegriffen am 18.01.2020.
  35. International Hydropower Association. 2019a. China. International Hydropower Association, London. https://www.hydropower.org/country-profiles/china. Zugegriffen am 25.05.2019.
  36. International Hydropower Association. 2019b. Hydropower status report. International Hydropower Association, London. https://www.hydropower.org/statusreport. Zugegriffen am 25.05.2019.
  37. International Trade Administration. 2016. 2016 Top markets report: Renewable energy. Washington, DC: International Trade Administration. https://www.trade.gov/topmarkets/pdf/Renewable_Energy_Top_Markets_Report.pdf. Zugegriffen am 06.06.2019.
  38. Internationale Atomenergie-Organisation. 2009. Classification of radioactive waste. General safety guide no. GSG-1. https://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1419_web.pdf. Zugegriffen am 11.06.2019.
  39. Internationale Atomenergie-Organisation. 2019a. Power reactor information system – Country details (People’s Republic of China). https://pris.iaea.org/PRIS/CountryStatistics/CountryDetails.aspx?current=CN. Zugegriffen am 26.05.2019.
  40. Internationale Atomenergie-Organisation. 2019b. Nuclear share of electricity generation in 2018. https://pris.iaea.org/PRIS/WorldStatistics/NuclearShareofElectricityGeneration.aspx. Zugegriffen am 28.06.2019.
  41. Johnson, Don. 2017. Nuclear engineering enrollments & degrees survey data, 50-year trend assessment, 1966–2015, 1–5. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy. https://orise.orau.gov/stem/reports/ne-assessment-2017.pdf. Zugegriffen am 26.08.2019.
  42. Karlsruher Institut für Technologie. 08.10.2014. Verglasungsanlage für China. http://www.kit.edu/kit/15762.php. Zugegriffen am 11.06.2019.
  43. Katona, Jaqui. 2002. Cultural protection in frontier Australia. Flinders Journal of Law Reform 6: 29–39. Adelaide: Flinders University School of Law.Google Scholar
  44. Lieberthal, Kenneth G. 2011. Managing the China challenge. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  45. Liu, Yuanyuan. 2019. China’s renewable energy installed capacity grew 12 percent across all sources in 2018. Los Angeles: Renewable Energy World. https://www.renewableenergyworld.com/articles/2019/03/chinas-renewable-energy-installed-capacity-grew-12-percent-across-all-sources-in-2018.html. Zugegriffen am 12.06.2019.
  46. Mekong River Commission. 2017. Mitigation of the impacts of dams on fisheries. Vientiane: Mekong River Commission. https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Xiaowan-Dam-on-the-Lancang-Upper-Mekong-River-in-China-Completed-in-2007-Xiaowan-is_fig2_323300979. Zugegriffen am 10.06.2019.
  47. National Development and Reform Commission. 2016. The 13th five-year plan for economic and social development of the People‘s Republic of China (2016–2020). https://en.ndrc.gov.cn/newsrelease_8232/201612/P020191101481868235378.pdf.
  48. Nationaler Volkskongress. 2005. Gesetz über erneuerbare Energien (Zhōnghuá rénmín gònghéguó kě zàishēng néngyuán fǎ). http://www.gov.cn/ziliao/flfg/2005-06/21/content_8275.htm. Zugegriffen am 03.08.2019.
  49. Nickel, Rod. 2013. Canada’s Cameco begins uranium sales to China. London: Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/canada-uranium-china/update-1-canadas-cameco-begins-uranium-sales-to-china-idUSL1N0C5AD120130313. Zugegriffen am 11.06.2019.
  50. Obertreis, Rolf. 2018. China mit Rekordinvestitionen in Solarenergie. Der Tagesspiegel, Berlin. https://www.tagesspiegel.de/wirtschaft/energiewende-china-mit-rekordinvestitionen-in-solarenergie/21146442.html. Zugegriffen am 06.06.2019.
  51. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, und International Atomic Energy Agency. 2014. Uranium 2014: Resources, production and demand. In NEA (7209), 1–504. Issy-les-Moulineaux: OECD Nuclear Energy Agency.Google Scholar
  52. Parnell, John. 2018. New Chinese solar plant undercuts cost of coal power. Forbes, New York. https://www.forbes.com/sites/johnparnell/2018/12/30/new-chinese-solar-plant-undercuts-cost-of-coal-power/#730da011182a. Zugegriffen am 12.06.2019.
  53. Patton Schell, Tamara. 2014. Governing uranium in China. In DIIS report 2014:03, 1–64. https://www.diis.dk/files/media/publications/import/extra/rp2014-03_uranium-china_patton-schell_cve_1703_web.pdf. Zugegriffen am 28.06.2019.
  54. Pike, Lili, und Fermin Koop. 2019. China eyes Argentina in global nuclear roll out. Hg. v. China Dialouge. https://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/en/11293-China-eyes-Argentina-in-global-nuclear-roll-out. Zugegriffen am 11.06.2019.
  55. Pletcher, Kenneth. 2019. Plateau of Tibet. In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Chicago. https://www.britannica.com/place/Plateau-of-Tibet. Zugegriffen am 12.06.2019.
  56. PRIS, Hrsg. 2019. Country details. China, Peoples Republic of. https://pris.iaea.org/PRIS/CountryStatistics/CountryDetails.aspx?current=CN. Zugegriffen am 19.06.2019.
  57. Reijenga, Tjerk. 2005. BIPV opportunities in China. KOW DDC sustainable architects + urban planners. Shanghai. https://www.rvo.nl/sites/default/files/bijlagen/Opportunities%20in%20China_%20BIPV.pdf. Zugegriffen am 12.06.2019.
  58. Reints, Renae. 2019. The price of Chinese solar panels are about to go up. Fortune, New York. http://fortune.com/2019/01/24/chinese-made-solar-panels-recover/. Zugegriffen am 06.06.2019.
  59. Roselund, Christian. 2016. GCL Poly reports flat growth & healthy profit, appoints new CEO. Berlin. https://www.pv-magazine.com/2016/03/23/gcl-poly-reports-flat-growth-healthy-profit-appoints-new-ceo_100023859/. Zugegriffen am 26.08.2019.
  60. Sadler, Christine. 2017. China. Klima- und Energiepolitik – Im Spannungsfeld zwischen internationalen Zusagen und nationaler Entwicklungsstrategie. Berlin: Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung e.V. https://www.boell.de/sites/default/files/e-paper_g20_china_dt_-_baf.pdf. Zugegriffen am 03.08.2019.
  61. Schneider, Mycle, und Antony Frogatt. 2015. World nuclear industry – Status report 2015. Paris/London: Mycle Schneider Consulting Project.Google Scholar
  62. Schumacher-Voelker, Emma, Hrsg. 2007. Business Focus China energy. A comprehensive overview of the Chinese energy sector. Karlsruhe: gic Deutschland.Google Scholar
  63. Shen, Feifei, und Stapczynski. 2019. Top solar producer says China’s new plan will sustain growth. New York City: Bloomberg. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-03-07/china-to-sustain-solar-growth-with-new-plan-top-producer-says. Zugegriffen am 12.06.2019.
  64. Stacey, Kiran. 2018. China and India lead the surge to solar energy. Financial Times, London. https://www.ft.com/content/a42e23be-8900-11e8-affd-da9960227309. Zugegriffen am 12.06.2019.
  65. Thomas, Steve. 2017. China’s nuclear export drive: Trojan Horse or Marshall Plan? Energy Policy 101:683–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Timothy, Nick. 2015. The Government is selling our national security to China. http://www.conservativehome.com/thecolumnists/2015/10/nick-timothy-the-government-is-selling-our-national-security-to-china-html. Zugegriffen am 19.06.2019.
  67. Umwelt Bundesamt. 2015. Solarenergie. https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/themen/klima-energie/erneuerbare-energien/solarenergie. Zugegriffen am 10.06.2019.
  68. Wang, Qiang. 2009. China needing a cautious approach to nuclear power strategy. Energy Policy 37(7): 2487–2491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wei, Wendong, Xudong Wu, Xiaofang Wu, Qiangmin Xi, Xi Ji, und Guoping Li. 2017. Regional study on investment for transmission infrastructure in China based on the state grid data. Frontiers of Earth Science 1(1):162–183.Google Scholar
  70. Witsch, Kathrin. 2018. EU hebt Schutzzölle für Solarmodule auf – deutsche Hersteller müssen sich Wettbewerb stellen. Düsseldorf: Handelsblatt. https://www.handelsblatt.com/unternehmen/energie/solarbranche-eu-hebt-schutzzoelle-fuer-solarmodule-auf-deutsche-hersteller-muessen-sich-wettbewerb-stellen/22992682.html?ticket=ST-1710056-jzivGgbfw1EZIwdWz4Y2-ap5. Zugegriffen am 06.06.2019.
  71. World Energy Council. 2019. Hydropower in China. https://www.worldenergy.org/data/resources/country/china/hydropower/. Zugegriffen am 25.05.2019.
  72. World Nuclear Association. 2018. Supply of uranium. http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/uranium-resources/supply-of-uranium.aspx (Zuletzt aktualisiert im Dezember 2018). Zugegriffen am 26.05.2019.
  73. World Nuclear Association. 2019. China’s nuclear fuel cycle. http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/country-profiles/countries-a-f/china-nuclear-fuel-cycle.aspx (Zuletzt aktualisiertim Januar 2019). Zugegriffen am 11.06.2019.
  74. Wu, Jiaping, Stephen T. Garnett, und Tony Barnes. 2008. Beyond an energy deal: Impacts of the Sino-Australia uranium agreement. Energy Policy 36(1): 413–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wu, Kang. 2013. Energy economy in China. Policy imperative, market dynamics, and regional developments. Singapore/Hackensack: World Scientific Pub. Co.Google Scholar
  76. Xu, Yi C. 2014. The struggle for safe nuclear expansion in China. Energy Policy 73:21–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zentralkomitee der KPCh. 2016. Central Committee of the Communist Party of China: The 13th five-year plan for economic and social development of the People’s Republic of China (2016–2020), 1–219. Beijing: Central Compilation & Translation Press. http://en.ndrc.gov.cn/newsrelease/201612/P020161207645765233498.pdf. Zugegriffen am 26.08.2019.
  78. Zhang, Sufang, und Yongxiu He. 2013. Analysis on the development and policy of solar PV power in China. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 21:393–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Zhang, Yuning, Ningning Tang, Yuguang Niu, und Xioaze Du. 2016. Wind energy rejection in China: Current status, reasons and perspectives. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review 66: 322–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Zhang, Zhongxiang. 1998. The economics of energy policy in China. Implications for global climate change. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  81. Zhou, Sheng, und Xiliang Zhang. 2010. Nuclear energy development in China: A study of opportunities and challenges. Energy 35(11): 4282–4288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zhou, Yun, Christhian Rengifo, Peipei Chen, und Jonathan Hinze. 2011. Is China ready for its nuclear expansion? Energy Policy 39(2): 771–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zhu, Xu. 2012. China needs to speed up training for nuclear energy specialists. China Energy News, 16.07.2012.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nils Wartenberg
    • 1
  • Fabian Stein
    • 1
  • Barbara Darimont
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.MannheimDeutschland
  2. 2.Ostasieninstitut der Hochschule für Wirtschaft und GesellschaftLudwigshafen am RheinDeutschland

Personalised recommendations