Geschlechterungleichheit und Regimewechsel: Erwachsenenbildung und Arbeitsmarktchancen in Russland vor und nach dem Ende der Sowjetunion / Gender inequality and the regime change. Adult education and labor market rewards in the Soviet and post-Soviet Russia

Part of the Edition ZfE book series (EZFE, volume 7)


Diese Arbeit untersucht Geschlechterunterschiede in formaler Erwachsenenbildung, die Arbeitsmarktanpassungen nach dramatischen institutionellen Veränderungen infolge des Übergangs von Russland in eine liberalisierte Marktwirtschaft fördern soll. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Frauen während des Staatssozialismus weniger Chancen als Männer hatten, an Erwachsenenbildung teilzunehmen. Im postsozialistischen Russland kehrten sich diese Geschlechterunterschiede um. Diese Veränderung war allerdings nicht das Ergebnis einer Verbesserung der Chancen von Frauen, sondern das Ergebnis einer Verschlechterung der Chancen von Männern. Die Erträge der Erwachsenenbildung gemessen an der (Wieder-) Aufnahme von Arbeit variieren nach Geschlecht und über die Zeit. Während des Sozialismus zahlte sich die Erwachsenenbildung stärker für Männer als für Frauen aus. Mit dem Ende der Sowjetunion sanken diese Erträge für Männer, für Frauen ergab sich eine marginale (allerdings nicht statistisch signifikante) Verbesserung, sodass sich die Erträge beider Geschlechter anglichen. Vor dem Hintergrund der neuentstandenen Arbeitsmarktnachteile für Frauen scheint die Erwachsenenbildung zwar ein effizientes Mittel zur Verbesserung ihrer Arbeitsmarktchancen, jedoch nicht zur Kompensation ihrer relativen Arbeitsmarktverluste nach dem Ende der Sowjetunion.


Erwachsenenbildung Geschlechterungleichheit Lebensverlauf Regimewechsel Russland 


This paper studies gender differences in formal adult education – an instrument argued to be essential for labor market adaptation in response to dramatic institutional changes in Russia’s transition to a liberalized market economy. Results suggest that women faced disadvantages in adult-educational opportunities under state socialism, whereas this has been reversed in the post-Soviet Russia. This, however, was not an outcome of the improved opportunities for women but of worsened opportunities for men. Moreover, returns to adult education in terms of (re-)employment opportunities vary by gender and over time. Adult education was more effective for men than for women under state socialism. With the Soviet Union collapse, men experienced an enormous drop in adult-educational returns, whereas there was marginal (albeit not statistically significant) improvement for women. As a result, men’s returns to adult education went down to the females’ level. Finally, given the emerged female disadvantage in (re-)employment opportunities, adult education seems to be an efficient tool to improve overall labor market chances of women but not to compensate for their relative labor market losses after the Soviet Union collapse.


Adult education Gender inequality Life course Regime change Russia 


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Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Employment Research, Migration and International Labour StudiesNürenbergDeutschland

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