Cellular Automata in Engineering Calculations
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Cellular Automata (CA) are simple mathematical models for systems in which many components act together to produce complicated patterns of behaviour. CA are used to investigate self-organization in statistical mechanics; they serve as discrete approximation to partial differential equations and provide models for wide variety of natural systems. They are sufficiently simple to allow detailed mathematical analysis, yet sufficiently complex to exhibit a wide variety of complicated phenomena . It can be said that CA are a mathematical idealization of physical system where both time and space are discrete  or an alternative mathematics .
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