Advertisement

Dermatology pp 709-750 | Cite as

Disorders of Keratinization

  • Otto Braun-Falco
  • Gerd Plewig
  • Helmut H. Wolff
  • Walter H. C. Burgdorf

Abstract

The disorders of keratinization can be best understood within the framework of normal epidermal differentiation. The outermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum, provides the interface between man and his external world. The epidermis is a multiple layered keratinizing squamous epithelium. Besides keratinocytes, there are three other important cell populations in the epidermis: melanocytes, Langerhans cells or epidermal antigen-processing cells and Merkel cells which appear to function as mechanoreceptors interacting with peripheral nerves. On ultrastructural examination, the melanosomes are characterized by immature melanosomes (stage I–II), the Langerhans cells by Birbeck granules, the Merkel cells by dense core granules, and the keratinocytes by tonofilaments and desmosomes.

Keywords

Stratum Corneum Acanthosis Nigricans Stratum Granulosum Autosomal Dominant Pattern Oral Retinoid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

Reviews

  1. Ammirati CT, Mallory SB (1998) The major inherited disorders of cornification. New advances in pathogenesis. Dermatol Clin 16: 497–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bale SJ, DiGiovanna JJ (1997) Genetic approaches to understanding the keratinopathies. Adv Dermatol 12: 99–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Elias PM (1983) Epidermal lipids, barrier function, and desquamation. J Invest Dermatol 80: 44s–49sGoogle Scholar
  4. Happle R, Kerkhof PCM van de, Traupe H (1987) Retinoids in disorders of keratinization: their use in adults. Dermatologica 175 [Suppl 1]: 107–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Irvine AD, McLean WH (1999) Human keratin diseases: the increasing spectrum of disease and subtlety of the phenotype-genotype correlation. Br J Dermatol 140: 815–828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ishida-Yamamota A, Tanaka H, Nakane H et al. (1998) Inherited disorders of epidermal keratinization. J Dermatol Sci 18: 139–154Google Scholar
  7. Leigh IM, Lane EB, Watt FM (1994) The keratinocyte handbook. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  8. Moss C, Savin J (1995) Dermatology and the new genetics. Blackwell Scientific Publications, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  9. Novice FM, Collison DW, Burgdorf WHC et al. (1994) Handbook of genetic skin disorders. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  10. Traupe H (1989) The ichthyoses. A guide to clinical diagnosis, genetic counseling, and therapy. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  11. Williams ML, Elias PM (1987) Genetically transmitted, generalized disorders of cornification. The ichthyoses. Dermatol Clin 5: 155–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Williams ML, Elias PM (1993) From basket weave to barrier. Unifying concepts for the pathogenesis of the disorders of cornification. Arch Dermatol 129: 626–629PubMedGoogle Scholar

The Ichthyoses

  1. Aras N, Sutman K, Tastan HB et al. (1994) Peeling skin syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 30: 135–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bäfverstedt B (1941) Fall von genereller, naevusartiger Hyperkeratose, Imbecillität, Epilepsie. Acta Dermato Venereol (Stockh) 22: 207–212Google Scholar
  3. Bale SJ, Compton JG, DiGiovanna JJ (1993) Epidermolytic Hyperkeratosis. Semin Dermatol 12: 202–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Basarab T, Smith FJ, Jolliffe VM et al. (1999) Ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens: report of a family with evidence of a keratin 2e mutation, and a review of the literature. Br J Dermatol 140: 689–695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bichakjian CK, Nair RP, Wu WW et al. (1998) Prenatal exclusion of lamellar ichthyosis based on identification of two new mutations in the transglutaminase 1 gene. J Invest Dermatol no: 179–182Google Scholar
  6. Brocq L (1902) Erythrodermie congénitale ichthyosiforme avec hyperépidermotrophie. Ann Dermatol Syph Ser 4: 1–31Google Scholar
  7. Brusasco A, Cavalli R, Cambiaghi S et al. (1994) Ichthyosis Curth-Macklin: a new sporadic case with immunohisto-chemical study of keratin expression (letter). Arch Dermatol 130: 1077–1079PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Brusasco A, Veraldi S, Tadini G et al. (1998) Localized peeling skin syndrome: case report with ultrastructural study. Br J Dermatol 139: 492–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Castano Suarez E, Segurado Rodriguez A, Guerra Tapia A et al. (1997) Ichthyosis: the skin manifestation of multiple sulfatase deficiency. Pediatr Dermatol 14: 369–372Google Scholar
  10. Chanarin I, Patel A, Slavin G et al. (1975) Neutral lipid storage disease: a new disorder of lipid metabolism. Br Med J 1: 553–555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Choate KA, Williams ML, Elias PM et al. (1998) Transglutaminase 1 expression in a patient with features of harlequin ichthyosis: case report. J Am Acad Dermatol 38: 325–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Comél M (1949) Ichthyosis linearis circumflexa. Dermatologica 98: 133–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Conradi E (1914) Vorzeitiges Auftreten von Knochen und eigenartigen Verkalkungskernen bei Chondrodystrophia foetalis hypoplastics. Jahrb Kinderh 80: 86–97Google Scholar
  14. Curth H, Macklin MT (1954) The genetic basis of various types of ichthyosis in a family group. Am J Hum Genet 6: 371–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dale BA, Kam E (1993) Harlequin ichthyosis. Variability in expression and hypothesis for disease mechanism. Arch Dermatol 129: 1471–1477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Dorfman ML, Hershko C, Eisenberg S et al. (1974) Ichthyosi-form dermatosis with systemic lipidosis. Arch Dermatol 110: 261–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Fartasch M, Williams ML, Elias PM (1999) Altered lamellar body secretion and stratum corneum membrane structure in netherton syndrome. Arch Dermatol 135: 823–832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Fox H (1921) Skin shedding (keratolysis exfoliativa congenita). Report of a case. Ann Dermatol Syphilol 3: 202Google Scholar
  19. Haftek M, Cambazard F, Dhouailly D et al. (1996) A longitudinal study of a harlequin infant presenting clinically as non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma. Br J Dermatol 135: 448–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Happle R (1979) X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata. Review of literature and report of a case. Hum Genet 53: 65–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Happle R, Koch H, Lenz W (1980) The CHILD syndrome. Congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform erythroderma and limb defects. Eur J Pediatr 134: 27–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Happle R, Traupe H, Grobe H et al. (1984) The Tay syndrome (congenital ichthyosis with trichothiodystrophy). Eur J Pediatr 141: 147–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hennies HC, Kuster W, Wiebe V et al. (1998) Genotype/-phenotype correlation in autosomal recessive lamellar ichthyosis. Am J Hum Genet 62: 1052–1061PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Huber M, Rettler I, Bernasconi K et al. (1995) Mutations of keratinocyte transglutaminase in lamellar ichthyosis. Science 267: 525–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Hiinermann C (1931) Chondrodystrophia calcificans congenita alos abortive Form der Chondrodystrophie. Zschr Kinderh 51: 1–19Google Scholar
  26. Ishida-Yamamoto A, McGrath JA, Judge MR et al. (1992) Selective involvement of keratins Ki and K10 in the cytoskeletal abnormality of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma). J Invest Dermatol 99: 19–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Jeon S, Djian P, Green H (1998) Inability of keratinocytes lacking their specific transglutaminase to form cross-linked envelopes: absence of envelopes as a simple diagnostic test for lamellar ichthyosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 687–690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kolde G, Happle R, Traupe H (1985) Autosomal-dominant lamellar ichthyosis: ultrastructural characteristics of a new type of congenital ichthyosis. Arch Dermatol Res 278: 1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Korge BP, Krieg T (1996) The molecular basis for inherited bullous diseases. J Mol Med 74: 59–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. McGrath J, Cerio R, Wilson-Jones E (1991) The phenotypic heterogenicity of bullous ichthyosis-a case report of three family members. Clin Exp Dermatol 16: 25–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Melnik B, Kuster W, Hollmann J et al. (1989) Autosomal dominant lamellar ichthyosis exhibits an abnormal scale lipid pattern. Clin Genet 35: 152–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Nanda A, Sharma R, Kanwar AJ et al. (1990) Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome. Int J Dermatol 29: 349–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Netherton EW (1958) A unique case of trichorrhexis nodosa — “bamboo hairs”. Arch Dermatol 778: 483–487Google Scholar
  34. Norton SA, Ruze P (1994) Kava dermopathy. J Am Acad Dermatol 31: 89–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Ollendorff-Curth H, Macklin MT (1954) The genetic basis of various types of ichthyosis in a family group. Am J Hum Genet 6: 371–382Google Scholar
  36. Paige DG, Emilion GG, Bouloux PM et al. (1994) A clinical and genetic study of X-linked recessive ichthyosis and contiguous gene defects. Br J Dermatol 131: 622–629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Powell J, Dawber RPR, Ferguson DJP et al. (1999) Netherton’s syndrome: increased likelihood of diagnosis by examining eyebrow hairs. Br J Dermatol 141: 544–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Refsum S (1945) Heredoataxia hemerolopica polyneuriti-formis et tidligere ikke beskrevet familial syndrome? En forelobig modelelse. Nord Med 28: 2682–2685Google Scholar
  39. Riecke E (1900) Über Ichthyosis congenita. Arch Dermatol Syph (Wien) 54: 289–340Google Scholar
  40. Rizzo WB (1993) Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. Semin Dermatol 12: 210–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Rizzo WB (1998) Inherited disorders of fatty alcohol metabolism. Mol Genet Metab 65: 63–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Saeki H, Kuwata S, Nakagawa H et al. (1998) Deletion pattern of the steroid sulphatase gene in Japanese patients with X-linked ichthyosis. Br J Dermatol 139: 96–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Sahn EE, Weimer CE Jr, Garen PD (1992) Annular epidermolytic ichthyosis: a unique phenotype. J Am Acad Dermatol 27: 348–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Sato-Matsumura KC, Matsumura T, Kumakiri M et al. (2000) Ichthyosis follicularis with alopecia and photophobia in a mother and daughter. Br J Dermatol 142: 157–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Schnyder UW (1977) Ichthyosis hystrix typus Reydt (ichthyosis hystrix gravior mit praktischer Taubheit). Z Hautkr 52: 763–766Google Scholar
  46. Siemens W (1937) Dichtung und Wahrheit über die “Ichthyosis bullosa”, mit Bemerkungen zur Systematik der Epidermolysen. Arch Dermatol Syph (Berlin) 175: 590–608Google Scholar
  47. Sjögren T, Larsson T (1957) Oligophrenia in combination with congenital ichthyosis and spastic disorders. A clinical and genetic study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 32 [Suppl 113]: 1–108Google Scholar
  48. Smith DL, Smith JG, Wong SW et al. (1995) Netherton’s syndrome: a syndrome of elevated IgE and characteristic skin and hair findings. J Allergy Clin Immunol 95: 116–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Srebrnik A, Brenner S, Ilie B et al. (1998) Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome: morphologic studies and presentation of new cases. Am J Dermatopathol 20: 79–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Steijlen PM, Perret CM, Schuurmans Stekhoven JH et al. (1990) Ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens: further delineation of the phenotype. Arch Dermatol Res 282: 1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Tay CH (1971) Ichthyosiform erythroderma, hair shaft abnormalities, and mental and growth retardation. A new recessive disorder. Arch Dermatol 104: 4–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Traupe H, Kolde G, Happle R (1984) Autosomal dominant lamellar ichthyosis: a new skin disorder. Clin Genet 26: 457–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Traupe H, Kolde G, Hamm H et al. (1986) Ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens: a unique type of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 14: 1000–1005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Van Neste D, Caulier B, Thomas P et al. (1985) PIBIDS: Tay’s syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum. J Am Acad Dermatol 12: 372–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Wells RS, Kerr CB (1965) Genetic classification of ichthyosis. Arch Dermatol 92: 1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Wile UJ (1924) Familial study of three unusual cases of congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma. Arch Dermatol Syph 4: 487–498Google Scholar
  57. Williams ML (1992) Ichthyosis: mechanisms of disease. Pediatr Dermatol 9: 365–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Williams ML, Feingold KR, Grubauer G et al. (1987) Ichthyosis induced by cholesterol-lowering drugs. Implications for epidermal cholesterol homeostasis. Arch Dermatol 123: 1535–1538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Wöhrle D, Barbi G, Schulz W et al. (1990) Heterozygous expression of X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata. Complex chromosome aberration including deletion of MIC2 and STS. Hum Genet 86: 215–218PubMedGoogle Scholar

Palmoplantar Keratodermas

  1. Bart RS, Pumphrey RE (1967) Knuckle pads, leukonychia and deafness. A dominantly inherited syndrome. N Eng J Med 276: 202–207Google Scholar
  2. Brauer A (1913) Über eine besondere Form des hereditären Keratoms (Keratoma dissipatum hereditarium palmare et plantare). Arch Dermatol 114: 211–236Google Scholar
  3. Brünauer SR (1923) Zur Vererbung des Keratoma hereditarium palmare et plantare. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 4: 489–503Google Scholar
  4. Buschke A, Fischer W (1910) Keratodermia maculosa disseminata symmetrica palmaris et plantaris. In: Neisser A, Jacobi E (eds) Ikonographia dermatologica, vol 1. Urban and Schwarzenberg, Berlin, pp 183–192Google Scholar
  5. Camisa C (1986) Keratoderma hereditaria mutilans or Vohwinkeps syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 14: 512–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Christiano AM (1997) Frontiers in keratodermas: pushing the envelope. Trends Genet 13: 227–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Clarke CA, Howel-Evans AW, McConnell RB (1957) Carcinoma of oesophagus associated with tylosis. BMJ 1: 945Google Scholar
  8. Cole LA (1976) Hypopigmentation with punctate keratosis of the palms and soles. Arch Dermatol 112: 998–1000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Covello SP, Irvine AD, McKenna KE et al. (1998) Mutations in keratin K9 in kindreds with epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma and epidemiology in Northern Ireland. J Invest Dermatol 111: 1207–1209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Fluckiger R, Itin PH (1993) Keratosis extremitatum (Greither’s disease): clinical features, histology, ultrastructure. Dermatology 187: 309–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Frias-Iniesta J, Sanchez-Pedreño P, Martinez-Escribano JA et al. (1997) Br J Dermatol 136: 935–938PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Fuhs H (1924) Zur Kenntnis der herdweisen Keratosen an Händen und Füßen. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 5: 11–58Google Scholar
  13. Greither A (1952) Keratosis extremitatum hereditaria progrediens mit dominantem Erbgang. Hautarzt 3: 198–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hanhart E (1947) Neue Sonderformen von Keratosis palmoplantaris. Dermatologica 94: 286–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Helm T, Spigel GT, McMahon J et al. (1998) Striate palmoplantar keratoderma: a clinical and ultrastructural study. Cutis 61: 18–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Howel-Evans W et al. (1958) Carcinoma of the esophagus with keratosis palmaris et plantaris (tylosis): a study in two families. Q J Med 27: 413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Huriez C, Deminati M, Agache P et al. (1969) Génodermatose scléro-atrophiante et kératodermique des extrémités. Ann Dermatol Syphilgr 96: 135–146Google Scholar
  18. Irvine AD, McLean WH (199) Human keratin diseases: the increasing spectrum of disease and subtlety of the pheno-type-genotype correlation. Br J Dermatol 140: 815–828Google Scholar
  19. Itin PH, Lautenschlager S (1995) Palmoplantar keratoderma and associated syndromes. Semin Dermatol 14: 152–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kellum RE (1989) Papillon-Lefevre syndrome in four siblings treated with etretinate. A nine-year evaluation. Int J Dermatol 28: 605–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kogoj F (1934) Die Krankheit von Mljet („Mal de Meleda“). Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 15: 264–299Google Scholar
  22. Küster W, Becker A (1992) Indication for the identity of palmoplantar keratoderma type Unna-Thost with type Vömer. Thost’s family revisited 110 years later. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 72: 120–122Google Scholar
  23. Lestringant GG, Frossard PM, Adeghate E et al. (1997) Mal de Meleda: a report of four cases from the United Arab Emirates. Pediatr Dermatol 14: 186–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Maestrini E, Monaco AP, McGrath JA et al. (1996) A molecular defect in loricrin, the major component of the cornified cell envelope, underlies Vohwinkel’s syndrome. Nat Genet 13: 70–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Magro CM, Baden LA, Crowson AN et al. (1997) A novel nonepidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma: a clinical and histopathologic study of six cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 37:27–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Nazarro V, Blanchet-Bardon C, Mimoz C et al. (1988) Papillon-Lefevre syndrome. Ultrastructural study and successful treatment with acitretin. Arch Dermatol 124: 533–539Google Scholar
  27. Olmstead HC (1927) Keratodermia palmaris et plantaris congenitalis: report of a case showing associated lesions of unusual location. Am J Dis Child 33: 757–764Google Scholar
  28. Paoli S, Mastrolorenzo A (1999) Keratosis palmoplantaris varians of Wachters. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 12: 33–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Papillon MM, Lefevre P (1924) Deux cas de kératodermie palmaire et plantaire symétrique familiale (maladie de Meleda) chez le frère et la soeur. Coexistence dans les deux cas d’altérations dentaires graves. Bull Soc Fr Dermatol Venereol 31: 82–87Google Scholar
  30. Patrizi A, DiLernia V, Patrone P (1992) Palmoplantar kerato-derma with sclerodactyly (Huriez syndrome). J Am Acad Dermatol 26: 855–857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Ratnavel RC, Griffiths WA (1997) The inherited palmoplantar keratodermas. Br J Dermatol 137: 485–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Schöpf E, Schulz HJ, Passarge E (1971) Syndrome of cystic eyelids, palmo-plantar keratosis, hypodontia and hypotrichosis as a possible autosomal recessive trait. Birth Defects Orig Art Ser 7 (8): 219–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Siemens HW (1929) Keratosis palmaris-plantaris striata. Arch Dermatol 157: 392–408Google Scholar
  34. Stevens HP, Kelsell DP, Bryant SP et al. (1996) Linkage of an American pedigree with palmoplantar keratoderma and malignancy (palmoplantar ektodermal dysplasia Type III) to 17q24. Literature survey and proposed updated classification of keratodermas. Arch Dermatol 132: 640–651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Stevens HP, Kelsell DP, Leigh IM et al. (1996) Punctate palmoplantar keratoderma and malignancy in a four-generation family. Br J Dermatol 134: 720–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Thost A (1880) Über erbliche Ichtyosis palmaris et plantaris cornea. Inaugural Dissertation, University of HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  37. Unna PG (1883) Über das Keratoma palmare et plantare hereditarium. Vierteljahresschr Dermatol Syph 15: 231–270Google Scholar
  38. Verplancke P, Driessen L, Wynants P et al. (1998) The Schopf-Schulz-Passarge syndrome. Dermatology 196: 463–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Vohwinkel KH (1929) Keratoma hereditarium mutilans. Arch Dermatol Syph 158: 354–364Google Scholar
  40. Vörner H (1901) Zur Kenntnisse des Keratoma hereditarium palmare et plantare. Arch Dermatol Syph (Berlin) 56: 3–31Google Scholar

Erythrokeratodermias

  1. Baden HP, Bronstein BR (1988) Ichthyosiform dermatosis and deafness. Report of a case and review of the literature. Arch Dermatol 124: 102–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Burns FS (1915) A case of generalized congenital keratoderma. J Cutan Dis Dermatol 33: 255–260Google Scholar
  3. Darier MJ (1911) Erythro-kératodermie verruqueuse en nappes, symétrique et progressive. Bull Soc Fr Dermatol Syph 2: 252–264Google Scholar
  4. Degos R, Delzant O, Morival H (1947) Erytheme desqua-matif en plaques, congenital et familial (genodermatose nouvelle?) Bull Fr Soc Dermatol Syph 54: 442Google Scholar
  5. Findlay GH, Nurse GT, Heyl T et al. (1977) Keratolytic winter erythema or “oudtshoorn skin”: a newly recognized inherited dermatosis prevalent in South Africa. S Afr Med 52: 871–874Google Scholar
  6. Giroux JM, Barbeau A (1972) Erythrokeratodermia with ataxia. Arch Dermatol 106: 183–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Gottron H (1922) Congenital angelegte symmetrische progressive Erythrokerâtodermie. Zentralbl Haut Geschl Krankh 4: 493–494Google Scholar
  8. Gray LC, Davis LS, Guill MA (1996) Progressive symmetric erythrokeratodermia. J Am Acad Dermatol 34: 858–859PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Mendes da Costa S (1925) Erythro- et keratodermia variabilis in a mother and a daughter. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 6: 255–261Google Scholar
  10. Papadavid E, Koumantaki E, Dawber RP (1998) Erythrokeratoderma variabilis: case report and review of the literature. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 11: 180–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Rajagopaalan B, Pulimood S, George S et al. (1999) Erythrokeratoderma en cocardes. Clin Exp Dermatol 24: 173–174Google Scholar

Follicular Keratoses

  1. Barron DR, Hirsch AL, Buchbinder L et al. (1987) Folliculitis ulerythematosus reticulata: a report of four cases and brief review of the literature. Pediatr Dermatol 4: 85–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Friedman SJ (1990) Lichen spinulosus. Clinicopathologic review of thirty-five cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 22: 261–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Heidenström N, Tottie M (1944) Haut- und Gelenkveränderungen bei multiplem Myelom. Acta Dermatol Venereol 21: 92–199Google Scholar
  4. Kim TY, Park YM, Jang IG et al. (1997) Idiopathic follicular hyperkeratotic spicules. J Am Acad Dermatol 36: 476–477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Kunte C, Loeser C, Wolff H (1998) Folliculitis spinulosa decalvans: successful therapy with dapsone. J Am Acad Dermatol 39: 891–893PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Poskitt L, Wilkinson JD (1994) Natural history of keratosis pilaris. Br J Dermatol 130: 711–713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Rand R, Baden HP (1983) Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans. Arch Dermatol 119: 22–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Siemens HW (1926) Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans. Arch Dermatol 151: 384–386Google Scholar

Dyskeratotic-Acantholytic Disorders

  1. Antley CM, Carrington PR, Mrak RE et al. (1998) Grover’s disease (transient acantholytic dermatosis): relationship of acantholysis to acrosyringia. J Cutan Pathol 25: 545–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Beier C, Kaufmann R (1999) Efficacy of erbium: YAG laser ablation in Darier disease and Hailey-Hailey disease. Arch Dermatol 135: 423–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Burge SM, Wilkinson JD (1992) Darier-White disease: a review of the clinical features in 163 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 27: 40–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Burkhart CG, Burkhart CN (1998) Tazarotene gel for Darier’s disease. J Am Acad Dermatol 38: 1001–1002PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Carneiro SJC, Dickson JE, Knox JM (1972) Familial dyskera-totic comedones. Arch Dermatol 105: 249–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Casanova JM, Pujol RM, Taberner R et al. (1999) Grover’s disease in patients with chronic renal failure receiving hemodialysis: Clinicopathologic review of 4 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 41: 1029–1033PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chapman-Rolle L, DePadova-Elder SM, Ryan E et al. (1994) Persistent flat-topped papules on the extremities. Acrokeratosis verruciformis (AKV) of Hopf. Arch Dermatol 130: 508–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Darier J (1889) Psorospermose folliculaire végétante. Ann Derm Venereol 3(10): 597–612Google Scholar
  9. Davis MD, Dinneen AM, Landa N et al. (1999) Grover’s disease: clinicopathologic review of 72 cases. Mayo Clin Proc 74: 229–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Grover RW (1970) Transient acantholytic dermatosis. Arch Derm 101: 426–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Hailey H, Hailey H (1939) Familial benign chronic pemphigus. Arch Dermatol 39: 679–685Google Scholar
  12. Hopf G (1931) Über eine bisher nicht beschriebene disseminierte Keratose (Akrokeratosis verruciformis). Dermatol Z 60: 227–250Google Scholar
  13. Metze D, Hamm H, Schorat A et al. (1996) Involvement of the adherens junction-actin filament system in acantholytic dyskeratosis of Hailey-Hailey disease. A histological, ultrastructural, and histochemical study of lesional and non-lesional skin. J Cutan Pathol 23: 211–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. O’Malley MP, Haake A, Goldsmith L et al. (1997) Localized Darier disease. Implications for genetic studies. Arch Dermatol 133: 1134–1138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Parsons JM (1996) Transient acantholytic dermatosis (Grover’s disease): a global perspective. J Am Acad Dermatol 35: 653–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Price M, Russel Jones R (1985) Familial dyskeratotic comedones. Clin Exp Derm 10: 147–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Sakuntabhai A, Ruiz-Perez V, Carter S et al. (1999) Mutations in ATP2A2, encoding a Ca2+ pump, cause Darier disease. Nat Genet 21: 271–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Sánchez-Carpintero I, España A, Idoate MA (1999) Disseminated epidermolytic acanthoma probably related to trauma. Br J Dermatol 141: 728–730PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Tada J, Hashimoto K (1998) Ultrastructural localization of cell junctional components (desmoglein, plakoglobin, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin) in Hailey-Hailey disease, Darier’s disease, and pemphigus vulgaris. J Cutan Pathol 25: 106–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Van Geel NA, Kockaert M, Neumann HA (1999) Familial dyskeratotic comedones. Br J Dermatol 140: 956–959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. White JC (1889) A case of keratosis (ichthyosis) follicularis. J Cutan Dis 7: 201–209Google Scholar
  22. Wolff HH, Chalet MD, Ackermann AB (1977) Transiterische akantholytische Dermatose (Grover). Hautarzt 28: 78–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Zarour H, Grob JJ, Andrac L et al. (1992) Palmoplantar orthokeratotic filiform hyperkeratosis in a patient with associated Darier’s disease. Classification of filiform hyperkeratosis. Dermatology 185: 205–209PubMedGoogle Scholar

Porokeratoses and Other Disorders

  1. Alpsoy E, Yilmaz E, Aykol A (1997) Hyperkeratosis of the nipple: report of two cases. J Dermatol 24: 43–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Balus L, Donati P, Amantea A et al. (1988) Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 18: 431–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bohm M, Luger TA, Bonsmann G (1999) Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis: treatment with topical tacalcitol. J Am Acad Dermatol 40: 479–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Braun-Falco O, Bieber T, Heider L (1989) Keratosis lichenoides chronica-Krankheitsvariante oder Krankheitsentität? Hautarzt 40: 614–622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chernosky ME, Freeman RG (1967) Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP). Arch Dermatol 96: 611–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Fimiani M, Rubegni P, Andreassi L (1996) Linear palmo-plantar porokeratotic hamartoma. Br J Dermatol 135: 492–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Fisher CA, LeBoit PE, Frieden IJ (1995) Linear porokeratosis presenting as erosions in the newborn period. Pediatr Dermatol 12: 318–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Flegel H (1958) Hyperkeratosis lenticularis perstans. Hautarzt 9: 362–364Google Scholar
  9. Friedman SJ, Herman PS, Pittelkow MR et al. (1988) Punctuate porokeratotic keratoderma. Arch Dermatol 124: 1678–1682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Gougerot H, Carteaud A (1927) Papilomatose pigmentée inominée. Cas pour diagnostic. Bull Soc Fr Derm Syph 34: 719–721Google Scholar
  11. Gus SB, Osbourn RA, Lutzner MA (1971) Porokeratosis plantaris, palmaris et disseminata. A third type of porokeratosis. Arch Dermatol 104: 366–373Google Scholar
  12. Herranz P, Pizarro A, De Lucas R et al. (1997) High incidence of porokeratosis in renal transplant recipients. Br J Dermatol 136: 176–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ito M, Fujiwara H, Maruyama T et al. (1991) Morphogenesis of the cornoid lamella: histochemical, immunohisto-chemical, and ultrastructural study of porokeratosis. J Cutan Pathol 18: 247–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Jurecka W, Neumann RA, Knobler RM (1991) Porokeratoses: immunohistochemical, light and electron microscopic evaluation. J Am Acad Dermatol 24: 96–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kaposi M (1886) Lichen ruber moniliformis-Korallen-schnurartiger Lichen ruber. Arch Derm Syph 1: 1–32Google Scholar
  16. Konstantinov KN, Sondergaard J, Izuno G et al. (1998) Keratosis lichenoides chronica. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998 38: 306–309Google Scholar
  17. Li TH, Hsu CK, Chiu HC et al. (1997) Multiple asymptomatic hyperkeratotic papules on the lower part of the legs. Hyperkeratosis lenticularis perstans (HLP) (Flegel disease). Arch Dermatol 133: 910–914PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Mehregan DA, Vandersteen P, Sikorski L et al. (1995) Axillary granular parakeratosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 33(2 Pt 2): 373–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Metze D, Rütten A (1999) Granular parakeratosis-a unique acquired disorder of keratinization. J Cutan Pathol 26: 339–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Mibelli V (1893) Contributo allo studio della ipercheratose dei canali sudoriferi (porokeratosi). G Ital Mal Ven 28: 313–355Google Scholar
  21. Nékam L (1938) Sur la question du lichen moniliformis. Presse Med 46: 100Google Scholar
  22. Northcutt AD, Nelson DM, Tschen JA (1991) Axillary granular parakeratosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 24(4): 541–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Pollitzer S (1891) Acanthosis nigricans. In: Unna PG, Morris M, Besnier E, et al. (eds) International atlas of rare skin diseases. HK Lewis, London, pp 1–3Google Scholar
  24. Sasson M, Abigal DK (1996) Porokeratosis and cutaneous malignancy. A review. Dermatol Surg 22: 339–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Sawai T, Hayakawa H, Danno K et al. (1996) Squamous cell carcinoma arising from giant porokeratosis: a case with extensive metastasis and hypercalcemia. J Am Acad Dermatol 34: 507–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Schaller M, Korting HC, Kollmann M et al. (1996) The hyperkeratotic variant of porokeratosis Mibelli is a distinct entity: clinical and ultrastructural evidence. Dermatology 192: 255–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Schamroth JM, Zlotogorski A, Gilead L (1997) Porokeratosis of Mibelli. Overview and review of the literature. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 77: 207–213Google Scholar
  28. Webster CG, Resnik KS, Webster GF (1997) Axillary granular parakeratosis: response to isotretinoin. J Am Acad Dermatol 37(5 Pt 1): 789–790PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Yanklowitz B, Harkless L (1990) Porokeratosis plantaris discreta. A misnomer. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 80: 381–384PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Otto Braun-Falco
    • 1
  • Gerd Plewig
    • 1
  • Helmut H. Wolff
    • 2
  • Walter H. C. Burgdorf
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Dermatology and AllergologyLudwig Maximilians UniversityMunichGermany
  2. 2.Department of Dermatology and VenerologyUniversity of LübeckLübeckGermany

Personalised recommendations