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Catalysis pp 119-170 | Cite as

Automobile Catalytic Converters

  • Kathleen C. Taylor
Part of the Catalysis book series (CATALYSIS, volume 5)

Abstract

Catalysts have been widely used to lower the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) in the exhaust of automobiles in the United States since the introduction of 1975 models in the fall of 1974. These catalysts, contained in so-called catalytic converters in the exhaust system of automobiles, promote the oxidation of CO and HC to CO2 and H2O under net oxidizing conditions (e.g. A/F > 14.61): Until 1978, emission control requirements for nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emissions were met through noncatalyst technology, primarily exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) [1, 2]. Starting with some vehicles sold in California in 1977, NO x emissions from gasoline engines have been subject to catalytic control. The catalyst here has the additional function to promote the reduction of NO to N2 via reaction of NO with hydrogen or CO. Catalyst systems designed to reduce NO x are considerably more complex than the earlier control systems. For example, the control system introduced by General Motors on some 1978 model year cars has closed-loop air-fuel ratio control (closed-loop fuel metering system, exhaust gas oxygen sensor, and an electronic control unit) as well as a three-way catalyst which simultaneously promotes the conversion of HC, CO, and NO x [3]. Stringent federally mandated emission control requirements of 1 gram per mile (g mi−1) for NO x have led to the further application of three-way catalysts. This review will emphasize the state-of-the-art of catalytic control of automobile exhaust emissions since 1978, specifically three-way catalysts. A recent review by J. Kummer covers part of this period and earlier years [4]. Other reviews of this subject are listed in the reference section [5–14].

Keywords

Noble Metal Nitrogen Oxide Oxidation Catalyst Emission Control Exhaust Emission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathleen C. Taylor
    • 1
  1. 1.Physical Chemistry DepartmentGeneral Motors Research LaboratoriesWarrenUSA

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