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Metrical Aspects of Three- and Four-Center Hydrogen Bonds

  • George A. Jeffrey
  • Wolfram Saenger
Chapter

Abstract

The two-center hydrogen bonds X - H ··· A are by far the most common in all classes of biological molecules, but there is strong evidence, based on neutron diffraction crystal structures, that the three-center bonds occur much more frequently than previously thought. Analyses of small molecule crystal structures indicate that an average of about one quarter of all the NH ⋯ O = C and OH ⋯ O hydrogen bonds are of the three-center type (Table 2.3). Because in the (zwitterionic) amino acids there is a numerical imbalance between the (three) donor properties of the \(- \mathop N\limits^ + {H_3}\) and the (four) acceptor properties of the −CO2, the proportion of three-center bonds is untypically high, amounting to almost three quarters of the total number of hydrogen bonds.

Keywords

Neutron Diffraction Sulfamic Acid Bifurcate Hydrogen Bond Neutron Diffraction Analysis Neutron Diffrac 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • George A. Jeffrey
    • 1
  • Wolfram Saenger
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of CrystallographyThe University of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Institut für KristallographieFreie Universität BerlinGermany

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