Gammopathy pp 305-349 | Cite as

Therapy of the plasma cell tumors

  • János Jákó


Human mind can not keep up with the dynamic development of medical science. The awareness of insufficient knowledge is directly or indirectly experienced by physicians during their every-day work with the patients.


Multiple Myeloma Plasma Cell Myeloma Cell Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation Recombinant Interferon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Aggarwall, B. B., Eessalu, T. E., Hass, P. E. Characterization of receptors for human tumor necrosis factor and their regulation by γ-interferon. Nature. 318, 665. 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahre, A., Bjorkholm, M., Mellstedt, H. H., Holm, G., Brenning, G., Engstedt, L., Gahrton, G., Hällen, J., Johansson, B., Johansson, S. G., Karnström, L., Killander, A., Lesner, R., Lockner, D.,Lönnquist,B.,Sinmonson,B., Stalfelt, A. M., Ternstedt, B., Wadman, B. Intermittent high dose melphalan/prednisone versus continuous low dose melphalan treatment in multiple myeloma. Eur. J. Cancer Clin. Oncol. 19, 499. 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ahre, A., Björkholm, M., Mellstedt, H., Brenning, G., Engstedt, L., Gahston, G., Gallenhammar, H., Holm, G., Johansson, B., Jônmark, M., Karnström, L., Killander, A., Lerner, R., Lockner, D., Lönnquist, B., Nilsson, B., Simonsson, B., Stalfelt, A. M., Strander, H., Svedmyr, E., Wadman, B., Wedelin, C. Human leukocyte interferon and intermittent high-dose Melphalan-Prednisone administration in the treatment of multiple myeloma: A randomized clinical trial from the myeloma group of central Sweden. Cancer. 68, 1331. 1984.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alberts, D. S., Chang, S. Y., Chen, H. S. Variability of melphalan (M) absorption in man. Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol. 19, 334. 1978.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alexanian, R., Bergsagel, D. E., Migliore, P., Vaughn, W. K., Howe, C.D. Melphalan therapy for plasma cell myeloma. Blood. 31, 1. 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alexanian, R., Haut, A., Khan, A. U., Lane, M., Mc Kelvey, E. U., Migliore, P. J., Stuckey, W. J., Wilson, H. E. Treatment for multiple myeloma. Combination chemotherapy with different melphalan dose regimens. JAMA. 208, 1680. 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Alexanian, R., Balcerzak, S., Haut, A., Hewlett, J., Gehan, E. Remission maintainance therapy for multiple myeloma. A South-west Oncology Group study. Arch. Intern. Med. 135, 147. 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alexanian, R., Salmon, S., Bonnet, J., Gehan, E., Haut, A., Weick, J. Combination therapy for multiple myeloma. Cancer. 40, 2765. 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Alexanian, R., Salmon, S., Gutterman, J., Dixon, D., Bonnet, J., Haut, A. Chemoimmunotherapy for multiple myeloma. Cancer. 47, 1923. 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Alexanian, R., Gutterman, J., Levy, H. Interferon treatment for multiple myeloma. Clin. in Haematology. 11, 211. 1982.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alexanian, R., Driecar, R. Chemotherapy for multiple myeloma. Cancer. 53, 583. 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alexanian, R. Diagnosis and management of multiple myeloma. In: Neoplastic diseases of the blood. Ed: by Wiermok, P. J., Canellos, G., Kyle, R., Schiffer, C. Churchill. Livingstone, 529. 1985.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Alexanian, R. Ten-year survival in multiple myeloma. Arch. Intern. Med. 145, 2073. 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alexanian, R., Barlogie, B. VCAD-VAD as initial chemotherapy for multiple myeloma. Blood. 72, (Suppl. 1.). 237. 1988.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ambrus, J. L. Jr., Fauci, A. S. Current studies examining regulation of the human B cell cycle. In: Molecular basis of lymphokine action. Ed: by Webb, D. R., Pierce, C. W., Cohen, S. Clifton: Humana Press Inc. 137. 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Anderka, D., Michalevicz, R., Yair, D., Levo, Y., Douer, D., Ben-Bassat, I., Ramot, B., Shaklai, M., Prokocimer, M., Berrebi, A., Meytes, D., Rosubaum, H., Wallach, D., Revel, M. Recombinant interferon alpha-C for advanced hairy cell leukemia. Cancer. 61,2207. 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Anderson, K. C., Barut, B. A., Ritz, J., Freedman, A. S., Nadler, L. M. Autologous bone marrow transplantation therapy for multiple myeloma. Eur. J. Haematol. Suppl. 51. 43, 157. 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Andres, R., Tobin, J. D. In: Handbook of the Biology of Aging. Ed: by Finch, C. E., Hayflick, L. Van Nostrand Reinhold, N. Y. 357. 1977.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Averbuch, S. D., Austin, H. A., Sherwin, S. A., Autonorych, T., Bunn, P. A., Longo, D. L. Acute interstitial nephritis with the nephrotic syndrome following recombinant leukocyte A interferon therapy for mycosis fungoides. N. Engl. J. Med. 310, 32. 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Balkwill, F. R., Griffin, D., Ward, B. G., Fiers, W. Antitumour Activity of Interferons alpha and gamma and Tumour Necrosis Factor. J. Int. Res. 7, 818. 1987.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Barlogie, B., Smith, L., Alexanian, R. Effective treatment of advanced multiple myeloma refractory to alkylating agents. N. Engl. J. Med. 310, 1353. 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Barlogie, B., Alexanian, R., Smith, L., Dixon, D., Smallwood, L., Delasalle, K. Prognostic implications of tumor cell DNA and RNA content in multiple myeloma. Blood. 66, 338. 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Barlogie, B., Alexanian, R., Dicke, K. A., Zagars, G., Spitzer, G., Jagannath, S., Horwitz, L. High-dose chemoradiotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation for resistant multiple myeloma. Blood. 70, 869. 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Barlogie, B., Alexanian, R., Jagannath, S., Zagars, G., Spitzer, G., Dunphy, F., Yau, J., LeMaistre, F., Dicke, K. High dose therapy with autologous marrow transplantation for multiple myeloma (MM). Blood. Abst. Proceeding. 862. 1988.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Barlogie, B., Epstein, J., Selvanayagam, P., Alexanian, R. Plasma cell myeloma — new biological insights and advances in therapy. Blood. 73, 865. 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Barlogie, B., Smallwood, L., Smith, T., Alexanian, R. High serum levels of lactic dehydrogenase identify a high grade lymphoma-like myeloma. Ann. Intern. Med. 110, 521. 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bast, B. J. E. G., Boom, S. E., Ballieux, R. E. Characterization of the colony forming cell in monoclonal gammopathies. Blood. 60, 608. 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Belch, A.,Shelley, W.,Bergsagel,D.E., Wilson,K.,Klimo, P., White, D., Willon, A. A randomized trial of maintenance versus no maintenance melphalan and prednisone in responding multiple myeloma patients. Br. J. Cancer. 57, 94. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Benjamin, D., Hartmann, D. P., Bazar, L. S., Jacobson, R. J. Burkitt’s cells can be triggered by teleocidin to secrete interferon-gamma. Am. J. Hematol. 22, 169. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bennett, R. W., Gehlhausen, J. A., Poulos, J. T. Glucocorticoids. A review. US Pharm. 7, 40. 1982.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Berenson, J., Wong, R., Kim, K., Brown, N., Lichtenstein, A. Evidence for peripheral blood B lymphocyte but not T lymphocyte involvement in multiple myeloma. Blood. 70, 1550. 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Beresini, M. H., Lempert, M. J., Epstein, L. B. Overlapping polypeptide induction in human fibroblasts in response to treatment with interferon-alpha, interferongamma, interleukin 1 alpha, interleukin 1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor. J. Immunol. 140, 485. 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bergsagel, D. E., Griffith, K. M., Hart, A., Stuckey, W. J. The treatment of plasma cell myeloma. Adv. Cancer Res. 10, 311. 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bergsagel, D. E., Cowan, D. H., Hasselback, R. Plasma cell myeloma: Response of melphalan-resistant patients to high-dose cyclophosphamide. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 107, 851. 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bergsagel, D. E. Assessment of the response of mouse and human myeloma to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In: Growth kinetics and biochemical regulations of normal and malignant cells. Ed: by Drewinko, B., Humphreys, R. M. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore. 705. 1977.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bergsagel, D. E., Bailey, A. J., Langley, G. R., MacDonald, R. N., White, D. F., Miller, A. B. The chemotherapy of plasma cell myeloma and the incidence of acute leukemia. N. Engl. J. Med. 301, 743. 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bergsagel, D. E. Use a gentle approach for refractory myeloma patients, editorial. J. Clin. Oncol. 6, 757. 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bergsagel, D. E. Melphalan/prednisolon versus drug combinations for plasma cell myeloma. Eur. J. Haematol. Suppl. 51. 43, 117. 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bergui, L., Schena, M., Gaidano, G. L., Riva, M., Caligaris-Cappio, F. Interleukin-3 and Interleukin-6 synergistically promote the proliferation and differentiation of malignant plasma cell precursors in multiple myeloma. J. Exp. Med. 170, 613. 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Berkowitz, B. A., Ngai, S. H., Yang, J. C. The disposition of morphine in surgical patients. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 17, 629. 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bernard, D. B., Lynch, S. R., Bothwell, T. H. Multiple myeloma II. The value of melphalan. South. African Med. Journ. 48,1026. 1974.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bertolini, D. R., Nedwin, G. E., Bringman, T. S., Smith,D. D.,Mundy, G. R. Stimulation of bone resorption and inhibition of bone formation in vitro by human tumor necrosis factor. Nature. 319, 516. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Beutler, B., Cerami, A. Cachectin and tumour necrosis factor as two sides of the same biological coin. Nature. 320, 584. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Billiau, A., Bloemmen, J., Bogaerts, M., Claeys, H., Van Damme, J., De Ley, M., de Somer, P., Drochmans, A., Heremans, H., Kriel, A., Schetz, J., Tricot, G., Vermilen, C., Verwilghen, R., Waer, M. Interferon therapy in multiple myeloma: failure of human fibroblast interferon administration to affect the course of light chain disease. Eur. J. Cancer. Clin. Oncol. 17, 875. 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Billiau, A. BSF-2 is not just a differentiation factor. Nature. 324, 415. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 45a.
    Bischoff, S. C., De Weck, A. L., Dahinden, C. A. Interleukin-3 and granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor render human basophils responsive to low concentrations of complement component C3A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 87, 6813. 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 46.
    Bird, T. A., Saklatvala, J. Identification of a common class of high affinity receptors for both types of porcine interleukin-1 on connective tissue cells. Nature. 324, 263. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 47.
    Bjerke, J. R., Livden, J. K., Degre, M., Matre, R. Interferon in suction blister fluid from psoriatic lesions. Br. J. Dermatol. 108, 295. 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 48.
    Blalock, J. E., Smith, E. M. Human leukocyte interferon: structural and biological relatedness to adrenocorticotropine hormone and endorphins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 77, 5979. 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 49.
    Blalock, J. E., Stanton, J. D. Common pathways of interferon hormonal action. Nature. 283, 406. 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 50.
    Blalock, J. E., Smith, E. M. Structure and function of interferon (IFN) and neuroendocrine hormone. In: The Biology of the Interferon System. Ed: by DeMayer, E., Galasso, G., Schellekans, H. Elsevier North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam. 93. 1981.Google Scholar
  52. 51.
    Blalock, J. E. Smith, E. M. Human leukocyte interferon (HuIFN-alfa): potent endorphin-like opioid activity. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Common. 101, 472. 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 52.
    Boccadoro, M., Acker, A. V., Carmagnola, A., Conte, F., Pileri, A. Monitoring of long survival myeloma patient. Tumori. 67, 571. 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 53.
    Boccadoro, M., Gavarotti, P., Fossati, G., Massaia, M., Pileri, A., Durie, B. G. M. Kinetics of circulating B-lymphocytes in human myeloma. Blood. 61,812. 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 54.
    Boccadoro, M., Redoglia, V., Gavarotti, P., Pileri, A. Multiple myeloma plasma cell kineticks: rapid and reliable evaluation using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine DNA incorporation detected by an anti-BrdUrd monoclonal antibody. Tumori. 72, 135. 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 55.
    Boccadoro, M., Marmont, F., Tribalto, M., Fossati, G., Redoglia, V., Battaglio, S., Massaia, M., Gallamini, A., Comotti, B., Barbui, T., Campobasso, N., Dammacco, F., Cantonetti, M., Petrucci, M. T., Mandelli, F., Resegotti, L., Pileri, A. Early responder myeloma: kinetic studies identify a patient subgroup characterized by a very poor prognosis. J. Clin. Oncol. 7, 119. 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    Bocci, V., DeFrancesco, P., Pacini, A., Pessina, G. P., Rossi, G. B., Sorrentino, V. Renal metabolism of homologous serum interferon. Antiviral Res. 3, 53. 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    Bonnet, J., Alexanian, R., Salmon, S. Vincristine, BCNU, doxorubicin, and prednisone (VBAP) combination in the treatment of relapsing or resistant multiple myeloma: A South-west Oncology Group Study. Cancer. Treat. Rep. 66, 1267. 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 58.
    Bosanguet, A. G., Gilby, E. D. Pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous melphalan during routine treatment of multiple myeloma. Eur. J. Cancer. Clin. Oncol. 18, 355. 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 59.
    Boss, G. R., Seegmiller, J. E. Age-related physiologic changes and their clinical significance. West. J.Med. 135,434. 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 60.
    Brenning, G., Ahre, A., Nilsson, K. Correlation between in vitro and in vivo sensitivity to human leukocyte interferon in patients with multiple myeloma. Scand. J. Haematol. 35, 543. 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    Brook, J., Bateman, J. R., Gocka, E. F., Nakamura, E., Steinfeld, J. L. Long-term low dose melphalan treatment of multiple myeloma. Arch. Intern. Med. 131, 545. 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Broun, G. O., Petruska, P. J., Hiramoto, R. N., Cohen, H. J. Cisplatin, BCNU, Cyclophosphamide, and Prednisone in multiple myeloma. Cancer. Treat. Rep. 66, 237. 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Browning, G. The in vitro effect of leucocyte alpha-Interferon on human myeloma cells in a semisolid agar culture system. Scand. J. Haematol. 35, 178. 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 64.
    Bruckman, J. E., Bloomer, W. D. Management of spinal cord compression. Seminars in Oncology. 5, 135. 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    Bruckner, C. D., Fefer, A., Bensinger, W. I., Storb, R., Duire, B. G., Appelbaum, F. R., Petersen, F. B., Weiden, P., Clift, R. A., Sanders, J. E., Sullivan, K. M., Withersspoon, R. P., Hill, P., Martin, P., Thomas, E. D. Marrow transplantation for malignant plasma cell disorders: summary of Seattle experience. Eur. J. Haematol. Suppl. 51. 43, 186. 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Brunn, P. A., Foon, K. A., Ihde, D. C., Longo, D. L., Eddy, J., Winkler, C. F., Veach, S. R., Zeffren, J., Sherwin, S., Oddham, R. Recombinant leucocyte A interferon: an active agent in advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Ann. intern. Med. 101, 484. 1984.Google Scholar
  68. 67.
    Buckman, R., Cuzick, J., Galton, D. A. G. Long term survival in myelomatosis. A report to the MRC Working Party on Leukaemia in Adults. Brit. J. Haematol. 52, 589. 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Buzaid, A. C., Durie, B. G. M. Management of refractory myeloma: a review. J. Clin. Oncol. 6, 889. 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    Caligaris-Cappio, F., Bergui, L., Tesio, L., Pizzolo, G., Malavasi, F., Chilosi, M., Campana, D., van Camp, B., Jánosy G. Identification of malignant plasma cell precursors in the bone marrow of multiple myeloma. J. Clin. Invest. 76, 1243. 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Calvet, M. C., Gresser, I. Interferon enhances the excitability of cultured neurons. Nature. 178, 558. 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Case, D. C., Sonneborn, H. L., Paul, St. D. Phase II study of rDNA alpha-2 interferon (INTRON A) in patients with multiple myeloma utilizing an escalating induction phase. Cancer Treat. Rep. 70, 1251. 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Cohen, H. J., Bartolucci, A. A. Hexamethylmelamine and prednisone in the treatment of refractory multiple myeloma. Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 5, 21. 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    Cohen, H. J., Bartolucci, A. Age and the treatment of multiple myeloma. Amer. J. Med. 79, 316. 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    Coleman, M., Saletan, S., Wolf, D., Nisce, L., Wasser, J., Mclntyre, O. R., Tulloh, M. Whole bone marrow irradiation for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Cancer. 49, 1328. 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    Cooper, M. R., Fefer, A., Thompson, J., Case, D. C., Kempf, R., Sacher, R., Neefe, J., Bickers, J., Scarffe, J. H., Spiegel, R., Bonnern, E. Alpha-2 Interferon/Melphalan/Prednisone in Previously Untreated Patients with Multiple Myeloma: A Phase I–II Trial. Cancer Treatm. Rep. 70, 473. 1986.Google Scholar
  77. 76.
    Cordingley, F. T., Bianchi, A., Hoffbrand, A. V., Reittie, J. E., Heslop, H. E., Vyakarnam, A., Turner, M., Meager, A., Brenner, M. K. Tumor necrosis factor as an autocrine tumor growth factor for chronic B-cell malignancies. Lancet. i, 969. 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Cordingley, F. T., Hoffbrand, A. V., Heslop, H. E., Turner, M., Bianchi, A., Reittie, J. E., Vyakarnam, A., Meager, A., Brenner, M. K. Tumour necrosis factor as an autocrine tumour growth factor for chronic B-cell malignancies. Lancet. 8592, 969. 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Cornwell, M., Pastan, I., Gottesman, M. M. Certain calcium channel blockers bind specifically to multidrug-resistant human KB carcinoma membrane vesicles and inhibit drug binding to p-glycoprotein. J. Biol. Chem. 262, 2166. 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Costa, G., Engle, R. L., Schilling, A., Carbone, P., Kochwa, S., Nachman, R. L., Glidewell, O., For the acute leukemia group „B” and the eastern cooperative oncology group. Melphalen and Prednisone. An effective combination for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Amer. J. med. 54, 589. 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Costanzi, J. J., Cooper, M. R., Scarffe, J. H., Ozer, H., Gubbs, S. S., Ferraresi, R. W., Pollard, R. B., Spiegel, R. J. Phase II study of recombinant alpha-2 interferon in resistant multiple myeloma. J. Clin. Oncol. 3, 654. 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Costanzi, J. J., Cao, J., Spiegel, R. J. The efficacy of chemotherapy following interferon for relapsing multiple myeloma. In: Proceedings of the serono symposium. Raven Press. 1985.Google Scholar
  83. 82.
    Costanzi, J. J., Pollard, R. B. The Use of Interferon in the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma. Seminars in Oncology. 14. 2. Suppl. 2. 24. 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 83.
    Courtenay-Luck, N. S., Epenetos, A. A., Sivolapenco, G. B., Larche, M., Barkans, J. R., Ritter, M. A. Development of anti-idiotypic antibodies against tumour antigens and autoantigens in ovarian cancer patients treated intraperitoneally with mouse monoclonal antibodies. Lancet. ii. 894. 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    Cozzolino, F., Torcia, M., Aldinucci, D., Rubartelli, A., Miliani, A., Shaw, R., Lansdorp, A. R., Di Guglielmo, R. Production of interleukin-1 by bone marrow myeloma cells: Its role in the pathogenesis of lytic bone lesions. Blood. 74, 380. 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    Crawford, J., Cohen, H. J. Aging and neoplasia. Annu. Rev. Gerontol. Geriatr. 4, 3. 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Creagan, E. T., Ahmann, D. L., Green, S. J., Long, H. J., Rubin, J., Schutt, A. J., Dziewanowski, Z. E. Phase II study of recombinant leukocyte A interferon (rIFNαA) in disseminated malignant melanoma. Cancer. 54, 2844. 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    Creagan, E. T., Ahmann, D. L., Frytak, St., Long, H. J., Chang, M. N.,Itri, L. M. The consecutive phase II studies of recombinant interferon alfa-2a in advanced malignant melanoma. Cancer. 59, 638. 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 88.
    Cuttner, J., Wasserman, L. R., Martz, G., Sonntag, R. W., Kyle, R. A., Silver, R. T., Spurr, C., Harley, J. B., Wiernik, P. M., Cornwell, G. G., Falkson, G., Glidewell, O., Holland, J. F. The use of low dose prednisone and melphalan in the treatment of poor risk patients with multiple myeloma. Med. Pediat. Oncol. 1, 207. 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 89.
    Cuturi, M. C., Murphy, M., Costa-Giomi, M. P., Weinmann, R., Perussia, B., Trinchieri, G. Independent regulation of tumor necrosis factor and lymphotoxin production by human peripheral blood lymphocytes. J. Exp. Med. 165, 1581. 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 90.
    Dalton, W. S., Durie, B. G. M., Alberts, D. S., Gerlach, J. H., Cress, A. E. Characterization of a new drug-resistant human myeloma cell line that expresses p-glycoprotein. Cancer. Res. 46, 5125. 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Dalton, W. S., Durie, B. G. M., Salmon, S. E., Grogan, T. M., Scheper, R. J., Meltzer, P. S. Multidrug resistance in multiple myeloma. Detection of pglycoprotein in clinical specimens and reversal of resistance with verapamil. Blood. 70, 834A. 1987.Google Scholar
  93. 92.
    Danel, L., Menouni, M., Cohen, J. H., Magaud, J. P., Lenoid, G., Revillard, P., Saez, S. Distribution of androgen and estrogen receptors among lymphoid and haemopoietic cell lines. Leuk. Res. 9, 1337. 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    Danel, L., Vincent, C., Rousset, F., Klein, B., Bataille, R., Flacher, M., Durie, B. G. M., Revillard, P. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in some human myeloma cell lines and murine hybridomas. J. Steroid. Biochem. 1989.Google Scholar
  95. 94.
    Davis, G. L., Hoofnagel, J. H. Interferon in viral hepatitis: role in pathogenesis and treatment. Hepatology. 6, 1038. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 95.
    DeClerq, E., Zang, Z. X., Huygen, K. Synergism in the antitumor effects of type I and type II Interferon in mice inoculated with leukemia L1210 cells. Cancer Lett. 15,223. 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 96.
    Dewhirst, F. E., Stasbenko, P. O., Mole, J. E., Tsurumachi, T. Purification and partial sequence of human osteoclast-activating factor: identity with interleukin 1-beta. J. Immunol. 135, 2562. 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 97.
    DeWit, R., Schattenkerk, J. K. M. E., Boucher, C. A. B., Bakker, J. M., Veenhof, K. H. N., Danner, S. A. Clinical and virological effects of high-dose recombinant Interferon-alpha in disseminated AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. Lancet. i, 1214, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 98.
    Diaz, M. O., Le Beau, M. M., Pitha, P., Rowley, J. D. Interferon and c-ets-1 genes in the translocation (9; 11) (p22:q23) in human acute monocytic leukemia. Science. 231,265. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 99.
    Diaz, M. O., Ziemin, S., Le Beau, M. M., Pitha, P., Smith, S. D., Chilcote, R. R., Rowley, J. D. Homozygous deletion of the alpha and beta1-interferon genes in human leukemia and derived cell lines. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 85, 5259. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 100.
    Dillon, N., Chung, S., Kelly, J., O’Melley, K. Age and beta adrenoceptor-mediated function. Clin. Pharmac. Ther. 27, 769. 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 101.
    Dinarello, C. A., Mier, J. W. Current concepts: Lymphokines. N. Engl. J. Med. 317, 940. 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 102.
    Divoll,M., Abernethy,D. R., Ameer,B.,Greenblatt,D. J. Acetaminophen kinetics in the elderly. Clin. Pharmac. Ther. 31, 151. 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 103.
    Dolbeare, F., Gratzner, H., Pallavicini, M., Gray, J. W. Flow cytometric measurement of total DNA content and incorporated bromodeoxyuridine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 80, 5573. 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 104.
    Dolei, A., Capobianchi, M. R., Ameglio, F. Human IFN-gamma enhances the expression of class I and class II major histocompatibility complex products in neoplastic cells more effectively than interferon-alpha and interferon-beta. Infect. Immun. 40, 172. 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 105.
    Dorr, R. T., Salmon, S. E., Robertone, A., Bonnem, E. Phase I–II trial of interferon-alfa2b by continuous subcutaneous infusion over 28 days. J. Interferon Res. 8, 717. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 106.
    Drayer, D. E., Romankiewicz, J. A., Lorenzo, B., Reidenber, M. M. Age and renal clearance of Cimetidine. Clin. Pharm. Ther. 31, 45. 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 107.
    Drewinko, B., Alexanian, R., Boyer, H., Barlogie, B., Rubinow, S. I. The growth fraction of human myeloma cells. Blood. 57, 333. 1982.Google Scholar
  109. 108.
    Duncombe, A. S., Brenner, M. K. Is circulating tumor necrosis factor bioactive? N. Engl. J. Med. 319, 1227. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 109.
    Durie, B. G. M., Salmon, S. E., Moon, T. E. Pretreatment tumor mass, cell kinetics and prognosis in multiple myeloma. Blood. 55, 364. 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 110.
    Durie, B. G. M., Russell, D. H., Salmon, S. E. Reappraisal of plateau phase in myeloma. Lancet. ii, 65. 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 111.
    Durie, B. G., Salmon, S. E., Mundy, G. R. Relation of osteoclast activating factor production to extent of bone disease in multiple myeloma. Brit. J. Haematol. 47, 21. 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 112.
    Durie, B. G. M. Staging and kinetics of multiple myeloma. Clin. in Haematol. 11, 3. 1982.Google Scholar
  114. 113.
    Durie, B. G. M., Salmon, S. E. The current status and future prospects of treatment for multiple myeloma. Clin. in Haematol. 11, 181. 1982.Google Scholar
  115. 114.
    Durie, B. G. M., Young, L. A., Salmon, S. E. Human myeloma in vitro colony growth. Interrelationship between drug sensitivity, cell kinetics, and patients survival duration. Blood. 61, 929. 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 115.
    Durie, B. G. M., Salmon, S. E. Staging, kinetics and flow cytometry of multiple myeloma. In: Neoplastic diseases of the blood. Ed: by Wiernik, P. J., Canellos, G., Kyle, R., Schiffer, C. Church. Livingstone. 513. 1985.Google Scholar
  117. 116.
    Einat, M., Resnitzky, D., Kimchi, A. Inhibitory effects of interferon on the expression of genes regulated by platelet-derived growth factor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 82, 7608. 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 117.
    Epstein, J., Barlogie, B., Katzmann, J., Alexanian, R. Phenotypic heterogeneity in aneuploid multiple myeloma indicates pre-B cell involvement. Blood. 71, 861. 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 118.
    Epstein, J., Barlogie, B., Ling, V., Alexanian, R. P-glycoprotein expression in plasma cell myeloma is associated with resistance to VAD. Blood. 15, 74. 1989.Google Scholar
  120. 119.
    Epstein, J., He X-Y, Xiao, H., Barlogie, B. Multi-lineage involvement in multiple myeloma (MM). Proc. ASCO. 8, 256. 1989.Google Scholar
  121. 120.
    Ernstoff, M. S., Kirkwood, J. M. Changes in the bone marrow of cancer patients treated with recombinant interferon alpha-2. Am. J. Med. 76, 593. 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 121.
    Etoh, T., Takashi, H., Maie, M., Ohnuma, N., Tanabe, M. Tumor imaging by antineuroblastoma monoclonal antibody and its application to treatment. Cancer. 62, 1282. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 122.
    Ezaki, K., Ogawa, M., Okabe, K., Abe, K., Jnone, K., Horikashi, N., Inagaki, J. Clinical and immunological studies of human fibroblastoid interferon. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 8, 145. 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 123.
    Farhangi, M., Osserman, E. F. The treatment of multiple myeloma. Seminars in Haematol. 10, 149. 1973.Google Scholar
  125. 124.
    Fefer, A., Cheever, M. A., Greenberg, P. D. Identical twin (syngeneic) marrow transplantation for hematologic cancers. JNCI. 76,1269. 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 125.
    Finkel, H. E., Young, W. J., Salmon, S. E., Schilling, A. Current concepts in the therapy of multiple myeloma. Med. Clin. of N. America. 50, 1569. 1966.Google Scholar
  127. 126.
    Finnish Leukaemia Group. Aggressiv combination chemotherapy in multiple myeloma. A multicentre trial. Scand. J. Haematol. 35, 205. 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 127.
    Foă, R., Lauria, F., Lusso, P., Raspadori, D., Fierro, M. T., Tazzari, P. L., Caudana, L., Matera, L. Phenotypic and functional characterization of the circulating NK compartment in hairy-cell leukaemia. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 64, 392. 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 128.
    Foă, R., Fierro, M. T., Lusso, P., Bonferroni, M., Raspadori, D., Buzzi, M., Zinzani, P. L., Resegotti, L., Lauria, F. Effect of alpha-interferon on the immune system of patients with hairy cell leukemia. Leukemia. 1, 377. 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 129.
    Fomsgaard, A., Worsaae, H., Bendtzen, K. Detection of tumour necrosis factor from lipopolysac-charide-stimulated human mononuclear cells by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay and cytotoxicity bioassay. Scand. J. Immunol. 27, 143. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 130.
    Foon, K. A., Dougher, G. Increased growth of eyelashes in a patient given leukocyte A interferon. N. Engl. J. Med. 311, 1259. 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 131.
    Foon, K. A., Sherwin, S. A., Abrams, P. G., Longo, D. L., Fer, M. F., Stevenson, H. C., Ochs, J. J., Bottino, G. C., Schoenberger, C. S., Zeffren, J., Jaffe, E. S., Oldham, R. K. Treatment of advanced ’non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma with recombinant leukocyte A interferon. N. Engl. J. Med. 311, 1148. 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 132.
    Foon, K. A., Bottino, G. C., Abrams, P. G., Fer, M. F., Longo, D. L., Schoenberger, C. S., Oldham, R. K. Phase II trial of recombinant leukocyte A interferon in patients with advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Am. J. Med. 78, 216. 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 133.
    Foon, K. A., Maluish, A. E., Abrams, P. G., Wrightington, S., Stevenson, H. C., Atarif, A., Fer, M. F., Overton, W. R., Poole, M., Schnipper, E. F., Jaffe, E. S., Herberman, R. B. Recombinant leucoyte A interferon therapy for advanced hairy cell leukemia. Therapeutic and immunologic response. Am. J. Med. 80, 351. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 134.
    Fransen, L., Van der Heyden, J., Ruysschaert, R., Fiers, W. Recombinant tumor necrosis factor: its effect and its sinergism with interferon-gamma on a variety of normal and transformed human cell lines. Eur. J. Can. Clin. Oncol. 22, 419. 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 135.
    Frasca, D., Adorini, L., Landolfo, S., Doria, G. Enhancement of suppressor T cell activity by injection of anti-IFN-γ-monoclonal antibody. J. Immunol. 140, 4103. 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 136.
    Friend, S. H., Dryja, T. P., Weinberg, R. A. Oncogenes and tumor-suppressing genes. N. Engl. J. Med. 318, 618. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 137.
    Fuhuzawa, Y., Kawamura, T., Ohno, R. Clinical trial of a combination of human lymphoblastoid interferon (HLBI) and methyl-prednisolone (HLBI-mP) in multiple myeloma. Gan-To-Kagaku-Ryoho. 16, 3581. 1989.Google Scholar
  139. 138.
    Gahrton, G., Tura, S., Flesch, M., Gratwohl, A., Gravett, P., Lucarelli, G., Michallet, M., Reiffers, J., Ringden, O., van Lint, M. T., Vernant, J. P., Zwaan, F. E. Bone marrow transplantation in multiple myeloma. Report from the European Cooperative Group for Bone Marrow Transplantation. Blood. 69, 126. 1987.Google Scholar
  140. 139.
    Gahrton, G., Tura, S., Flesch, M., Gratwohl, A., Gravett, P., Lindenberg, A., Lucarelli, G., Michallet, M., Reiffers, J., Ringden, O., Nikoskelainen, J., Van Lint, M. T., Vernant, J. P., Znaan, F. E. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in 24 patients with multiple myeloma reported to the EBMT Registry. Hematol. Oncol. 6,181. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 140.
    Gahrton, G., Tura, S., Belanger, C., Caro, M., Chapvis, B., Ferrant, A., Flesch, M., Gore, M., Gratwohl, A., Gravett, P. J., Harrouseau, J. L., Lindeberg, A., Lingman, P., Löwenberg, B., Lucarelli, G., Michallet, M., Reiffers, J., Ringden, O., Van Lint, M. T., Vernant, J. P., Sellerfors, B., Simonsson, B., Toivanen, A., Troussard, X., Verdonck, L. F., Volin L., Zwaan, F. E. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma. Eur. J. Haematol. Suppl. 51. 43, 182. 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 141.
    Gailani, S., Seon, B. K., Nussbaum, A., Henderson, E. S., Pressman, D. Radioimmunoassay for myeloma idiotype. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 58, 1553. 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 142.
    Galton, J. E., Bedford, Ph., Scott, J. E., Brand, C. M., Nethersell, A. B. W. Antibodies to lymphoblastoid interferon. Lancet. ii, 572. 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 143.
    Gerrett, L. R., Durie, B. G. M., Nedwin, G. E., Gillespie, A., Bringman, T., Sabatini, M., Bertolini, D. R., Mundy, G. R. Production of the bone resorbing cytokine lymphotoxin by cultured human myeloma cells. N. Engl. J. Med. 317. 526. 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 144.
    Gauldie, J., Richards, C., Harnish, D., Landsdorp, P., Baumann, H. Interferon beta-2/B cell stimulatory factor type 2 shares monocyte-derived hepatocyte stimulating factors and the major acute phase protein response in liver cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 84, 7241. 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 145.
    Geokas, M. C., Haverback, B. J. The aging gastrointestinal tract. Am. J. Surg. 117, 881. 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 146.
    George, R. P., Poth, J. L., Gordon, D., Schrier, S. L. Multiple myeloma — Intermittent combination chemotherapy compared to continuous therapy. Cancer. 29,1665. 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 147.
    Gerdes, J., Dallenbach, F., Lennert, K. Growth fraction in malignant non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHL) as determined in situ with the monoclonal antibody Ki-67. Hematol. Oncol. 2, 365. 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 148.
    Ghaderi, A. A., Richardson, P., Cardona, C., Millsum, M. J., Ling, N., Gillis, S., Ledbetter, J., Gordon, J. Stimulation of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia populations by recombinant interleukin-4 and other defined growth-promoting agents. Leukemia. 2, 165. 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 149.
    Giles, F. J., Singer, C. R. J., Gray, A. G., Yong, K. L., Brozovic, M., Danes, S. C., Grant, I. R., Hoffbrand, A. V., Machin, S. J., Mehta, A. B., Alpha-interferon therapy for essential thrombocythaemia. Lancet. ii, 70. 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 150.
    Giordano, P., Mazzini, G., Riccardi, A. A simple procedure for DNA cytofluorometry simultaneously with autoradiographic grain count. In: Proceedings of the Combined International Conference on analytical cytology and with International Symposium on flow cytometry. Elmenau, West Germany. 75. 1982.Google Scholar
  152. 151.
    Glezerman, M., Lunenfeld, E., Cohen, V., Sarow, I., Movshovitz, M., Doerner, T., Shoham, J., Revel, M. Placebo-controlled trial of topical interferon in labial and genital herpes. Lancet. i, 150. 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 152.
    Goldstein, D., László, J. Interferon therapy in cancer: from imagination to interferon. Cancer Res. 46, 4315. 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 153.
    Gonzalez, F., Trujillo, J. M., Alexanian, R. Acute leukemia in multiple myeloma. Ann. Intern. Med. 86, 440. 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 154.
    Gore, M. E., Viner, C., Meldrum, M., Bell, J., Milan, S., Zuiable, A., Slevin, M., Selby, P. J., Clark, P. I., Millar, B., Maitland, J. A., Judson, I. R.,Tillyer, C., Malpas, J. S., McElwain, T. J. Intensive treatment of multiple myeloma and criteria for complete remission. Lancet. ii, 879. 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 155.
    Gratzner, H. Monoclonal antibody to 5-bromo- and 5-iododeoxyuridine: A new reagent for detection of DNA replication. Science. 218, 474. 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 156.
    Greenblatt, D. J. Reduced serum albumin concentration in the elderly. A report from the Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 27, 20. 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 157.
    Greenblatt, D. J., Shader, R. I. Effects of age and other drugs on benzodiazepine kinetics. Arzneimittelforsch. 30, 886. 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 158.
    Greenblatt, D. J., Divoll, M., Abernethy, D. R., Harmatz, J. S., Shader, R.J., Antipyrine kinetics in the elderly: Prediction of age-related changes in benzodiazepine oxidizing capacity. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 220,120. 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 159.
    Greipp, P. R., Kyle, R. A. Clinical morphological and cell kinetic differences among multiple myeloma, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, and smoldering multiple myeloma. Blood. 62, 166. 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 160.
    Greipp, P. R., Witzing, T. E., Gonchoroff, N. J., Habermann, T. M., Katzmann, J. A., O’Fallon, W. M., Kyle, R. A. Immunofluorescence labeling indices in myeloma and related monoclonal gammopathies. Mayo. Clin. Proc. 62, 969. 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 161.
    Greipp, P. R., Katzmann, J. A., O’Fallan, W. M., Kyle, R. A. Value of beta-2 microglobulin-level and plasma cell labeling indices as prognostic factors in patients with newly diagnosed myeloma. Blood. 72, 219. 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 162.
    Gresser, I., Tovey, M. G., Maury, C., Chouroulinkov, I. Lethality of interferon preparations for newborn mice. Nature. 258, 76. 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 163.
    Gresser, I. Antitumor effects of Interferon. In: Cancer — A Comprehensive Treatise. Ed: by Becker, F. Plenum Press, New York/London. 521. 1977.Google Scholar
  165. 164.
    Gressler, V. H., Weinkauff, R. E., Franklin, W. A., Golomb, H. M. Modulation of the expression of major histocompatibility antigens on splenic hairy cells — differential effect upon in vitro treatment with alpha-2b-interferon, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-2. Blood. 72, 1048. 1388.Google Scholar
  166. 165.
    Griggs, R. C., Condemi, J. J., Vaughan, J. H. Effect of therapeutic dosages of prednisone on human immunoglobulin G metabolism. J. Allerg. Clin. Immunol. 49, 267. 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 166.
    Grimm, E. A., Ramsey, K. M., Mazumder, A., Wilson, D. J., Djeu, J. Y., Rosenberg, S. A. Lymphokine-activated killer cell phenomenon. II. Precursor phenotype is serologically distinct from peripheral T lymphocytes, memory cytotoxic thymus-derived lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. J. Exp. Med. 157, 884. 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 167.
    Grogan, T. M., Lippman, S. M., Spier, C. M., Slyman, D. J., Rybski, J. A., Rangel, C. S., Richter, L. C., Miller,T. P. Independent prognostic significance of a nuclear proliferative antigen in diffuse large cell lymphomas as determined by the monoclonal antibody Ki-67. Blood. 71, 1157. 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 168.
    Grogan, T. M., Durie B. G. M., Spier, C. M., Richter, L., Vela, E. Myelomonocytic antigen positive multiple myeloma. Blood 73, 41. 1989.Google Scholar
  170. 169.
    Gutterman, J. U., Blumenschein, G. R., Alexanian, R., Yap, H. W. Y., Buzdar, A. U., Cabaillas, F., Hortobagyi, G. N., Hersh, E. M., Rasmussen, S. L., Harmon, M., Kramer, M., Pestka, S. Leukocyte interferon-induced tumor regression in human metastatic breast cancer, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma. Ann. Intern. Med. 93, 399. 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 170.
    Gutterman, J. U., Fein, S., Quesada, J., Horning, S. J., Levine, J. F., Alexanian, R., Bernhardt, L., Kramer, M., Spiegel, H., Colburn, W., Trown, P., Merigan, T., Dziewanowski, Z. Recombinant leukocyte A interferon: Pharmacokinetics, single-dose tolerance, and biologic effects in cancer patients. Ann. Intern. Med. 96, 549. 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 171.
    Gutterman, J. U. The role of interferons in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Seminars in Hematol. 25, 3. 1988.Google Scholar
  173. 172.
    Hagelstam, H. Solitary vertebral plasmacytoma causing paraplegia. Acta Chir. Scand. 109, 384. 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 173.
    Hamburger, A. W., Salmon, S. E. Primary bioassay of human myeloma stem cells. J. Clin. Invest. 60, 846. 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 174.
    Hannigan, G. E., Fish, E. N., Williams, B. R. G. Modulation of human interferon-alpha receptor expression by human interferon-gamma. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 8084. 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 175.
    Harley, J. B., Schilling, A., Glidewell, O. Ineffectiveness of fluoride therapy in multiple myeloma. N. Engl. J. Med. 286,1283. 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 176.
    Harley, J. B., Pajak, Th. F., McIntyre, O. R., Kochwa, Sh., Cooper, M. R., Coleman, M., Cuttner, J. Improved survival of increased-risk myeloma patients on combined triple-alkylating-agent therapy: a study of the CALGB. Blood. 54, 13. 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 177.
    Harousseau, J. L., Milpied, N., Garand, R., Bourhis, J. H. High dose melphalan and autologous bone marrow transplantation in high risk myeloma. Br. J. Haematol. 67, 493. 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 178.
    Harriman, G. R., Kunimoto, D. Y., Elliot, J. F., Paetkau, V.,Strober,W. The role of IL-5 in 1gA B cell differentiation. J. Immunol. 140, 3033. 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 179.
    Health care in the elderly: (WHO). Report of the technical group on use of medicaments by the elderly. Drugs. 22, 279. 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 180.
    Herberman, R. B., Djeu, J. Y., Kay, H. D., Ortaldo, J. R., Riccardi, C., Bonnard, G. D., Holden, H. T., Fagnani, R., Santoni, A., Ducetti, P. Natural killer cells: characteristics and regulation of activity. Immunol. Rev. 44, 43. 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 181.
    Herberman, R., Ortaldo, J. R., Bonnard, G. D. Augmentation by interferon of human natural and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Nature. 227, 221. 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 182.
    Hirano, T., Yasakuwa, K., Hanada, H., Tagar, T., Watanabe, Y., Matsuda, T., Kashiwamura, S., Nakajima, K., Koyama, K., Iwanatsu, A., Tsumasawa, S., Sakijama, F., Matsui, H., Takahara, Y., Taniguchia, T., Kishimoto, T. Complementary DNA for a novel human interleukin (BSF-2) that induces B lymphocytes to produce immunoglobulin. Nature. 324, 73. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 183.
    Hoffmann, V., Scheel, A., Schwarzmeier, J., Talstad, I., Varini, M., Kaplan, S., Sauter, Chr., Fehr, J. Wirksamkeit von Interferon-alpha2 (E. coli) bei der Haarzell-Leukômie. Schweiz. med. Wschr. 115, 235. 1985.Google Scholar
  185. 184.
    Hokanson, J. A., Brown, B. W., Thompson, J. R., Drewinko, B., Alexanian, R. Tumour growth patterns in multiple myeloma. Cancer. 39, 1077. 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 185.
    Hoogstraten, B., Sheehe, P. R., Cuttner, J., Cooper, T., Kyle, R. A., Oberfield, R. A., Townsend, S. R., Harley, J. B., Hayes, D. M., Costa, G., Holland, J. F. Melphalan in multiple myeloma. Blood. 30, 74. 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 186.
    Huang, K. Y., Donahoe, R. M., Gordon, F. B., Dressler, H.R. Enhancement of phagocytosis by interferon-containing preparations. Infect. Immun. 4, 581. 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 187.
    Hughes, T. K., Baron, S. Tumour necrosis factor. J. Biol. Reg. Homeos. Agents. 1, 29. 1987.Google Scholar
  189. 188.
    Hui, S. K., Lichtiger, B., Quesada, J. R. Cross-reactive red blood cell antigenic substance in human leukocyte alpha interferon. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 110(2), 128. 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 189.
    Ikebucki, K., Wong, G. C., Clark, S. C., Ihle, J. N., Hirai, Y.,Ogawa, M. Interleukin 6 enhancement of interleukin 3 — dependent proliferation of multipotential hemopoietic precursors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 84, 9035. 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 190.
    Inaba, M., Watanabe, T., Sugiyama, Y. Kinetic analysis of active efflux of vincristine from multidrug-resistant P388 leukemia cells. Jpn. J. Cancer. Res. 78, 397. 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 191.
    Jacobson, D. R., Zolla-Pazner, S. Immunosuppression and infection in multiple myeloma. Semin. Oncol. 8, 282. 1986.Google Scholar
  193. 192.
    Jaffe, J. P., Bosch, A., Raich, P. C. Sequential hemibody radiotherapy in advanced multiple myeloma. Cancer. 43, 124. 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 193.
    Jelinek, D., Lipsky, P. E. Regulation of human B cell proliferation and differentiation by interleukin 2. In: The molecular basis of B-cell differentiation and function. Ed.: by Ferrarini, M., Pernis, B. New York, London: Plenum Press. 63. 1986.Google Scholar
  195. 194.
    Joller-Jemelka, I. H., Fischer, A. E. Detection of antibodies of interferon alpha in various patient groups without prior administration of interferon: The 1986 ISIR-TNO meeting on the interferon system. Espoo, Finland, September 7–12. 1986.Google Scholar
  196. 195.
    Jong, A., Ouwenaller, C., van Chantraine, A., Courvoisier, B. Parenteral diphosphonates for treating malignant hypertension. Cancer. 48, 1922. 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 196.
    Joshua, D. E., Wearne, A., Kronenberg, H. Indication for therapy in multiple myeloma: should it be stage or stability. Lancet. ii, 201. 1985.Google Scholar
  198. 197.
    Joshua, D. E. Biology of multiple myeloma — Host-tumour interactions and immune regulation of disease activity. Hematol. Oncol. 6, 83. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 198.
    Kanellos, J., Pietersz, G. A., Cunningham, Z., McKenzie, I. F. C Antitumor activity of aminopterin-monoclonal antibody coniugates; in vitro and in vivo comparison with methotre-xate-monoclonal antibody coniugates. Immunol. Cell. Biol. 65, 483. 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 199.
    Kartner, N., Evernden-Porelle, D., Bradley, G., Ling, V. Detection of p-glycoprotein in multidrug-resistant cell lines by monoclonal antibodies. Nature. 316, 820. 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 200.
    Kataoka, T., Fusiko, O. H., Sakura, Y. Enhancement of antiproliferative activity of vincristine and adrymycin by interferon. Gann. 75, 548. 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 201.
    Katzmann, J. A. Myeloma-induced immunosuppression: A multistep mechanism. J. Immunol. 121, 1405. 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 202.
    Kawade, Y. Quantitation of neutralisation of interferon by antibody. Methods Enzymol. 119, 558. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 203.
    Kawano, N., Hirano, T., Matsuda, T., Taga, T., Horii, Y., Jwato, K., Asaoku, H., Tang, B., Tanabe, O., Tanaka, H., Kuramoto, A., Kishimoto, T. Autocrine generation and requirement of BSF-2/IL-6 for human multiple myelomas. Nature. 332, 83. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 204.
    Kawano, M., Yamamoto, I., Iwato, K., Tanaka, H., Kideki, A., Tanabe, O., Ishikawa, H., Nobuyoshi, M., Ohmoto, Y., Hirai, Y., Kuramoto, A. Myeloma cells produce IL-1, having bone-resorbing activity. Blood 72,145. 1988.Google Scholar
  206. 205.
    Kehrl, J. H., Alvarez-Mon, M., Delsing, G. A., Fauci, A. S. Lymphotoxin is an important T cell-derived growth factor for human B cells. Science. 238,1144. 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 206.
    Kelley, V. E., Goulton, G. N., Hattori, M., Ikegami, H., Eisenboth, G., Strom, T. B. Anti-Interleukin 2 receptor antibody suppresses murine diabetic insulitis and lupus nephritis. J. Immunol. 140, 59. 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 207.
    Kernan, N. A., Byers, V., Scannon, P. J., Mischak, R. P., Brochstein, J., Flomenberg, N., Dupont, B., O’Reilly, R. J. Treatment of steroid-resistant acute graft-vs-host disease by in vivo administration of an anti-T-cell ricin A chain im-munotoxin. JAMA. 259, 3154. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 208.
    Kirkwood, J. M., Ernstoff, M. S., Davis, C. A., Reiss, M., Ferraresi, R., Rudnick, S. A. Comparison of intramuscular and intravenous recombinant alpha-2 interferon in melanoma and other cancers. Ann. Int. Med. 103, 32. 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 209.
    Kishimoto, T. Factors affecting B cell growth and differentiation. Ann. Rev. Immunol. 3, 133. 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 210.
    Kishimoto, T. B-cell stimulating factors (BSFs): Molecular structure, biological function, and regulation of expression. J. Clin. Immunol. 7, 343. 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 211.
    Klein, B., Jourdan, M., Vasquez, A., Dugas, B., Bataille, R. Production of growth factors by human myeloma cells. Cancer Res. 47, 4856. 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 212.
    Klein, B., Zhang, X-G., Jourdan, M., Content, J., Houssiau, F., Regis, L. M., Aarden, L., Piechaczyk, M., Bataille, R. Paracrine rather than autocrine regulation of myeloma-cell growth and differentiation by interleukin-6. Blood. 73, 517. 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 213.
    Kohase, M., Henriksen-DeStefano, D., May, L. T., Vilcek, J.,Sehgal, P. B. Induction of beta 2-interferon by tumor necrosis factor: a homeostatic mechanism in the control of cell proliferation. Cell. 45, 659. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 214.
    Kohn, L. D., Friedman, R. M., Holmes, J. M., Lee, G. Use of thyrotropin and cholera toxin to probe the mechanism by which interferon initiates it’s antiviral activity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 73, 3695. 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 215.
    Konrad, M. W., Childs, A. L., Merigan, T. C, Borden, E. C. Assessment of the antigenic response in humans to recombinant mutant interferon beta. J. Clin. Immunol. 7, 365. 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 216.
    Koren, S., Klimpel, G. R., Fleischman, Jr. R. Treatment of mice with macrophage colony stimulating factor (CSF-1) prevents the in vivo myelosuppression induced by murine alpha, beta and gamma interferons. J. Biol. Resp. Mod. 5, 481. 1986.Google Scholar
  218. 217.
    Korst, D. R., Mich, A. A., Clifford, G. C, Fowler, W. M., Louis, J., Will, J., Wilson, H. E. Multiple Myeloma II Analysis of cyclophosphamide therapy in 165 patients. JAMA 189, 758. 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 218.
    Kozbor, D., Tripputi, P., Roder, J. C, Croce, C. M. A human hybrid myeloma for production of human monoclonal antibodies. J. Immunol. 133, 3001. 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 219.
    Kowalczyk, J., Sandberg, A. A. A possible subgroup of ALL with 9p. Cancer Genet. Cytogenet. 9, 383. 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 220.
    Krown, S. E. Interferon treatment of renal cell carcinoma: current status and future prospects. Cancer. 59, 647. 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 221.
    Kubagawa, H., Vogler, L. B., Capra, J. D., Conrad, M. E., Lawton, A. R., Cooper, M. D. Studies on clonal origin of multiple myeloma. Use of individual specific (idiotype) antibodies to trace the oncogenic event to it’s earliest point of expression in B cell differentiation. J. Exp. Med. 150, 792. 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 222.
    Kyle, R. A., Bayrd, E. D. The monoclonal gammophaties multiple myeloma and related disorders. Thomas. Springfield. 188. 1976.Google Scholar
  224. 223.
    Kyle, R. A., Pajak, Th. F., Henderson, E. S., Nawabi, I. V., Brunner, K., Henry, P. H., McIntyre, O. R., Holland, J. F. Multiple myeloma resistant to Melphalan: treatment with Doxorubicin, Cyclopharphamid Carmustine (BCNU), and Prednisone. Cancer. Treat. Rep. 66, 451. 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 224.
    Kyle, R. A. Treatment of multiple myeloma. N. Engl. J. Med. 310,1382. 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 225.
    Kyle, R. A., Greipp, P. R. Monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance. In: Neoplastic diseases of the blood. Ed.: by Wiernik, P. H., Canellos, C. P., Kyle, R. A., Schitter, C. A. Church. Livingstone N. Y. 653. 1985.Google Scholar
  227. 226.
    Kyle, R. A., Oken, M. M., Greipp, P. R. Alternating Cycles of VBMCP with Recombinant Alpha-In-terferon (Intron A) in the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma. XXII. Congress of the International Society of Hematology, University of Milan, Italy. 1988.Google Scholar
  228. 227.
    Kyle, R. A. IgD multiple myeloma: A cure of 21 years. Am. J. Hematol. 29, 41. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 228.
    Kyle, R. A. Multiple myleoma. An update an diagnosis and management. Acta. Oncol. 1,29. 1990.Google Scholar
  230. 229.
    Lafage, M., Maroc, N., Dubreuil, P., de Waal Malciijt, R., Pébusque, M. J., Carcasonne, T., Mannoni, P. The human interleukin-1 a gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 2 at band q13. Blood. 73, 104. 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 230.
    Lamy, P. P. Prescribing for the Elderly. Littleton. MA. PSG. Pub. 1980.Google Scholar
  232. 231.
    Lane, H. C, Kovacs, J. A.,Feinberg, J., Herpin, B.,Davay, V., Wallar, R., Deyton, L., Metcalf, J. A., Baseier, M., Salzman, N. Anti-retroviral effects of interferon-alpha in AIDS-as-sociated Kaposi’s sarcoma.Lancet. i, 1218. 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 232.
    Latreille, J., Barlogie, B., Dosik, G., Johnston, D. A., Drewinko, B., Alexanian, R. Ploidy and proliferative characteristics in monoclonal gam-mopathies. Blood. 59, 43. 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 233.
    Lauria, F., Foă, R., Matera, L., Raspadori, D., Tura, S. Membrane phenotype and functional behaviour of T-lym-phocytes in hairy cell leukemia (HCL). Sem. Oncol. 11,409. 1984.Google Scholar
  235. 234.
    Lee, B. J. Melphalan in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Clinical Bulletin. 6, 142. 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 235.
    Leonard, R. C. F., Maclennan, I. C. M., Smart, Y., Van Hegan, R. I.,Cuzick, P. In conjunction with the MRC Working Party for Leukaemia in Adults and the Oxford Lymphoma Group. Light chain isotypeassociated suppression of normal plasma cell numbers in patients with multiple myeloma. Int. J. Cancer. 24, 385. 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 236.
    Le thi Bich-Thuy, Dukovich, M. Teffer, N. J., Fauci, A. S., Kehrl, J. H., Greene, W. C. Direct activation of human resting T cells by IL-2: The role of an IL-2 receptor distict from the Tac protein. J. Immunol. 139, 1550. 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 237.
    Lichtman, A. H., Chin, J., Schmidt, J. A., Abbas, A. K. Role of interleukin 1 in the activation of T lymphocytes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 85, 9699. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 238.
    Lindahl, P., Leary, P., Gresser, I. Enhancement by interferon of the specific cytotoxicity of sensitized lymphocytes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 69, 721. 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 239.
    Ling, V. Multi-drug-resistant mutants. In: Molecular cell genetics. Ed.: by Gottesman, M. M. Willey, N. Y. 773. 1985.Google Scholar
  241. 240.
    Ludwig, Ch. U., Durie, B. G. M., Salmon, S. E., Moon,Th. E. Tumor growth stimulation in vitro by interferons. Eur. J. Cancer. Clin. Oncol. 19,1625. 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 241.
    Ludwig, Ch. U., Stoll, H. R., Obrist, R., Sutter, C, Obrecht, J. P. Improved tolerance of interferon by continuous subcutaneous infusion. Proc. Amer. Soc. clin. Oncol. 22, 915. 1986.Google Scholar
  243. 242.
    Ludwig, H., Swetly, P. In vitro inhibitory effect of interferon on colony formation of myeloma stem cells. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 93, 139. 1980.Google Scholar
  244. 243.
    Ludwig, H., Fritz, E. Individualized chemotherapy in multiple myeloma by cytostatic drug sensitivity testing of colony-forming stem cells. Anticancer. Res. 1, 329. 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 244.
    Ludwig, H., Cortelezzi, A., Scheithauer, W., van Camp, B. G. K., Kuzmits, R., Fillet, G., Peetermans, M., Polli, E., Flener, R. Recombinant interferon alfa-2c versus polychemotherapy (VMCP) for treatment of multiple myeloma: A prospective randomized trial. Eur. J. Cancer. Clin. Oncol. 22, 1111. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 245.
    Ludwig, H., Cortelezzi, A., Kührer, I. Combined interferon-polychemotherapy versus polychemotherapy in multiple myeloma: A phase III study. In: The biology of the interferon system. Ed.: by Cantell, K., Schellekens, H. M. Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 363. 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 246.
    Ludwig, H., Cortelezzi, A., Fritz, E. A prospective and randomized clinical trial of combined interferon polychemotherapy versus polychemotherapy in multiple myeloma (MM). J. Clin. Oncol. 6, 149. 1987.Google Scholar
  248. 247.
    Lutton, C. W., Gauntt, C. J. Ameliorating effect of IFN-beta and anti-IFN-beta on cox- sackievirus B3-induced myocarditis in mice. J. Interferon Res. 5, 137. 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 248.
    MacKenzie, M. R., Lewis, J. P. Cytogenetic evidence that the malignant event in multiple myeloma occurs in a precursor lymphocyte. Cancer. Genet. Cytogenet. 17, 13. 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 249.
    MacLennan, I. C. M., Kelly, K., Crockson, R. A., Cooper, E. H., Cuzick, J., Chapman, C. Results of the MRC myelomatosis trials for patients entered since 1980. Haematol. Oncol. 6, 145. 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 250.
    Maheshware, R. K., Lazo, P. S., Friedman, R. M. Enhancement of interferon activity by a membrane glycopro-tein related to the thyrotropin receptor. In: Interferon: properties and clinical uses. Ed.: by Khan, S., Hill, N. O., Dorn, G. L. Leland Fikes Foundation. 387. 1979.Google Scholar
  252. 251.
    Malkovsky, M., Loveland, B., North, M., Asherson, G. L., Gao, L., Ward, P., Fiers W. Recombinant interleukin-2 directly augments the cytotoxicity of human monocytes. Nature. 325, 262. 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 252.
    Mandelli, F., Tribalto, M., Avvisati, G. Recombinant alpha-2b interferon as maintenance therapy in responding multiple myeloma patients: Report of the Italian multiple myeloma study group (MMSG). (Preliminary results). XXII Congress of the International Society of Hematology. University of Milan, Italy. 1988.Google Scholar
  254. 253.
    Mandelli, F., Tribalto, M., Awisati, G., Cantonetti, M., Petrucci, M. T., Boccadoro, M., Pileri, A., Marmont, F., Resengotti, L., Lauta, V., Dammacco, F. Recombinant interferon alfa-2b (Intron A) as postinduction therapy for responding multiple myleoma patients. M84 protocol. Cancer. Treat. Rev. 15, (Suppl. A.) 43. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 254.
    Mandelli, F., Awisati, G., Petrucci, M. T. Interferon: a new strategy in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Eur. J. Haematol. Supp. I. 51. 43,129. 1989.Google Scholar
  256. 255.
    Marchetti, D., Van, N. T., Gametchu, B., Thompson, E. B., Kobayashi, Y., Watanabe, F., Barlogie, B. Flow cytometric analysis of glucocorticoid receptor using monoclonal antibody and fluoresceinated ligand probes. Cancer Res. 49, 863. 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 256.
    Marini, S., Guadagni, F., Bonmassar, E., Potenza, P., Giuliani, A. Influence of interferon on the functional expression of NK target structures of murine lymphoma cells. Cell Immunol. 102,113. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 257.
    Matuzaki, H., Hata, H., Takeya, M., Takatsuki, K. Establishment and characterization of an a amylase producing human myeloma cell line. Blood 72, 211. 1988.Google Scholar
  259. 258.
    May, L. T., Ghrayeb, J., Santhanam, U., Tatter, S. B., Sthoeger, Z., Helfgott, D. C, Chiorazzi, N., Grieninger, G.,Sehgal, P. B. Synthesis and secretion of multiple forms of β2-interferon/B- cell differentiation factor 2/hepatocyte-stimulating factor by human fibroblast and monocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 263, 7760. 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 259.
    May, L. T., Torcia, M. G., Cozzolino, F., Ray, A., Tatter, S. B., Santhanam, U., Schgal, P. B., Stern, D. Interleukin-6 gene expression in human endothelial cells: RNA start sites, multiple. IL-6 proteins and inhibition of proliferation. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 159, 991. 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 260.
    McArthur, J. R., Athens, J. W., Wintrobe, M. M., Cartwright, G. E. Melphalan and myeloma: Experience with a low-dose continouos regime. Ann. Intern. Med. 72, 665. 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 261.
    McElwain, T. J., Hedley, D. W., Burton, G., Clink, H. M., Gordon, M. Y., Jazman, M., Tuttner, C. A., Millar, J. L., Milsted, R. A. V., Prentice, G., Smith, I. E., Spence, D., Woods, M. Morrow autotransplantation accelerates haematologicall recovery in patients treated with high dose melphalan. Br. J. Cancer. 40, 72. 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 262.
    McElwain, T. J., Powles, R. L. High-dose intravenous melphalan for plasma-cell leukaemia and myeloma. Lancet. i, 822. 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 263.
    McElwain, T. J., Selby, P. J., Core, M. E., Viner, C, Meldrum, M., Millar, B. C, Malpas, J. S. High-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation for myeloma. Eur. J. Haematol. Suppl. 51. 43, 152. 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 264.
    Mclntyre, O. R., Leone, L., Pajak, T. F. The use of intravenous melphalan (L-PAM) in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Blood. Suppl. 1. 52, 274. 1978.Google Scholar
  266. 265.
    Mclntyre, O. R. Current concepts in cancer: Multiple myeloma. N. Engl. J. Med. 301, 193. 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 266.
    Mclntyre, O. R., Tefft, M., Propert, K., Wolf, D. J., Coleman, M., Leone, L., Cooper, M. R., Eaton, W., Zimmer, B. Melphalan and prednisone plus total bone marrow irradiation as initial treatment for multiple myeloma. J. Rad. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 15, 1007. 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 267.
    McLaughlin, P., Alexanian, R. Myeloma protein kinetics following chemotherapy. Blood. 60, 851. 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 268.
    McLaughlin, P., Talpaz, M., Quesada, J. R., Saleem, A., Barlogie, B., Gutterman, J. U. Immune thrombocytopenia is induced by alpha interferon in cancer patients. JAMA. 254, 1353. 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 269.
    Meager, A., Parti, S., Leung, H., Wolley, J., Peil, E., Sighu, S., Roberts, T. A two-site sandwich immunoradiometric assay of human lymphotoxin with monoclonal antibodies and its applications. J. Immunol. Methods. 104, 31. 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 270.
    Medical research council’s working party on leukaemia in adults. Myelomatosis. Comparison of melphalan and cyc-lophosphamide therapy. Brit. Med. J. 1,640. 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 271.
    Medical Research Council’s Working Party for Therapeutic Trials in Leukaemia: Report on the first myelomatosis trial. Analysis of presenting features of prognostic importance. Brit. J. Haematol. 24, 123. 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 272.
    Medical Research Council Working Party on Leukaemia in Adults. Report on second myelomatosis trial after five years follow up. Brit. J. Cancer. 42, 813. 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 273.
    Medical Research Council Working Party on Leukaemia in Adults. Treatment comparisons in the 3rd MRC myelomatosis trial. Brit. J. Cancer. 42, 823. 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 274.
    Medical Research Council Working Party on Leukaemia in Adults. Prognostic features in the 3rd MRC Myelomatosis trial. Brit. J. Cancer. 42, 831. 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 275.
    Medical Research Council Working Party on Leukaemia in Adults. Objective evaluation of the role of vincristine in induction and maintainance therapy for myelomatosis. Brit. J. Cancer. 52, 153. 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 276.
    Meeker, T., Lowder, J.,Cleary,M. L., Stewart, S., Warnke, R.,Sklar,J.,Levy, R. Emergence of idiotype variants during treatment of B-cell lymphoma with anti-idiotype antibodies. N. Engl. J. Med. 312, 1658. 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 277.
    Mellstedt, H., Bjorkholm, M., Holm, G. Intermittent melphalan and prednisolone therapy in plasma cell myeloma. Acta Med. Scand. 202, 5. 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 278.
    Mellstedt, H., Ahre, E., Bjorkholm, M., Holm, G., Johanson, B., Strander, H. Interferon therapy in myelomatosis. Lancet. i, 247. 1979.Google Scholar
  280. 279.
    Mellstedt, H., Pettersson, D., Holm, G. Monoclonal B lymphocytes in myelomatosis. Relation to activity of the disease. In: Prevention and Detection of Cancer. Part II. Detection. Vol. 2. Cancer Detection in Specific Sites. Macel and Dekker, Inc. N. Y. 2439. 1980.Google Scholar
  281. 280.
    Mellstedt, H., Holm, G., Petterson, D., Peest, D. Idiotype bearing lymphoid cells in plasma cell neoplasia. In: Clinical Haematology. Ed.: by Salmon, S. E. W. B. Saunders Ltd. London. 65. 1982.Google Scholar
  282. 281.
    Mellstedt, H., Aahre, A., Bjorkholm, M. Interferon therapy of patients with myeloma. In: Immunotherapy of human cancer. Ed.: by Terry, H., Rosenberg, G. Elsevier North Holland, Inc. 387. 1982.Google Scholar
  283. 282.
    Mellstedt, H., Holm, G., Bjorkholm, M. Multiple myeloma, Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia and benign monoclonal gammopathy. Characteristics of the B cell clone, immunoregulatory cell populations and clinical implications. Adv. Cancer Res. 41, 257. 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 283.
    Mellstedt, H. Melphalan/prednisone versus melphalan/prednisone plus human alpha-interferon therapy in patients with multiple myeloma, stage II and III. XXII Congress of the International Society of Hematology, University of Milan, Italy. 1988.Google Scholar
  285. 284.
    Mellstedt, H., Österborg, A., Björkholm, M., Björeman, M., Brenning, G., Gahrton, G., Grimfors, G., Gyllenhammar, H., Hast, R., Johansson, B., Juliusson, G., Järnmark, M., Killander, A., Kimby, E., Lerner, R., Merk, K., Paul, C, Simonsson, B., Smedmyr, B., Stalfelt, A. M., Strander, H., Svedmyr, E., Udén, A. M., Wadman, B., Ösby, E. Induction treatment with alpha-interferon in multiple myeloma: An interim report from MGCS. Eur. J. Haematol. Suppl. 51. 43. 124. 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. 285.
    Merz, B. Antibodies to tumor growth factors herald new era in chemotherapy. JAMA. 259, 7. 1988.Google Scholar
  287. 286.
    Meuer, S. C, Hassey, R. E., Cantrell, D. A., Hodgdon, J. C, Schlossman, S. F., Smith, K. A., Reinherz, E. L. Triggering of the T3-Ti antigen-receptor complex results in clonal T cell proliferation through an interleukin-2-depen-dent autocrine pathway. Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 81, 1509. 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. 287.
    Michie, H. R., Manogue, K. R., Spriggs, D. R., Revhang, A., O’Dwyer, S., Dinarella, C. A., Gerami, A., Wolff, S. M., Wilmore, D. W. Detection of circulating tumor necrosis factor after endoto-xin administration. N. Engl. J. Med. 318, 1481. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 288.
    Millar, B. C, Bell, J. B. G., Lakhani, A., Ayliffe, M. J., Selby, P. J., McElwain, T. J. A simple method for culturing myeloma cells from human bone marrow aspirates and pheripheral blood in vitro. Br. J. Haematol. 69, 197. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 289.
    Miller, R. A., Maloney, D. G., Warnke, R., Levy, R. Treatment of B-cell lymphoma with monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody. N. Engl. J. Med. 306, 517. 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 290.
    Mingari, M. C, Gerosa, F., Carra, G., Accolla, R. S., Moretta, A., Zubler, R. H., Waldmann, T. A., Moretta, L. Human interleukin-2 promotes proliferation of activated B cells via surface receptors similar to those of activated T cells. Nature. 312, 641. 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. 291.
    Mirro, J., Kalwinsky, J., Whisnant, P. Coagulopathy induced by continuous infusion of high doses of human lymphoblastoid interferon. Cancer. Treat. Rep. 69, 315. 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 292.
    Misset, J. L., Mathé, J., Gastiaburu, A., Goutner, A., Dorval, T., Gouveia, J., Hayat, M., Jasmin, C., Schwarzenberg, L., Machover, D., Ribaud, P., De Vassal, F., Horoszevicz, J. S. Treatment of lymphoid neoplasias with interferon I. Human fibroblastic beta-interferon in malignant gammapathies. Phase II trial. Anticancer Res. 2, 63. 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 293.
    Mita, S., Harada, N., Naomi, S., Hitashi, Y., Sakamoto, K., Akagi, M., Tominaga, A., Takatsu, K. Receptors for T cell-replacing factor/interleukin 5. Specificity, quantitation and its implication. J. Exp. Med. 168, 863. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 294.
    Moore, R. N., Pitnizzello, F. J., Robinson, R. M., Rouse, B.T. Interferon produced endogenously in respanse to CSF-1 augments the functional differentiation of progeny mar-rophages. J. Leuk. Biol. 37, 659. 1985.Google Scholar
  296. 295.
    Morrow, K. J. Monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of B-cell malignancies. Ann. Intern. Med. 104, 263. 1988.Google Scholar
  297. 296.
    Mosmann, T. R., Cherwinski, H., Bond, M. W., Giedlin, M. A., Coffman, R. L. Two types of murine helper T cell clone. I. Definition according to profiles of lymphokine activities and secreted proteins. J. Immunol. 136, 2348. 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. 297.
    Mundy, G. R., Cooper, L. G., Schecter, R. A., Salmon, S. E. Evidence for the secretion of an osteoclast stimulating factor in myeloma. N. Engl. J. med. 291, 1041. 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 298.
    Munck Petersen, C, Moller, B. K. Immunological reactivity and bioactivity of tumour necrosis factor. Lancet. i, 934. 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 299.
    Mundy, G. R., Raisz, L. G. Big and little forms of osteoclast activating factor. J. Clin. Invest. 60, 122. 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. 300.
    Muraguchi, A., Hirano, T., Tang, B., Matsuda, T., Horii, Y., Nakajima, K., Kishimoto, T. The essential role of B cell stimulatory factor 2 (BSF-2/IL-6) for the terminal differentiation of B cells. J. Exp. Med. 167, 332. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. 301.
    Muss, H. B., Constanzi, J. J., Leavitt, R., Williams, R. D., Kempf, R. A., Pollard, R., Ozer, H., Zekan, P. J., Grunberg, S. M., Mitchell, M.S. Recombinant alfa interferon in renal cell carcinoma: a randomized trial of two routes of administration. J. Clin. Oncol. 5, 286. 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 302.
    Nawroth, P. P., Bank, I., Handley, D., Cassimeris, J., Chess, L., Stern, D. Tumor necrosis factor/cachectin interacts with endothelial cell receptors to induce release of interleukin I. J. Exp. Med. 163, 1363. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. 303.
    Nicholls, M., Vincent, P. C, Repka, E.,Saunders, J., Gunz, F. W. Isotypic-discordance of paraproteins and lymphocyte surface immunoglobulins in myeloma. Blood. 57,192. 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 304.
    Niederle, N., Kloke, O., Doberauer, C, Becher, R., Beelen, D. W., Schmidt, C. G. Alpha Interferon: erste Behandlungsergebnisse bei der chronischen myeloischen Leukämie. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 111, 767. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. 305.
    Niederle, N., Kloke, O., May, D., Becher, R., Osieka, R., Schmidt, C. G. Treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia with recombinant interferon alfa-2b. Invest, new Drugs. Suppl. 5, 19. 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 306.
    Ochs, J., Abromowith, M., Rudnick, S., Murphy, S. Phase I–II study of recombinant alpha-2 interferon against advanced leukemia and lymphoma in children. J. Clin. Oncol. 4, 883. 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. 307.
    Ohno, R., Kimura, K. Treatment of multiple myeloma with recombinant interferon alpha-2a. Cancer. Suppl. 8. 57, 1685. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. 308.
    Oken, M. M., Kyle, R. A., Kay, N. E. A Phase II trial of interferon alpha2 (rIFNα2) in the treatment of resistant multiple myeloma (MM). Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol. 4, 215. 1985.Google Scholar
  310. 309.
    Oken, M. M., Kyle, R. A., Greipp, P. R., Kay, N. E., Tsiatis, A., O’Connell, M. J. Alternating cycles of VBMCP with interferon (rIFN-alpha 2) in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol. 7, 868. 1988.Google Scholar
  311. 310.
    Oldham, R. Toxic effects of interferon. Science. 219, 902. 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. 311.
    Osby, E., Reizenstein, P. Differential treatment of myeloma. A non-randomized phase II study. Anticancer Res. 4, 163. 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. 312.
    Osgood, E. E. The survival time of patients with plasmacytic myeloma. Cancer Chemother. Rep. 9, 1. 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. 313.
    Osserman, E. F., DiRe, L. B., DiRe, J., Sherman, W. H., Hersman, J. A., Storb, R. Identical twin marrow transplantation in multiple myeloma. Acta Haematol. 68, 215. 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 314.
    Österborg, A., Nilsson, B., Björkholm, M., Holm, G., Johansson, B., Lindelman, C, Pettersos, D., Ahre, A., Mellstedt, H. Blood clonal B cell excess at diagnosis in multiple myeloma. Relation to prognosis. Eur. J. Haematol. 38, 173. 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. 315.
    Österborg, A., Mellstedt, H. Monoclonal and biclonal immunoglobulinproducing disorders. Eur. J. Haematol. Suppl. 51. 43, 11. 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. 316.
    Paccagnella, A., Carter, G., Fosser, V., Salvagno, L., Bolzonella, S., Sileni, V. C, Fiorentino, M. V. Treatment of multiple myeloma with M-2 protocol and without maintainance therapy. Eur. J. Cancer. Clin. Oncol. 19, 1345. 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. 317.
    Paul,W. E.,Ohara,J. B-cell stimulatory factor-1/Interleukin. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 5, 429. 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. 318.
    Pavlovsky, S., Saslavsky, J., Tezanos-Pinto, M. A randomized trial of melphalan and prednisone versus melphalan, prednisone, cyclophosphamide. MeCCNU and vincristine in multiple myeloma. J. Clin. Oncol. 2, 836. 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. 319.
    Perrillo, R. P. Interferon therapy for chronic type B hepatitis: the promise comes of age. Gastroenterol. 96, 532. 1989.Google Scholar
  321. 320.
    Pileri, A., Carmagnola, A., Boccadoro, M. Human myeloma: kinetics of the remission phase. Acta Haemat. 68, 237. 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. 321.
    Pileri, A., Ferrero, D., Massaisa, M., Dianzi, U., Boccadoro, M. Advances in biology of multiple myeloma: cell kinetics, molecular biology and immunology. Eur. J. Haematol. Suppl. 51. 43, 30. 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. 322.
    Pistoia, V., Cozzolino, F., Rubartelli, A., Torcia, M., Roncella, S.,Ferrarini, M. In vitro production of interleukin 1 by normal and malignant B lymphocytes. J. Immunol. 136, 1688. 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 323.
    Preud’homme, J. L., Brouet, J. C, Seligmann, M. Membrane-bound IgD on human lymphoid cells, with special reference to immunodeficiency and immunoproliferative diseases. Immunol. Rev. 37, 127. 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. 324.
    Quesada, J. R., Gutterman, J. U., Swanson, D., Tundade, A. Renal cell carcinoma: Antitumor effects of leukocyte interferon. Cancer Res. 43, 940. 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. 325.
    Quesada, J. R., Gutterman, J. U. Clinical study of recombinant DNA produced leukocyte interferon in an intermittent schedule in cancer patients. JNCI. 70, 1041. 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. 326.
    Quesada, J. R., Hawkins, M. Merigan, T. C, Adams, F., Gutterman, J. U. A collaborative phase I–II study of recombinant DNA-pro-duced leukocyte interferon (clone A) in metastatic breast cancer, malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Am. J. Med. 77, 427. 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. 327.
    Quesada, J. R., Reuben, J., Manning, J. T., Hersch, E. M., Guttermann, J. U. Alpha interferon for induction of remission in hairy cell leukemia. New. Engl. J. Med. 310, 15. 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. 328.
    Quesada, J. R., Rios, A., Swanson, D., Trown, P., Gutterman, J. U. Antitumor activity of recombinant-derived interferon alpha (rIFNαA) in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. J. Clin. Oncol. 3, 1522. 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. 329.
    Quesada, J. R., Alexanian, R., Hawkins, M., Barlogie, B., Borden, E., Itri, L., Gutterman, J. U. Treatment of multiple myeloma with recombinant alpha-in-terferon. Blood. 67, 275. 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. 330.
    Quesada, J. R., Talpaz, M., Rios, A., Kurzrock R., Guttermann, J. U. Clinical toxicity of interferons in cancer patients: a review. J. Clin. Oncol. 4, 234. 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. 331.
    Rabin, E. M., Mond, J. J., Ohara, J., Paul, W. E. B cell stimulatory factor (BSF)-1 prepares resting B cells to enter S phase in response to anti-IgM and to lipopolysac-charide. J. Exp. Med. 164, 517. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. 332.
    Raefsky, E. L., Platanias, L. C, Zoumbos, N. C, Young, N. S. Studies of interferon as a regulator of hematopoietic cell proliferation. J. Immunol. 135, 2507. 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. 333.
    Reyes-Vasquez, C., Weisbrodt, N., Dafny, N. Does interferon exert it’s actions through opiate receptors. Life Sciences. 35,1015. 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. 334.
    Riccardi, A., Merlini, G., Montecucco, C, Perugini, S., Vincristine in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Haematol. 65, 595. 1980.Google Scholar
  336. 335.
    Riccardi, A., Montecucco, C, Danova, M., Ucci, G., Merlini, G., Ascari, E. Rate of M-component changes and plasma cell labeling index in 25 patients with multiple myeloma treated with Pep-tichemio. Cancer Treatment Reports. 69, 971. 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. 336.
    Robert, J. L., Tubiana, N., Lejeune, C, Carcassone, Y. Multiple myeloma: A case of a cure? Nov. Rev. Fr. Hematol. 31, 35. 1989.Google Scholar
  338. 337.
    Rohatiner, A. S. Z., Balkwill, F. R., Griffin, D. B., Malpas, J. S., Lister, T. A. A phase I study of human lymphoblastoid interferon administered by continuous intravenous infusion. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 9, 97. 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. 338.
    Rosner, F., Grünwald, H. Multiple myeloma terminating in acute leukemia: report of 12 cases and review of the literature. Am. J. Med. 57, 927. 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. 339.
    Rossi, J-F., Durie, B. G. M., Duperray, C, Braich, T., Marion, S. L., Pike, J. W., Haussler, M. R., Janbon, C, Bataille, R. Phenotypic and functional analysis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor mediated modulation of the human myeloma cell line RPMI 8266. Cancer Res. 48, 1213. 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. 340.
    Rousset, F., Malefijt, R. W., Slierendregt, B., Aubry, J. P., Bonnefoy, J. Y., Defrance, T., Banchereau, J., DeVries, J. E. Regulation of Fc-receptor for IgE (CD 23) and class II MHC antigen expression Burkitt’s lymphoma cell lines by human IL-4 and IFN-gamma. J. Immunol. 140, 2625. 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. 341.
    Rubin, B. Y., Gupta, S. L. Different efficacies of human type I and type II interferons as antiviral and antiproliferative agents. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 77, 5928. 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. 342.
    Ruco, L. P., Procopio, A., Maccalini, V., Calogero, A., Uccini, S., Annino, L., Mandelli, F., Baroni, C. D. Severe deficiency of natural killer activity in the peripheral blood of patients with hairy cell leukemia. Blood. 61, 1132. 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 343.
    Ruggiero, V., Tavernier, J., Fiers, W., Baglioni, C. Induction of the synthesis of tumor necrosis factor receptors by interferon. J. Immunol. 136, 2445. 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. 344.
    Russel, R. G. G., Fleisch, H. Pyrophosphates and disphosphonates in skeletal metabolism: physiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects. Clin. Orthop. 108, 241. 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. 345.
    Salmon, S. E., Smith, B. A. Immunoglobulin synthesis and total body tumor cell number in IgG multiple myeloma. J. Clin. Invest. 49, 1114. 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. 346.
    Salmon, S. E. Expansion of the growth fraction in multiple myeloma with alkylating agents. Blood. 45, 119. 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. 347.
    Salmon, S. E., Hamburger, A. W., Soehnlen, B., Durie, B. G. M., Alberts, D. S., Moon, T. E. Quantitation of differential sensitivity of human-tumor stem cells to anticancer drugs. N. Engl. J. Med. 298,1321. 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. 348.
    Salmon, S. E. In vitro cloning and chemosensitivity of marrow myeloma stem cells. In: Clinics in Hematology. Ed: by Salmon, S. E. Saunders. 11. 1982.Google Scholar
  350. 349.
    Salmon, S. E., Durie, B. G. M., Young, L., Liu, R. M., Trown, P. W., Stebbing, N. Effects of cloned human leukocyte interferons in the human tumor stem cell assay. J. Clin. Oncol. 1, 217. 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. 350.
    Salmon, S. E., Haut, A., Bonnet, J. D. Alternating combination chemotherapy and levamisole improves survival in multiple myeloma: A South-west Oncology Group Study. J. Clin. Oncol. 1,453. 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. 351.
    Salmon, S., Tesh, D., Crowley, J., Saeed, S., Fonley, P., Stock-Novak, D. Combination chemotherapy is superior to hemibody irradiation (HXRT) for remission consolidation in multiple myeloma (MM): A South-west Oncology Group (SWOG) study. Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol. 8, 250. 1989.Google Scholar
  353. 352.
    Schiller, J. H., Groveman, D. S., Schmid, S. M., Willson, J. K. V., Cummings, K. B., Borden, E. C. Synergistic antiproliferative effects of human recombinant alpha54 — or βser— interferon with γ-interferon on human cell lines of various histogenesis. Cancer Res. 46, 483. 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. 353.
    Schonfeld, A., Nitke, S., Schattner, A., Wallach, D., Crespi, M., Hahn, T., Levari, H., Yarden, O., Shoham, J., Doerner, T. Intramuscular human interferon-beta injections in treatment of condylomata acuminata. Lancet. i, 1038. 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. 354.
    Schulze, H. J., Mahrle, G. Effect of interferons (rIFN-alpha 2, rIFN-gamma) on DNA’synthesis and HLA-DR expression in psoriasis. Arch. Dermatol. Res. 278, 416. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. 355.
    Schulze, H. J., Mahrle, G. Gamma interferon and psoriasis. Lancet. ii, 926. 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. 356.
    Scott, G. M. The toxic effects of interferon in man. In: Interferon. Ed: by Gresser, I. Orlando Fla, Academic. 5, 86. 1983.Google Scholar
  358. 357.
    Sehgal, P., May, L. T., Tamm, I., Vilcek, J. Human β2 interferon and B-cell differentiation factor BSF-2 are identical. Science. 235, 731. 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. 358.
    Selby, P. F., Kohn, J., Raymond, J., Judsou, I., McElwain, T. Nephrotic syndrome during treatment with interferon. Br. Med. J. 290,1180. 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. 359.
    Selby, P. F., McElwain, T. J., Nandi, A. C, Perren, T. J., Powles, R. L., Tillyer, C. R., Osborne, R. J., Slevin, M. L.,. Malpas, J. S. Multiple myeloma treated with high dose intravenous mel-phalan. Br. J. Haematol. 66, 55. 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. 360.
    Selby, P. F., Zulian, G., Forgeson, G., Nandi, A., Milan, S., Meldrum, M., Osborne, R., Malpas, J. S., McElwain, T. J. The development of high dose melphalan and of autologous bone marrow transplantation in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Royal Marsden and St. Bartholomew’s Hospital studies. Hematol. Oncol. 6,173. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. 361.
    Semenzato, G., Pizzollo, G., Agostini, C, Ambrosetti, A., Zambello, R., Trentin, R., Luca, M., Masciarelli, M., Chilosi, M., Vinante, F., Penona, G., Cetto, G. Alpha-interferon activates the natural killer system in patients with hairy-cell leukemia. Blood. 68, 293. 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. 362.
    Shah, I., Band, J., Samson, M., Young, J., Robinson, R., Bailey, B., Lerner, A. M., Prasad, A. S. Pharmacokinetics and tolerance of intravenous and intramuscular recombinant alpha-interferon in patients with malignancies. Am. J. Hematol. 17, 363. 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. 363.
    Shaw, M. T., Twele, T. W., Nordquist, R. E. Plasma cell leukemia: detailed studies and response to chemotherapy. Cancer. 33, 619. 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. 364.
    Shimazaki, C, Wisniewski, D., Scheinberg, D. A., Atzpodien, J., Strife, A., Gulati, S., Fried, J., Wisniewolski, R., Wang, C. Y., Clarkson, B. D. Elimination of myeloma cells from bone marrow by using monoclonal antibodies and magnetic immunobeads. Blood. 72,1248. 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. 365.
    Shimazaki,C, Atzpodien, J., Wisniewski,D.,Gulati,S.C, Kalitz, J. E., Fried, J., Clarkson, B. Cellmediated toxicity of interleukin-2-activated lymphocytes against autologous and allogeneic human myeloma cells. Acta Haemat. 80, 203. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. 366.
    Shimazaki, C, Gulati, S. C, Atzpodien, J., Fried, J., Colvin, O. M., Clarkson, B. D. Ex vivo treatment of myeloma cells by 4-hydroperoxycyc-lophosphamide and VP-16-213. Acta Haematol. 80,17. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. 367.
    Shimazaki, C, Inaba, T., Murakami, S. Purging of myeloma cells from bone marrow using monoclonal antibodies and magnetic immunobeads in combination with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide. Leukemia. 1989.Google Scholar
  369. 368.
    Shimizu, K., Hirano, T., Tshibashi, K., Nakano, N., Taga, T., Sugamura, K., Yamamura, Y., Kishimoto, T. Immortalization of BGDF (BCGF II)-and BGDF-producing T cells by human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV) and characterization of human BGDF (BCGF II). J. Immunol. 134,1728. 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. 369.
    Sideras, P., Palacios, R. Bone marrow pro-T and pro-B lymphocyte clones express functional receptors for interleukin (IL) 3 and IL-4/BSF-1 and non-functional receptors for IL-2. Eur. J. Immunol. 17, 217. 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. 370.
    Spiegel, R. J. Clinical overview of alpha interferon. Cancer. 59, 626. 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. 371.
    Spiro, F. P., Mundy, G. R. Effect of the diphosphonates APD Aminohydroxypropane disphosphonate) and C12 MDP Dichloromethylene diphos-phanate) on bone resorption. American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. 18.1980.Google Scholar
  373. 372.
    Sporn, M. B., Roberts, A. B. Autocrine growth factors and cancer. Nature. 313, 745. 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. 373.
    Stanton, G. J., Weigent, D. A., Langford, M. P., Blalock, J. E. Human leukocyte transfer of viral resistance to heterologous cells. In: Interferons properties and clinical uses. Ed: by Kahn, A., Hill, N. O., Dorn, G. Wadley Institute of Molecular Medicine, i, 355. 1980.Google Scholar
  375. 374.
    Stashenko, P., Dewhirst, F. E., Peros, W. J., Kent, R. L., Ago, J. M. Synergistic interaction between interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor, and lymphotoxin in bone resorption. J. Immunol. 138,1464. 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. 375.
    Steis, R. G., Smith II, J. W., Urba, W. J., Clark, J. W., Itri, L. M., Evans, L. M., Schoenberger, C, Longo, D. L. Resistance to recombinant interferon alfa-2a in hairy-cell leukemia associated with neutralizing anti-interferon antibodies. N. Engl. J. Med. 318,1988.Google Scholar
  377. 376.
    Stewart, W. E. X. II Non-antiviral actions of interferons. In: The interferon system. Ed: by Stewart, W. E. Springer-Verlag. N. Y. 134. 1979.Google Scholar
  378. 377.
    Stolpen, A. H., Guinan, E. C, Fiers, W., Pober, J. S. Recombinant tumor necrosis factor and immune interferon act singly and in combination to reorganize human vascular endothelial cell monolayers. Amer. J. Path. 123, 16. 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. 378.
    Strander, H., Cantell, K., Inginarison, S. Interferon treatment of osteogenic sarcoma: a clinical trial. In Conference on modulation of host immune resistance in the prevention and treatment of induced neoplasms. United States Government printing office, Washington. 28, 377. 1980.Google Scholar
  380. 379.
    Sumpio, B. E., Ernstoff, M. S., Kirkwood, J. M. Urinary excretion of interferon, albumin, and beta-2 micro-globulin during interferon treatment. Cancer Res. 44, 3599. 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. 380.
    Suyehira, L. A., Lawrence, H. J. Seventeen year survival in multiple myeloma. Am. J. Haematol. 30,192. 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. 381.
    Sykes, M. P., Savel, H., Chu, F. C. H., Bonadonna, G., Farrow, J., Mathis, H. Long-term effects of therapeutic irradiation upon bone marrow. Cancer. 17, 1144. 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. 382.
    Sykes, M. P., Chu, F. C. H., Savel, H., Bonadonna, G., Mathis, H. The effects of varying dosages of irradiation upon sternal-marrow regeneration. Radiology. 83, 1084. 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. 383.
    Talpaz, M., McCredie, K. D., Mayligit, G. M., Guttermann, J. U. Leukocyte interferon-induced myeloid cytoreduction in chronic myelogenous leukemia. Blood. 62, 689. 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. 384.
    Talpaz, M., Kantarijan, H. M., McCredie, K., Trujillo, J. M., Keating, M. J., Guttermann, J. U. Hematologic remission and cytogenetic improvement induced by recombinant human interferon alpha A in chronic myelogenous leukemia. New Engl. J. Med. 314, 1065. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. 385.
    Taguchi, T. Clinical studies of recombinant interferon alfa-2a (RoferonR-A) in cancer patients. Cancer. Suppl. 57, 1705. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. 386.
    Thomas, E. D., Buckner, C. D., Clift, R. A., Fefer, A., Johnson, F. L., Neiman, P. E., Sale, G. E., Sanders, J. E., Singer, J. W., Shulman, H., Storb, R., Weiden, P. L. Marrow transplantation for acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia in first remission. N. Engl. J. Med. 301, 597. 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. 387.
    Thompson, C. B., Schaefer, M. E., Finkelman, F. D., Scher, I., Farrar, J., Mond, J. J. T cell-derived B Cell growth factor(s) can induce stimulation of both resting and activated B cells. J. Immunol. 134, 369. 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. 388.
    Tierelli, V., Crivellari, D., Carbone, A., Verosesi, A., Galligioni, E., Trovo, M. G., Tumolo, S., Gigoletto, E. Combination chemotherapy for multiple myeloma with melphalan, prednisone, cyclophosphamide, vincristine and carmustine (M-2 protocol). Cancer Treat. Rep. 66, 1971. 1982.Google Scholar
  390. 389.
    Traeger, A., Kunze, M., Stein, G., Ackermann, H. Zur Pharmacokinetik von Indomethacin bei alten Menschen. Z. Alterusforsch. 27, 151. 1973.Google Scholar
  391. 390.
    Trinchieri, G., Santoli, D. Antiviral activity by culturing lymphocytes with tumor-derived or virus-transformed cells: Enhancement of human natural killer cell activity by interferon and antagonistic inhibition of susceptibility of target cells by lysis. J. Exp. Med. 147, 1314. 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. 391.
    Trinchieri, G., Perussia, B. Immune interferon: a pleiotropic lymphokine with multiple effects. Immunology today. 6, 131. 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. 392.
    Trinchieri, G., Kobayashi, M., Rosen, M., Loudon, R., Murphy, M., Perussia, B. Tumor necrosis factor and lymphotoxin induce differentiation of human myeloid cell lines in synergy with immune interferon. J. Exp. med. 164, 1206. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. 393.
    Torwn, P., Kramer, M., Dennin, R. Antibodies to human leukocyte interferons in cancer patients. Lancet. i, 81. 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. 394.
    Tsuchiya, H., Epstein, J., Selvanayagam, P., Dedman, J., Gallick, G., Alexanian, R., Barlogie, B. Correlated flow cytometric analisis of H-ras p21 and nuclear DNA in multiple myeloma. Blood. 72, 796. 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  396. 395.
    Tsuro, T., Iida, H., Tsukagoshi, S., Sakurai, Y. Overcoming vincristine resistance in P388 leukemia in vivo and in vitro through enhanced cytotoxicity of vincristine and vinblastine by verapamil. Cancer Res. 41, 1969. 1981.Google Scholar
  397. 396.
    Tura, S., Cavo, M., Baccarani, M., Ricci, P., Gobbi, M.Bone marrow transplantation in multiple myeloma. Scand. J. Haematol. 36, 176. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. 397.
    Ueno, Y., Myawaki, T., Seki, H., Matsuda, A., Taga, K., Sato, H., Taniguchi, N. Differential effects of recombinant human interferon-gamma and IL-2 on NK cell activity of peripheral blood in early human development. J. Immunol. 135, 180. 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  399. 398.
    Vallbracht, A., Treuner, J., Flehmig, B. Interferon-neutralizing antibodies in a patient treated with human fibroblast interferon. Nature. 289, 496. 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. 399.
    Van Damme, J., Opdenakker, G., Simpson, R. J., Rubira, M. R., Cayphas, S., Vink, A., Billiau, A., van Snick, J. Identification of the human 26 kd protein, interferon beta-2 (IFN-beta-2), as a B-cell hybridoma/plasmacytoma growth factor induced by interleukin and tumor necrosis factor. J. Exp. Med. 165, 914. 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. 400.
    Van Damme, J., De Ley, M., Van Snick, J., Dinarello, C. A., Billiau, A. The role of interferon-beta1 and the 26-kDa protein (interfe-ron-beta2 as mediators of the antiviral effect of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor. J. Immunol. 139, 1867. 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  402. 401.
    Van Damme, J., Van Beeumen, J., Decock K., van Snick, J., DeLey, M., Billiau, A. Separation and comparison of two monokines with lymphocyte-activating factor activity: IL-1/7 and hybridoma growth factor (HGF). Identification of Leukocyte-derived HGF as IL-6. J. Immunol. 140, 1534. 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  403. 402.
    Van, N. T., Raber, M. N., Barrows, G., Barlogie, B. Estrogen receptor analysis by flow cytometry. Science. 224, 876. 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. 403.
    Vaughn, C. B., Vaitkevicius, K. The effects of calcitonin in hypercalcaemia in patients with malignancy. Cancer. 34, 1268. 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. 404.
    Velez-Garcia, E., Maldonado, N. Long-term follow up and therapy for multiple myeloma. Cancer. 27, 44. 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. 405.
    Vink, A., Coulie, P. G., Wauters, P., Nordan, R. P., van Snick, J. B-cell growth and differentiation activity of interleukin-1. HP 1 and related plasmacytoma growth factors. Synergy with Interleukin-1. Eur. J. Immunol. 18, 607. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. 406.
    Vlodavsky, I., Folkman, J., Sullivan, R., Fridman, R., Ishai-Michaeli, R., Sasse, J., Klagsbrun, M. Endothelial cell-derived basic fibroblast growth factor: synthesis and deposition into subendothelial extracellular matrix. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 84, 2292. 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. 407.
    von Scheele, C. Light chain myeloma with features of the adult Fanconi syndrome: Six years remission following one course of melphalan. Acta Med. Scand. 199, 533. 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  409. 408.
    von Wussow, P., Frunc, M., Black, B., Deidrich, H., Poliwoda, H, Deicher, H. Clinical significance of anti-IFN-alfa antibody titres during interferon therapy. Lancet. ii, 635. 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  410. 409.
    Wahlin, A., Holm, J. Rapid response to recombinant interferon alpha 2B and high-dose prednisone in multiple drug-resistant multiple myeloma. Eur. J. Haematol. 352, 43. 1989.Google Scholar
  411. 410.
    Warne, A., Joshua, D. E., Kronenberg, H. Light chain isotype associated suppression of surface immunoglobulin expression on peripheral blood lymphocytes in myeloma during plateau phase. Br. J. Haematol. 58, 483. 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. 411.
    Wearne, A., Joshua, D. E., Kronenberg, H. Monitoring myeloma: light chain isotype suppression. A new parameter. Aust. N. Z. J. Med. 15, 629. 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. 412.
    Webb, A. C, Collins, K. L., Auron, P. E., Eddy, R. L., Nakai, H., Byers, M. G., Haley, L. L., Henry, L. L., Henry, W. N., Shows, T.B. Interleukin-1 gene (IL-1) assigned to long arm of human chromosome 2. Lymphokine Res. 5, 77. 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  414. 413.
    Weigent, D. A., Langford, M. P., Stanton, G. J., Blalock, J. E. Interferon-induced transfer of viral resistance by human B and T lymphocytes. Cell Immunol. 87, 678. 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  415. 414.
    Weigent,D. A.,Lloyd,R.E.,Blalock, J.E.,Stanton,G.J. Synergism of antiviral activity in cell cultures treated with low concentrations of interferon-treated lymphocytes. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 177, 257. 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  416. 415.
    Weigent, D. A., Stanton, G. J. Pretreatment of human lymphocytes with interferon enhances the synthesis of interferon in cocultures with allogeneic cells. J. Leukoc. Biol. 40, 459. 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  417. 416.
    Wild, W. O., Porter, R. W. Metastatic epidural tumour of spine. A study of 45 cases. Arch. Surgery. 87, 137. 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  418. 417.
    Willingham, M. C, Cornwell, C., Cardarelli, C, Gottesman, M. M., Pastan, I. Single cell analysis of daunomycin uptake and efflux in mul-tidrug-resistant and sensitive KB cells: effects of verpamil and other drugs. Cancer Res. 46,5941. 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. 418.
    Wolff, S. N., McCurley, T. L., Giannone, L. High-dose chemoradiotherapy with syngeneic bone marrow transplantation for multiple myeloma: A case report and literature review. Am. J. Hematol. 26, 191. 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  420. 419.
    Wright, S. C, Bonavida, B. Studies on the mechanism of natural killer mediated cytotoxicity. IV. Interferon-induced inhibition of NK target cell susceptibility to lysis is due to a defect in their ability to stimulate release of natural killer cytotoxic factors (NKCF). J. Immunol. 130, 2965. 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  421. 420.
    Zullo, J. N., Cochran, B. H., Huang, A. S., Stiles, C. D. Platelet-derived growth factor and double-stranded ribonuc- lein acids stimulate expression of the same genes in 3T3 cells. Cell. 43, 793. 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  422. 421.
    Yokota, T., Otsuka, T., Mosmann, T., Banchereau, J., DeFrance, T., Blanchard, D., Vries, J. E. D., Lee, F., Arai, K. Isolation and characterization of a human interleukin cDNA clone, homologous to mouse B-cell stimulating activites. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 83, 5894. 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  423. 422.
    Yoshida, R., Murray, H. W., Nathan, C. F. Agonist and antagonist effect of interferon alpha and beta on activation of human macrophages. Two classes of interferon gamma receptors and blockade of the high-affinity sites by interferon alpha or beta. J. Exp. Med. 167, 1171. 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  424. 423.
    Young, D. S., Griffin, J. D. Autocrine secretion of GM-CSF in acute myeloblastic leukemia. Blood. 68, 1171. 1986.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Jákó János, Budapest 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • János Jákó
    • 1
  1. 1.1st Department of MedicinePostgraduate Medical SchoolBudapestHungary

Personalised recommendations