Measles Virus pp 117-134 | Cite as

Immune Responses During Measles Virus Infection

  • D. E. Griffin
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 191)


The immune responses elicited by measles virus (MV) in many ways define the epidemiology and the illnesses produced by infection. During a study of the 1886 epidemic of measles in the Faroe Islands, the young Danish physician Peter Panum identified not only the highly infectious nature of the virus, but also the 14 day incubation period before the onset of the rash, the severity of the disease in infants and the presence of lifelong immunity in the absence of reexposure in elderly residents (Panum 1938). In 1908 another observant physician, von Pirquet, reported the loss of skin test reactivity and the reactivation of tuberculosis after measles that occurred in the residents of a Viennese tuberculosis sanitarium (VON Pirquet 1908). In 1790 James Lucas, a surgeon from Leeds, described the first case of post-measles encephalomyelitis (Lucas 1790). Thus, by early in the twentieth century most of the features of the disease that we now seek to understand, using the knowledge and tools of modern immunology, had been established.


Major Histocompatibility Complex Class Cellular Immune Response Measle Virus Measle Vaccine Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aicardi J, Goutieres F et al. (1977) Acute measles encephalitis in children with immunosuppression. Pediatrics 59: 232–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Albrecht P, Ennis FA et al. (1977) Persistence of maternal antibody in infants beyond 12 months: mechanism of measles vaccine failure. J Pediatr 91: 715–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Annunziato D, Kaplan MH et al. (1982) Atypical measles syndrome: pathologic and serologic findings. Pediatrics 70: 203–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arneborn P, Biberfeld G (1983) T lymphocyte subpopulations in relation to immunosuppression in measles and varicella. Infect Immun 39: 29–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barrett PN, Koschel K et al. (1985) Effect of measles virus antibodies on a measles SSPE virus persistently infected C6 rat glioma cell line. J Gen Virol 66: 1411–1421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bech V (1959) Studies on the development of complement fixing antibodies in measles patients. J Immunol 83: 267–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Beckford AP, Kaschula ROC et al. (1985) Factors associated with fatal cases of measles: A retrospective autopsy study. S Afr Med J 68: 858–863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bellanti JA, Sanga RL et al. (1969) Antibody responses in serum and nasal secretions of children immunized with inactivated and attenuated measles-virus vaccines. N Engl J Med 280: 628–633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bellini WJ, McFarlin DE et al. (1981) Immune reactivity of purified hemagglutinin of measles virus. Infect Immun 32: 1051–1057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Black FL (1989) Measles active and passive immunity in a worldwide perspective. Prog Med Virol 36: 1–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brajczewska-Fischer W, Iwinska B et al. (1989) Interleukin 1 and 2 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and exacerabation of multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand 80: 390–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Brodsky AL (1972) Atypical measles: severe illness in recipients of killed measles virus vaccine upon exposure to natural infection. J Am Med Assoc 222: 1415–1416Google Scholar
  13. Buckland R, Giraudon P et al. (1989) Expression of measles virus nucleoprotein in Escherichia coli: use of deletion mutants to locate the antigenic sites. J Gen Virol 70: 435–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Buser F (1967) Side reaction to measles vaccination suggesting the arthus phenomenon. N Engl J Med 277: 250–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Carter CH, Conway TJ et al. (1962) Serologic response of children to inactivated measles vaccine. JAMA 179: 848–853PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Carter MJ, Willcocks MM et al. (1982) Relationships between monoclonal antibody-binding sites on the measles virus haemagglutinin. J Gen Virol 63: 113–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cherry JD, Feigin RD et al. (1972) Atypical measles in children previously immunized with attenuated measles virus vaccines. Pediatrics 50: 712–717PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Connolly JH, Allen IV et al. (1967) Measles virus antibody and antigen in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Lancet 1: 542–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Coovadia HM, Wesley A et al. (1981) Measles, histocompatibility leukocyte antigen polymorphism, and natural selection in humans. J Infect Dis 144: 142–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Crespi M, Struthers JK et al. (1988) Interferon status after measles virus infection. S Afr Med J 73: 711–712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Dhib-Jalbut S, Jacobson S et al. (1989) Impaired human leukocyte antigen-restricted measles virus-specific cytotoxic T-cell response in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Ann Neurol 25: 272–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Donaldson SL, Kosco MH et al. (1986) Localization of antibody-forming cells in draining lymphoid organs during long-term maintenance of the antibody response. J Leukoc Biol 40: 147–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ehrnst AC (1975) Characterization of measles virus-specific cytotoxic antibodies by use of a chronically infected cell line. J Immunol 114: 1077–1082PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Ehrnst A (1978) Separate pathways of C activation by measles virus cytotoxic antibodies: subclass analysis and capacity of F (ab) molecules to activate C via the alternative pathway. J Immunol 121:1206–1212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Enders JF, McCarthy K et al. (1959) Isolation of measles virus at autopsy in cases of giant cell pneumonia without rash. N Engl J Med 261: 875–881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Enders-Ruckle G (1967) Some characteristics of immunity following natural measles and various forms of immunization. Arch Gesamte Virusforsch 22: 23–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Esiri MM, Oppenheimer DR et al. (1982) Distribution of measles antigen and immunoglobulin containing cells in the CNS in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and atypical measles encephalitis. J Neurol Sci 53: 29–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Esolen LM, Ward BJ et al. (1993) Infection of monocytes during measles. J Infect Dis 168: 47–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Fireman P, Friday G et al. (1969) Effect of measles virus vaccine on immunologic responsiveness. Pediatrics 43: 264–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Fujinami RS, Oldstone MBA (1979) Antiviral antibody reacting on the plasma membrane alters measles virus expression inside the cell. Nature 279: 529–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Fulginiti VA, Arthur JH (1969) Altered reactivity to measles virus. J Pediatr 75: 609–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Fulginiti VA, Arthur JH et al. (1968) Altered reactivity to measles virus local reactions following attenuated measles virus immunization in children who previously received a combination of inactivated and attenuated vaccines. Am J Dis Child 115: 67–72Google Scholar
  33. Furukawa S, Matsubara T et al. (1992) Kawasaki disease differs from anaphylactoid purpura and measles with regard to tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 6 in serum. Eur J Pediatr 151: 44–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Garenne M, Leroy O et al. (1991) Child mortality after high-titre measles vaccines: prospective study in Senegal. Lancet 338: 903–907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gendelman H, Wolinsky JS et al. (1984) Measles encephalitis: Lack of evidence of viral invasion of the central nervous system and quantitative study of the nature of demyelination. Ann Neurol 15: 353–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Goretsky M (1990) Acute fatal leukoencephalopathy after interleukin-2 therapy. N Engl J Med 323: 1146–1147Google Scholar
  37. Graves M, Griffin DE et al. (1984) Development of antibody to measles virus polypeptides during complicated and uncomplicated measles virus infections. J Virol 49: 409–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gray D, Skarvall H (1988) B-cell memory is short-lived in the absence of antigen. Nature 336: 70–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Greenstein JI, McFarland HF (1983) Response of human lymphocytes to measles virus after natural infection. Infect Immun 40: 198–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Griffin DE, Ward BJ (1993) Differential CD4 T cell activation in measles. J Infect Dis 168: 275–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Griffin DE, Cooper SJ et al. (1985) Changes in plasma IgE levels during complicated and uncomplicated measles virus infections. J Allergy Clin Immunol 76: 206–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Griffin DE, Moench TR et al. (1986) Peripheral blood mononuclear cells during natural measles virus infection: cell surface phenotypes and evidence for activation. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 40: 305–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Griffin DE, Johnson RT et al. (1987) In vitro studies of the role of monocytes in the immunosuppression associated with natural measles virus infections. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 45: 375–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Griffin DE, Moench TR et al. (1986) Peripheral blood mononuclear cells during natural measles virus infection: cell surface phenotypes and evidence for activation. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 40: 305–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Griffin DE, Ward BJ et al. (1989) Immune activation during measles. N Engl J Med 320: 1667–1672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Griffin DE, Ward BJ et al. (1990a) Immune activation during measles: Interferon-gamma and neopterin in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in complicated and uncomplicated disease J Infect Dis 161: 449–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Griffin DE, Ward BJ et al. (1990b) Natural killer cell activity during measles. Clin Exp Immunol 81: 218–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Griffin DE, Ward BJ et al. (1992) Immune activation during measles: Beta-2-microglobulin in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in complicated and uncomplicated disease. J Infect Dis 166: 1170–1173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Haddad FS, Risk WS et al. (1977) Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in the Middle East: report of 99 cases. Ann Neurol 1: 211–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hall WW, Lamb RA et al. (1979) Measles and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis virus proteins: lack of antibodies to the M protein in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76: 2047–2051PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Halsey NA, Boulos R et al. (1985) Response to measles vaccine in Haitian infants 6 to 12 months old. N Engl J Med 313: 544–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hirsch RL, Mokhtarian F et al. (1981) Measles virus vaccination of measles seropositive individuals suppresses lymphocyte proliferation and chemotactic factor production. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 21: 341–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hirsch RL, Griffin DE et al. (1984) Cellular immune responses during complicated and uncomplicated measles virus infections of man. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 31: 1–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hofman FM, Hinton DR et al. (1991) Lymphokines and immunoregulatory molecules in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 58: 331–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Ilonen J, Makela MJ et al. (1990) Cloning of human T cells specific for measles virus haemagglutinin and nucleocapsid. Clin Exp Immunol 81: 212–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Jacobson S, Richert JR et al. (1984) Measles virus-specific T4+ human cytotoxic T cell clones are restricted by class II HLA antigens. J Immunol 133: 754–757PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Jacobson S, Sekaly RP et al. (1989) HLA class II-restricted presentation of cytoplasmic measles virus antigens to cytotoxic T cells. J Virol 63: 1756–1762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Joffe MI, Rabson AR (1981) Defective helper factor (LMC) production in patients with acute measles infection. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 20: 215–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Johnson RT, Griffin DE et al. (1984) Measles encephalomyelitis—clinical and immunologic studies. N Engl J Med 310: 137–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Joseph BS, Oldstone BA (1975) Immunologic injury in measles virus infection II. Suppression of immune injury through antigenic modulation. J Exp Med 142: 864–876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Joseph BS, Lampert PW et al. (1975) Replication and persistence of measles virus in defined subpopulations of human leukocytes. J Virol 16: 1638–1649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kaplan LJ, Daum RS et al. (1992) Severe measles in immunocompromised patients. JAMA 267: 1237–1241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. King JC Jr, Lichnestein R et al. (1993) Measles, mumps, and rubella antibodies in vaccinated Baltimore children. Amer J Dis Child 147: 558–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Krause PJ, Cherry JD et al. (1978) Revaccination of previous recipients of killed measles vaccine: clinical and immunologic studies. J Pediatr 93: 565–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kreth HW, ter Meulen V et al. (1979) Demonstration of HLA restricted killer cells in patients with acute measles. Med Microbiol Immunol 165: 203–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Larner AC, Petricoin EF et al. (1993) IL-4 attenuates the transcriptional activation of both IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma-induced cellular gene expression in monocytes and monocytic cell lines. J Immunol 150:1944–1950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Leopardi R, Ilonen J et al. (1993) Effect of measles virus infection on MHC class II expression and antigen presentation in human monocytes. Cell Immunol 147: 388–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Leopardi R, Vainionpaa R et al. (1992) Measles virus infection enhances IL-1 beta but reduces tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in human monocytes. J Immunol 149: 2397–2401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Litvak AM, Sands IJ et al. (1943) Encephalitis complicating measles: report of fifty-six cases with followup studies in thirty-two. Am J Dis Child 65: 265–295Google Scholar
  70. Lucas CJ, Biddison WE et al. (1982) Killing of measles virus-infected cells by human cytotoxic T cells. Infect Immun 38: 226–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lucas J (1790) An account of uncommon symptoms succeeding the measles; with additional remarks on the infection of measles and smallpox. Lond Med J 11: 325–331Google Scholar
  72. Machamer CE, Hayes EC et al. (1980) Antibodies against the measles matrix polypeptide after clinical infection and vaccination. Infect Immun 27: 817–825PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Malvoisin E, Wild F (1990) Contribution of measles virus fusion protein in protective immunity: anti-F monoclonal antibodies neutralize virus infectivity and protect mice against challenge. J Virol 64: 5160–5162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Mandalenaki-Asfi C, Liakopoulou P et al. (1976) Rosette-forming lymphocytes and measles vaccination. J Pediatr 88: 74–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Markowitz LE, Chandler FW et al. (1988) Fatal measles pneumonia without rash in a child with AIDS. J Infect Dis 158: 480–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Markowitz LE, Preblud SR et al. (1990) Duration of live measles vaccine-induced immunity. Pediatr Infect Dis J 9: 101–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Martin DB, Weiner LB et al. (1979) Atypical measles in adolescents and young adults. Ann Intern Med 90:877–881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Martinez OM, Gibbons RS et al. (1990) IL-4 inhibits IL-2 receptor expression and IL-2 dependent proliferation of human T cells. J Immunol 144: 2211–2215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Mathiesen T, Hammarstrom L et al. (1990) Aberrant IgG subclass distribution to measles in healthy seropositive individuals, in patients with SSPE and in immunoglobulin-deficient patients. Clin Exp Immunol 80: 202–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Mehta PD, Kulczycki J et al. (1992) Increased levels of beta-2-microglobulin, soluble interleukin-2 receptor, and soluble CD8 in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 65: 53–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Merz DC, Scheid A et al. (1980) Importance of antibodies to the fusion glycoprotein of paramyxoviruses in the prevention of spread of infection. J Exp Med 151: 275–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Miller DL (1964) Frequency of complications of measles. 1963 Br Med J 2: 75–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Mitus A, Enders JF et al. (1959) Persistence of measles virus and depression of antibody formation in patients with giant-cell pneumonia after measles. N Engl J Med 261: 882–889PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Moench TR, Griffin DE et al. (1988) Acute measles in patients with and without neurological involvement: distribution of measles virus antigen and RNA. J Infect Dis 158: 433–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Morley D (1969) Severe measles in the tropics. Br Med J 1: 297–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Mosmann TR, Coffman RL (1987) Two types of mouse helper T cell clone: implications for immune regulation. Immunol Today 8: 223–227Google Scholar
  87. Mustafa MM, Weitman SD et al. (1993) Subacute measles encephalitis in the young immuno-compromised host: report of two cases diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction and treated with ribavirin and review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis 16: 654–660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Nader PR, Horwitz MS et al. (1968) Atypical exanthem following exposure to natural rneasles: eleven cases in children previously inoculated with killed vaccine. J Pediatr 72: 22–28Google Scholar
  89. Nagano I, Nakamura S et al. (1991) Immunocytochemical analysis of the cellular infiltrate in brain lesions in subcute sclerosing panencephalitis. Neurology 41 : 1639–1642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Nelson JD, Sandusky G et al. (1966) Measles skin test and serologic response to intradermal measles antigen. JAMA 198: 185–186Google Scholar
  91. Norrby E, Enders-Ruckle G et al. (1975) Differences in the appearance of antibodies to structural components of measles virus after immunization with inactivated and live virus. J Infect Dis 132: 262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Norrby E, Gollmar Y (1972) Appearance and persistence of antibodies against different virus components after regular measles infections Infect. Immun 6: 240–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Norrby E, Gollmar Y (1975) Identification of measles virus-specific hemolysis-inhibiting antibodies separate from hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies. Infect Immun 11: 231–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Norrby E, Orvell C et al. (1981) Antibodies against measles virus polypeptides in different disease conditions. Infect Immun 34: 718–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Panum P (1938) Observations made during the epidemic of measles on the Faroe Islands in the year 1846. Med Class 3: 829–886Google Scholar
  96. Patrick BA, Mehta PD et al. (1990) Measles virus-specific immunoglobulin D antibody in cerebrospinal fluid and serum from patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol 26: 69–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Rammohan KW, McFarland HF et al. (1983) Antibody-mediated modification of encephalitis induced by hamster neurotropic measles virus. J Infect Dis 147: 546–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Rauh LW, Schmidt R (1965) Measles immunization with killed virus vaccine. Am J Dis Child 109: 232–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Rose JW, Bellini WJ et al. (1984) Human cellular immune response to measles virus polypeptides. J Virol 49: 988–991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Rota JS, Hummel KB et al. (1992) Genetic variability of the glycoprotein genes of current wild-type measles isolates. Virology 188: 135–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Ruckle G, Rogers KD (1957) Studies with measles virus. II. Isolation of virus and immunologic studies in persons who have had the natural disease. J Immunol 78: 341–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Salonen R, Ilonen J et al. (1988) Measles virusn vitro: antigen expression and virus production preferentially in monocytes. Clin Exp Immunol 71: 224–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Schluederberg A (1965) Immune globulins in human viral infections. Nature 205: 1232–1233Google Scholar
  104. Schneider-Schaulies S, Liebert UG et al. (1992) Antibody-dependent transcriptional regulation of measles virus in persistently infected neural cells. J Virol 66: 5534–5541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Scott TFM, Bonanno DE (1967) Reactions to live-measles-virus vaccine in children previously inoculated with killed-virus vaccine. N Engl J Med 277: 248–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Sheshberadaran H, Norrby E (1986) Characterization of epitopes on the measles virus hemagglutinin. Virology 152: 58–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Shiozawa S, Yoshikawa N et al. (1988) A sensitive radioimmunoassay for circulating alpha-interferon in the plasma of healthy children and patients with measles virus infection. Clin Exp Immunol 73: 366–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Siber GR, Werner BG et al. (1993) Interference of immune globulin with measles and rubella immunization. J Pediatr 122: 204–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Sotrel A, Rosen S et al. (1983) Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: an immune complex disease? Neurology 33: 885–890PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Stephenson JR, ter Meulen V (1979) Antigenic relationships between measles and canine distemper viruses: comparison of immune response in animals and humans to individual virus-specific polypeptides. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76: 6601–6605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Sullivan JL, Barry DW et al. (1975) Measles infection of human mononuclear cells. I. Acute infection of peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes. J Exp Med 142: 773–784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Tamashiro VG, Perez HH et al. (1987) Prospective study of the magnitude and duration of changes in tuberculin reactivity during complicated and uncomplicated measles. Pediatr Infect Dis J 6: 451–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Taylor MJ, Godfrey E et al. (1991) Identification of several different lineages of measles virus. J Gen Virol 72: 83–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. ter Meulen V, Loffler S et al. (1981) Antigenic characterization of measles and SSPE virus haemagglutinin by monoclonal antibodies. J Gen Virol 67: 357–364Google Scholar
  115. Tew JG, Kosco MH et al. (1990) Follicular dendritic cells as accessory cells. Immunol Rev 117: 185–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Tourtellotte WW, Ma BI et al. (1981) Quantification of de novo central nervous system IgG measles antibody synthesis in SSPE. Ann Neurol 9: 551–556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Trudgett A, Gould EA et al. (1981) Antigenic difference in the hemagglutinin of measles and related viruses. Virology 109: 180–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. van Binnendijk R, Poelen MCM et al. (1989) Measles virus-specific human T cell clones. Characterization of specificity and function of CD4 helper/cytotoxic and CD8+ cytotoxic T cell clones. J Immunol 142: 2847–2854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. van Binnendijk RS, Poelen MCM et al. (1990) The predominance of CD8+ T cells after infection with measles virus suggests a role for CD8+ class I MHC-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in recovery from measles. J Immunol 144: 2394–2399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. van Binnendijk RS, van Baalen CA et al. (1992) Measles virus transmembrane fusion protein systhesized de novo or presented in immunostimulating complexes is endogenously processed for HLA class I- and class II- restricted cytotoxic T cell recognition. J Exp Med 176: 119–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. van Binnendijk RS, Versteeg-van Oosten JPM et al. (1993) Human HLA class I- and HLA class II-restricted cloned cytotoxic T lymphocytes identify a cluster of epitopes on the measles virus fusion protein. J Virol 67: 2276–2284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Vandvik B, Norrby E (1973) Oligocional lgG antibody response in the central nervous system to different measles virus antigens in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 70: 1060–1063PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Von Pirquet C (1908) Verhalten der kutanen Tuberkulinreaktion wahrend der Masern. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 34: 1297–1300Google Scholar
  124. Ward BJ, Griffin DE (1993) Changes in cytokine production after measles virus vaccination: predominant production of IL-4 suggests induction of a Th2 response. Clin Immunol lmmunopathol 67: 171–177Google Scholar
  125. Ward BJ, Johnson RT et al. (1990) Spontaneous proliferation of peripheral mononuclear cells in natural measles virus infection: identification of dividing cells and correlation with mitogen responsiveness. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 55: 315–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Ward BJ, Johnson RT et al. (1991) Cytokine production in vitro and the Iymphoproliferative defect of natural measles virus infection. Clin Immunol lmmunopathol 61: 236–248Google Scholar
  127. Weil ML, Leiva WA et al. (1975) Release of bound immunoglobulin from SSPE brain by acid elution. J Immunol 115: 1603–1606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Wiesmuller K-H, Handtmann D et al. (1992) Heterogeneity of linear B cell epitopes of the measles virus fusion protein reacting with late convalescent sera. J Gen Virol 73: 2211–2216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Wild TF, Malvoisin E et al. (1991) Measles virus: both the haemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins are required for fusion. J Gen Virol 72: 439–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Wu VH, McFarland H et al. (1993) Measles virus-specific cellular immunity in patients with vaccine failure. J Clin Microbiol 31: 118–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Zweiman B, Pappagianis D et al. (1971) Effect of measles immunization on tuberculin hypersensitivity and in vitro lymphocyte reactivity. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 40: 834–841PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. E. Griffin
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Medicine and NeurologyJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations