Advertisement

Physiologie von Schlaf und Schlafregulation

  • T. Pollmächer
  • C. Lauer

Zusammenfassung

Der Schlaf wurde bis weit in das 20. Jahrhundert hinein im wesentlichen negativ definiert: er wurde im Gegensatz zum aktiven Wachsein als ein passiver Zustand verstanden, in dem die Körperfunktionen auf ein notwendiges Minimum reduziert waren. Der Schlaf galt als der Preis, den Lebewesen für ihre Aktivität im Wachen zu entrichten haben.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Adler A ( 1980, 1913 ) Traum und Traumdeutung. In: Theorie und Praxis der Individualpsychologie. Fischer, Frankfurt/MGoogle Scholar
  2. Alekseyeva TT (1958) Correlation of nervous and humoral factors in the development of sleep in non-disjointed twins. Zh Vyssh Nerv Deyat Parlova 8: 844–865Google Scholar
  3. Amira SA, Johnson TS, Logowitz NB (1985) Diagnosis of narcolepsy using the multiple sleep latency test: analysis of current laboratory criteria. Sleep 8: 325–331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aschoff J (1960) Exogenous and endogenous components in circadian rhythms. Cold Spring Harbour Symp Quant Biol 25: 11–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aserinsky E, Kleitman N (1953) Regularly occurring periods of eye motility, and concomitant phenomena, during sleep. Science 118: 273–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aserinsky E, Kleitman N (1955) Tvo types of ocular motility occurring in sleep. J Appl Physiol 8: 1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bardeleben U von, Lauer C, Wiedemann K, Holsboer F (1988) Nocturnal sleep-endocrine effects of Cortisol infusion in normal controls. Neuroendocrinol Letters 10: 227Google Scholar
  8. Beersma DGM, Daan S, van den Hoofdakker RH (1985) The timing of sleep in depression: theoretical considerations. Psychiatry Res 16: 253–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benkert O, Maier W, Holsboer F (1983) Multiaxial classification of male sexual dysfunction. Br J Psychiatry 146: 623–628Google Scholar
  10. Berger H (1929) Über das Elektroenkephalogramm des Menschen. Arch Psychiat Nervenkr 87: 527–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berger M, Riemann D, Höchli D, Spiegel R (1989) The cholinergic REM sleep induction test with RS 86: state or trait-marker of depression? Arch Gen Psychiatry 46: 421–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Borbely AA (1980) Sleep circadian rhythm versus recovery process. In: Koukkou M, Lehmann D, Angst J (eds) Functional states of the brain: their determinants. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 151–161Google Scholar
  13. Borbely AA (1987) The Sdeficiency hypothesis of depression and the two-process model of sleep regulation. Pharmacopsychiatry 20: 23–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Borbely AA, Neuhaus HU, Mattmann P, Waser PG (1981) Langzeitregistrierung der Bewegungsaktivität: Anwendungen in Klinik und Forschung. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 111: 730–735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Born J, Zwick A, Roth G, Fehm-Wolfsdorf G, Fehm HL (1987) Differential effects of hydrocortisone, fluocortolone, and aldosterone on nocturnal sleep in humans. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 116: 129–137Google Scholar
  16. Born J, Muth S, Fehm HL (1988) The significance of sleep onset and slow wave sleep for nocturnal release of growth hormone (GH) and Cortisol. Psychoneuroendocrinology 13: 233–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Born J, Späth-Schwalbe E, Schwakenhofer H, Kern W, Fehm HL (1989) Influences of corticotropin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, and Cortisol on sleep in normal man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 68: 904–911PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brandenberger G, Follenius M, Muzet A, Ehrhart J, Schieber JP (1985) Ultradian oscillations in plasma renin activity: their relationships to meals and sleep stages. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 61: 280–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Breger L (1967) Functions of dreams. J Abnorm Psychol 72: 1–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Breger L, Hunter I, Lane RW (1971) The effects of stress on dreams. Psychol Issues: Monograph 27: 7Google Scholar
  21. Carskadon MA, Dement WC, Mitler MM, Roth T, Westbrook PR, Keenan S (1986) Guidelines for the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT): a standard measure of sleepiness. Sleep 9: 519–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cartwright RD (1983) Rapid eye movement sleep characteristics during and after mood-disturbing events. Arch Gen Psychiatry 40: 197–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cauter E van, Desir D, Refetoff S et al. (1982) The relationship between episodic variations of plasma prolactin and REM-non-REM cyclicity is an artifact. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 54: 70–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cohen DB (1979) Sleep and dreaming: origins, nature, and functions. Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  25. Crick F, Mitchison G (1983) The function of dream sleep. Nature 304: 111–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Daan S, Beersma DGM, Borbély AA (1984) Timing of human sleep: recovery process gated by a circadian pacemaker. Am J Physiol 246: 161–178Google Scholar
  27. Davis JF (1960) Manual of Surface Electromyography Aerospace Medical Laboratory. Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OhioGoogle Scholar
  28. Dement W, Kleitman N (1957) Cyclic variations in EEG during sleep and their relation to eye movements, body motility, and dreaming. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 9: 673–690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dewan E (1970) The programming (P) hypothesis for REM sleep. In: Hartmann E (ed) Sleep and dreaming. Little Brown, Boston, pp 295–307Google Scholar
  30. Dummermuth G, Ferber G, Herrmann WM, Hinrichs H, Ktinckel H (1987) International Pharmaco-EEG group (IPEG). Neuropsychobiology 17: 213–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Economo C von (1926) Die Pathologie des Schlafes. In: Bethe A, Bergmann G, Embden G, Ellinger A (Hrsg) Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie. Springer, Berlin, S 591–610Google Scholar
  32. Fehm HL, Benkowitsch R, Kern W, Fehm-Wolfsdorf G, Pauschinger P, Born J (1986) Influences of corticosteroids, dexamethasone and hydrocortisone on sleep in humans. Neuropsychobiology 16: 198–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fischer C, Schiavi R, Lear H, Edwards A, Davis D, Witkin AP (1975) The assessment of nocturnal REM-erection in the differential diagnosis of sexual impotence. J Sex Marital Ther 1: 277–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Foulkes D (1960) Dream reports from different stages of sleep. Nichtveröffentlichte Dissertation, University of Chicago Freud S (1972, 1900 ) Die Traumdeutung. GW, Bd I I. Fischer, Frankfurt/MGoogle Scholar
  35. Gerne M, Strauch J (1985) Psychophysiological indicators of affect patterns and controversial signals during sleep. In: Koella WP, Rüther E, Schulz H (eds) Sleep ’84. Fischer, Stuttgart, pp 367–369Google Scholar
  36. Gillin JC, Sitaram N, Mendelson WB (1982) Acetylcholine, sleep, and depression. Human Neurobiol 1: 211–219Google Scholar
  37. Greenberg R, Pearlman C (1975) REM sleep and the analytic process: a psychophysiological bridge. Psychoanal Quart 44: 392–403Google Scholar
  38. Guilleminault C, Partinen M, Penzel T et al. (1990) Technical issues related to sleep apnea syndrome. In: Guilleminault C, Partinen M (eds) Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Raven Press, New York, pp 183–207Google Scholar
  39. Hall CS (1966) The meaning of dreams. McCross Holl, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Hall CS, van de Castle RL (1966) The content analysis of dreams. Appleton Century Crofts, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Hall CS, Domhoff W, Blick KA, Weeser KE (1982) The dreams of college men and women in 1950 and 1980: a comparison of dream contents and sex differences. Sleep 5: 118–194Google Scholar
  42. Haustein W, Pilcher J, Klink J, Schulz H (1986) Automatic analysis overcomes limitations of sleep stage scoring. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 64: 364–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hess WR (1944) Das Schlafsyndrom als Folge diencephaler Reizung. Helv Physiol Acta 2: 305–344Google Scholar
  44. Hirshkowitz M, Howell JW (1988) Advances and methodology in the study of dreaming. In: Williams RL, Karacan I, Moore CA (eds) Sleep disorders: diagnosis and treatment, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 215–242Google Scholar
  45. Hobson JA (1988) The dreaming brain. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. Hobson JA, McCarley RW (1977) The brain as a dream state generator: an activation-synthesis hypothesis of the dream process. Am J Psychiatry 134: 1335–1348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hobson JA, Lydic R, Baghdoyan HA (1986) Evolving concepts of sleep cycle generation: from brain centers to neuronal populations. Behav Brain Sci 9: 371–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Holsboer F, von Bardeleben U, Steiger A (1988) Effects of intravenous corticotropin-releasing hormone upon sleep-related growth hormone surge and EEG sleep in man. Neuroendocrinology 48: 32–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Horne J (1988) Why we sleep. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  50. Jasper HH (1958) The ten-twenty electrode system of the international federation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 10: 371–375Google Scholar
  51. Jouvet M (1963) The rhombencephalic phase of sleep. In: Moruzzi G, Fessard A, Jasper HH (eds) Progress in brain research, vol 1: Brain mechanism. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 406–424Google Scholar
  52. Jouvet M (1972) The role of monoamines and acetylcholine-containing neurons in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. Erg Physiol 64: 166–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Jouvet M (1984) Méchanismes des états de sommeil. In: Benoit O (ed) Physiologie du sommeil. Masson, Paris, p 1–18Google Scholar
  54. Jung CG (1971, 1928 ) Die praktische Verwendbarkeit der Traumanalyse. In: GW, Bd VIII. Walter & Ölten, Freiburg/Br, S 148–171Google Scholar
  55. Karacan I (1982) Nocturnal penile tumescence is a biologic marker in assessing erectal dysfunction. Psychosomatics 4: 349–360Google Scholar
  56. Koella WP (1973) Physiologie des Schlafes. Kohlhammer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  57. Koella WP (1973) Die Physiologie des Schlafes. Fischer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  58. Kohlschütter E (1863) Messungen zur Festigkeit des Schlafes. Z Rat Med 17: 209–253Google Scholar
  59. Koukkou M, Lehmann D (1983) Dreaming: the functional state-shift hypothesis. Br J Psychiatry 142: 221–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Koulack D, Prevost F, de Köninck J (1985) Sleep, dreaming, and adaptation to a stressful intellectual activity. Sleep 8: 244–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kripke DF, Simons RN, Garfinkel L, Hammond C (1979) Short and long sleep and sleeping pills. Arch Gen Psychiatry 36: 103–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Krueger JM, Obál F, Johanssen L, Cady AB (1989) Endogenous slow wave sleep substances: a review. In: Wauquier A, Dugovic C, Radulovacki M (eds) Slow wave sleep. Raven Press, New York, pp 75–90Google Scholar
  63. Lauer C, Riemann D, Lund R, Berger M (1987) Shortened REM latency: a consequence of psychological strain? Psychophysiology 24: 263–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lauer CJ, Riemann D, Wiegand M, Berger M (1989) Altersabhängige Veränderungen in der Schlafstruktur depressiver Patienten. In: Saletu B (Hrsg) Biologische Psychiatrie. Thieme, Stuttgart, S 380–385Google Scholar
  65. Legendre R, Piéron H (1913) Recherches sur le besoin de sommeil consécutif à une veille prolongée. Z Allgem Physiol 14: 235–262Google Scholar
  66. Levander S, Sachs C (1985) Vigilance performance and autonomie function in narcolepsy: effects of central stimulants. Psychophysiology 22: 24–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Loomis AL, Harvey EN, Hobart G (1936) Electrical potentials of the human brain. J Exp Psychol 19: 249–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. McCarley RW, Hobson JA (1975) Neuronal excitability modulation over the sleep cycle: a structural and mathematical model. Science 189: 58–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Meier-Ewert KH (1989) Tagesschläfrigkeit. VCH-Verlagsgesellschaft, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  70. Miles LE, Dement WC (1980) Sleep and aging. Sleep 3: 119–221Google Scholar
  71. Mitler MM, Gujavarty S, Browman CP (1982) Maintenance of wakefulness test: a Polysomnographie technique for evaluating treatment efficacy in patients with excessive somnolence. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 53: 658–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Moruzzi G (1966) The functional significance of sleep with particular regard to the brain mechanism underlying consciousness. In: Eccles JC (ed) Brain mechanisms and conscious experience. Springer, New York, pp 345–388Google Scholar
  73. Moruzzi G, Magoun HW (1949) Brainstem reticular formation and activation of the EEG. Electronencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1: 455–473Google Scholar
  74. Moskowitz E, Berger RJ (1969) Rapid eye movements and dream imagery: are they related? Nature 224: 613–614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Newman EA, Evans CR (1965) Human dream processes as analogous to computer programme clearance. Nature 206: 534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Parker DC, Rossman LG, Vanderlaan EF (1974) Relation of sleep-entrained human prolactin release to REM-NonREM cycle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 38: 646–651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Parkes JD (1985) Sleep and its disorders. Saunders, LondonGoogle Scholar
  78. Parmeggfani PL, Azzaroni A, Cevolani D, Ferrari G (1986) Polygraphie study of anterior hypo-thalamic-preoptic neuron thermosensitivity during sleep. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 63: 289–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Paul K, Dittrichovä J (1973) The differences between quiet and paradoxical sleep during human ontogenesis. In: Koella WP (ed) Sleep. Karger, Basel, pp 365–369Google Scholar
  80. Penzel T, Amend G, Meinzer K, Peter JH, Wiehert P von (1990) MESAM: A heart rate and snoring recorder for detection of destructive sleep apnea. Sleep 13: 175–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Pilcher J J, Schulz H (1987) The interaction between EEG and transient muscle activity during sleep in humans. Human Neurobiol 6: 45–49Google Scholar
  82. Pollmächer T, Geisler P, Schulz H (1986) Der multiple Einschlaflatenz-Test (MSLT) in der Differentialdiagnose der Narkolepsie. Psycho 12: 378–379Google Scholar
  83. Rechtschaffen A (1973) The psychophysiology of mental activity during sleep. In: McGuigan J, Schoonover RA (eds) The psychophysiology of thinking. Academic Press, New York, pp 153–191Google Scholar
  84. Rechtschaffen A, Kales A (eds) (1968) A manual of standardized terminology, techniques and scoring system for sleep stages in human subjects. U. S. Department of Health, National Institute of Neurological Disease and Blindness, Bethesda/MDGoogle Scholar
  85. Rechtschaffen A, Bergman BM, Everson CA, Kushida CA, Gilliland MA (1989) Sleep deprivation in the rat: X. Integration and dieussion of findings. Sleep 12: 68–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Riemann D (1990) Trauminterpretation und experimentelle Traumforschung: eine Gegenüberstellung. Z Psychosom Med 36: 21–38Google Scholar
  87. Riemann D, Joy D, Höchli D, Lauer C, Zulley J, Berger M (1988) The influence of the cholinergic agonsit RS 86 on normal sleep: sex and age effects. Neuropsychopharmacology 2: 145–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Roffwarg HP, Dement WC, Muzio JN, Fischer C (1962) Dream imagery: relationship to rapid eye movements of sleep. Arch Gen Psychiatry 7: 235–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Roffwarg HP, Muzio JN, Dement WC (1966) Ontogenetic development of the human sleep-dream cycle. Science 152: 604–619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Roose SP, Glassman AH, Walsh BT, Cullin K (1982) Reversible loss of nocturnal penile tumescence during depression: a preliminary report. Neuropsychobiology 8: 284–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rühle KH (1987) Schlaf und gefährdete Atmung. Thieme, Stuttgart Sakai K (1988) Executive mechanisms of paradoxical sleep. Arch Ital Biol 126: 239–257Google Scholar
  92. Schneider-Helmert D, Schenker J (1980) Die normale arterielle Hypotension im Schlaf. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 110: 563–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Schulz H ( 1988 a) Schlafforschung. In: Kisker KP, Lauter H, Meyer JE, Müller C, Strömgren E (Hrsg) Psychiatrie der Gegenwart, Bd 6. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, S 402–442Google Scholar
  94. Schulz H ( 1988 b) Some properties of the ultradian REM-nonREM sleep cycle and its interaction with circadian rhythms. In: Oniani T (ed) Neurobiology of sleep-wakefulness cycle. Metsniereba, Tbilisi, pp 171–185Google Scholar
  95. Simon O (1977) Das Elektroenzephalogramm. Urban & Schwarzenberg, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  96. Snyder F, Scott J (1972) The psychophysiology of sleep. In: Greenfield NS, Sternbach RA (eds) Handbook of psychophysiology. Holt, New York, pp 645–708Google Scholar
  97. Spiegel R (1981) Sleep and sleeplessness in advanced age. SP Medical & Scientific Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  98. Steiger A, Herth T, Holsboer F (1987 a) Sleep-EEG and secretion of Cortisol and human growth hormone in normal controls. Acta Endocrinol 116: 36–42Google Scholar
  99. Steiger A, Holsboer F, Benkert O ( 1987 b) REM-sleep and nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) -changes of their association in depression and under antidepressants. In: Chase MH, McGinty DJ, O’Connor C (eds) Sleep Research, Vol 16. Brain Information Service - Brain Research Institute, Los Angeles, p 147Google Scholar
  100. Sterman MB, Clemente CD (1962) Forebrain inhibitory mechanisms: sleep patterns induced by basal forebrain stimulation in the behaving cat. Exp Neurol 6: 103–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tknner JM (1972) Human growth hormone. Nature 237: 433–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Volk S, Simon O, Schulz H, Hansert E, Wilde-Frenz J (1984) The structure of wakefulness and its relationship to daytime sleep in narcoleptic patients. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 57: 119–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ware JC (1987) Evaluation of impotence, Monitoring periodic penile erections during sleep. Psychiatric Clin North Am 10: 675–686Google Scholar
  104. Ware JC (1989) Monitoring erections during sleep. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC (eds) Principles and practice of sleep medicine. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 689–695Google Scholar
  105. Webb WB (1978) The sleep of conjoined twins. Sleep 1: 205–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Weitzman ED (1976) Circadian rhythms and episodic hormone secretion in man. Ann Rev Med 27: 225–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wever RA (1979) The circadian system of man. Results of experiments under temporal isolation. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  108. Wilde-Frenz J, Schulz H (1983) Rate and distribution of body movements during sleep in humans. Percept Motor Skills 56: 275–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Williams RL, Karacan I, Hursch CJ (1974) Electroencephalography (EEG) of human sleep: clinical applications. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  110. Yoss RE, Mayer NJ, Ogle KN (1969) The pupillogram in narcolepsy. Neurology (Minneap) 9: 171–173Google Scholar
  111. Zepelin H (1989) Mammalian sleep. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC (eds) Principles and practice of sleep medicine. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 30–49Google Scholar
  112. Zulley J, Bailer J (1989) Polyphasic sleep/wake patterns and their significance to vigilance. In: Leonhard JP (ed) Vigilance: methods, models, and regulation. Peter Lang, Frankfurt/M, pp 167–18Google Scholar
  113. Zulley J, Campbell S, Wittchen H-U (1988) Die 4-Stunden-Komponente in der Schlaf-Wach-Regulation. In: Kreuzberg K, Preu P (Hrsg) Forschung unter Schwerelosigkeit. DGLR, Bonn, S 271–275Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Pollmächer
  • C. Lauer

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations