Advertisement

Cell Membranes, Electromagnetic Fields, and Intercellular Communication

  • W. R. Adey
Part of the Springer Series in Brain Dynamics book series (SSBD, volume 2)

Abstract

It has long been assumed that equilibrium models of cellular excitation that focus on depolarization of the membrane potential and associated massive changes in ionic equilibria across the cell membrane also offer an adequate basis for an understanding of the first events in cell membrane transductive coupling of molecular and electrochemical stimuli at the cell surface. For nervous tissue, it has been generally accepted that the Hodgkin-Huxley (1952) model appropriately describes both sequence and energetics of excitatory events. However, this brilliant thesis from relatively limited biological data was originally offered only in the context of a mathematical description of major perturbations in Na+ and K+ ionic equilibria that occur at a certain epoch in the course of excitation in giant nerve fibers of the squid.

Keywords

Phorbol Ester Intercellular Communication Cancer Promoter Mauthner Cell Fluid Mosaic Model 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adey WR (1975) Evidence for cooperative mechanisms in the susceptibility of cerebral tissue to environmental and intrinsic electric fields. In: Schmitt FO, Schneider DM, Crothers DM (eds) Functional linkage in biomolecular systems. Raven, New York, p 325Google Scholar
  2. Adey WR (1977) Models of membranes of cerebral cells as substrates for information storage. Biosystems 8: 163–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adey WR (1981a) Tissue interactions with nonionizing electromagnetic fields. Physiol Rev 61: 435–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Adey WR ( 1981 b) Ionic nonequilibrium phenomena in tissue interactions with nonionizing electromagnetic fields. In: Illinger KH (ed) Biological effects of nonionizing radiation. American Chemical Soc, Washington DC, p 271Google Scholar
  5. Adey WR (1983) Molecular aspects of cell membranes as substrates for interactions with electromagnetic fields. In: Basar H, Flohr H, Haken H, Mandell AJ (eds) Synergetics of the brain. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Adey WR (1984) Nonlinear, nonequilibrium aspects of electromagnetic field interactions at cell membranes. In: Adey WR, Lawrence AF (eds) Nonlinear electrodynamics in biological systems. Plenum, New York, p 3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Adey WR (1986) The sequence and energetics of cell membrane transductive coupling to intracellular enzyme systems. Bioelectrochem Bioenergetics 15: 447–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Adey WR (1988 a) Cell membranes, the electromagnetic environment and cancer promotion. Neurochem Res 13:671–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Adey WR ( 1988 b) Physiological signalling across cell membranes and cooperative influences of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. In: Frohlich H (ed) Biological coherence and response to external stimuli. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Adey WR, Lawrence AF (eds) (1984) Nonlinear electrodynamics in biological systems. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Adey WR, Bawin SM, Lawrence AF (1982) Effects of weak, amplitude-modulated microwave fields on calcium efflux from awake cat cerebral cortex. Bioelectromagnetics 3: 295–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Balcer-Kubiczek E, Harrison GH (1985) Evidence for microwave carcinogenesis in vitro. Carcinogenesis 6: 859–864PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bass L, Moore WJ (1968) A model of nervous excitation based on the Wien dissociation effect. In: Rich A, Davidson CM (eds) Structural chemistry and molecular biology, Freeman, San Francisco, p 356Google Scholar
  14. Bassett CAL, Mitchell N, Gaston SR (1982) Pulsing electromagnetic fields in ununited fractures and failed arthrodeses. J Am Med Assoc 247: 623–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bawin SM, Adey WR (1976) Sensitivity of calcium binding in cerebral tissue to weak environmental electric fields oscillating at low frequency. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 73: 1999–2003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bawin SM, Kaczmarek LK, Adey WR (1975) Effects of modulated VHF fields on the central nervous system. Ann NY Acad Sci 247: 74–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bawin SM, Adey WR, Sabbot IM (1978 a) Ionic factors in release of 45Ca2+ from chick cerebral tissue by electromagnetic fields. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75: 6314–6318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bawin SM, Sheppard AR, Adey WR (1978 b) Possible mechanisms of weak electromagnetic field coupling in brain tissue. Bioelectrochem Bioenergetics 5: 67–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bennett MVL, Trinkhaus JP (1970) Electrical coupling between embryonic cells by way of extracellular space and specialized junctions. J Cell Biol 44: 592–606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bennett MVL, Aljure E, Nakajima Y, Pappas GD (1963) Electrotonic junctions between teleost spinal neurons: electrophysiology and ultrastructure. Science 141: 262–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Blackman CF, Elder J A, Weil CM, Benane SG, Eichinger DC, House DE (1979) Induction of calcium ion efflux from brain tissue by radio frequency radiation. Radio Sci. 14: 94–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Blackman CF, Benane SG, Kinney LS, Joines WT, House DE (1982) Effects of ELF fields on calcium-ion efflux from brain tissue in vitro. Radiat Res 92: 510–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Blackman CF, Benane SG, House DE, Joines WT (1985 a) Effects of ELF (1-120 Hz) and modulated (50 Hz) RF fields on the efflux of calcium ions from brain tissue in vitro. Bioelectromagnetics 6: 1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Blackman CF, Benane SG, Rabinowitz JR, House DE, Joines WT (1985 b) A role for the magnetic field in the radiation-induced efflux of calcium ions from brain tissue in vitro. Bioelectromagnetics 6: 327–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Blank M (1976) Hemoglobin reactions as interfacial phenomena. J Electrochem Soc 123: 1653–1656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Blank M (1986) Electrical double blayers in membrane transport and nerve excitation. Bioelectrochem Soc, First Int School, Pleven, Bulgaria. Proceedings, p 26Google Scholar
  27. Byus CV, Lundak RL, Fletcher RM, Adey WR (1984) Alterations in protein kinase activity following exposure of cultured lymphocytes to modulated microwave fields. Bioelectromagnetics 5: 34–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Byus CV, Pieper S, Adey WR (1987) The effect of environmentally significant low-energy 60 Hz electromagnetic fields upon the cancer-related enzyme ornithine decarboxylase. Carcinogenesis 8: 1385–1389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Byus CV, Kartun K, Pieper S, Adey WR (1988) Microwaves act at cell membranes alone or in synergy with cancer-promoting phorbol esters to enhance ornithine decarboxylase activity. Cancer Res 48: 4222–4226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cole KS (1940) Permeability and impermeability of cell membranes for ions. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 8: 110–122Google Scholar
  31. Delgado JMR, Leal J, Monteagudo JL, Garcia MG (1982) Embryological changes induced by weak, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields J Anat 134: 533–552Google Scholar
  32. DeRiemer SA, Strong JA, Albert KA, Greengard P, Kaczmarek LK (1985) Enhancement of calcium current in Aplysia neurons by phorbol ester and kinase C. Nature 313: 313–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dewey MM, Barr L (1962) Intercellular connection between smooth muscle cells: the nexus. Science 137: 670–672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dixey R, Rein G (1982) 3H-Noradrenaline release potentiated in a clonal nerve cell line by low-intensity pulsed magnetic fields. Nature 296: 253–255Google Scholar
  35. Dutta SK, Subramaniam A, Ghosh B, Parshad R (1984) Microwave radiation-induced calcium efflux from brain tissue. Bioelectromagnetics 5: 71–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Eccles JC (1953) The neurophysiological basis of mind. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  37. Edelman GM (1984) Cell adhesion molecules: a molecular basis for animal form. Sci 250 (4): 118–129Google Scholar
  38. Ehrlich YH, Davis TB, Bock DE, Kornecki E, Lenox R (1986) Exto-protein kinase activity on the external surface of neural cells. Nature 320: 67–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Elul R (1966) Applications of non-uniform electric fields. Part I. Electrophoretic evaluation of absorption. Trans Faraday Soc 62: 3484–3492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Elul R (1967) Fixed charge in the cell membrane. J Physiol (Lond) 189: 351–365Google Scholar
  41. Fitzsimmons RJ, Farley J, Adey WR, Baylink DJ (1986) Embryonic bone matrix formation is increased after exposure to a low-amplitude capacitively coupled electric field, in vitro. Biochim Biophys Acta 882: 51–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fletcher WH, Shiu WW, Haviland DL, Ware CF, Adey WR (1986) A modulated-microwave field and tumor promoters similarly enhance the actions of alpha-lymphotoxins. Proceedings of the 8th annual meeting of the Bioelectromagnetics Society, p 12 (abstract)Google Scholar
  43. Fletcher WH, Byus CV, Walsh DA ( 1987 a) Receptor-mediated action without occupancy: a function for cell-cell communication in ovarian follicles. In: Mahesh V (ed) Regulation of ovarian and testicular function, Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. Fletcher WH, Shiu WW, Ishida TA, Haviland DL, Ware CF (1987 b) Resistance to the cytolytic action of lymphotoxin and tumor necrosis factor coincides with the presence of gap junctions uniting target cells. J Immunol 139(3): 1–7Google Scholar
  45. Furshpan EJ, Furakawa T (1962) Intracellular and extracellular responses of several regions of the Mauthner cell in the goldfish. J Neurophysiol 25: 732–771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Furshpan EJ, Potter DD (1959) Transmission at the giant motor synapses of the wayfish. J Physiol (Lond) 145: 289–325Google Scholar
  47. Gilula NB, Reeves OR, Steinbach A (1972) Metabolic coupling, ionic coupling and cell contacts. Nature 235: 262–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hertzberg EL (1984) A detergent-independent procedure for the isolation of gap junctions from rat liver. J Biol Chem 259: 9936–9943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hodgkin AL, Huxley AF (1952) A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve. J Physiol (Lond) 117: 500–517Google Scholar
  50. Hong CZ (1987) Static magnetic field influence on human nerve function. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 68: 162–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kaczmarek LK, Adey WR (1974) Weak electric gradients change ionic and transmitter fluxes in cortex. Brain Res 66: 537–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kanno J, Loewenstein WR (1966) Cell-to-cell passage of large molecules. Nature 212: 629–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kavaliers M, Ossenkopp KP (1986) Magnetic field inhibition of morphine-induced analgesia and behavioral activity in mice: evidence for involvement of calcium ions. Brain Res 379: 30–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lawrence AF, Adey WR (1982) Nonlinear wave mechanisms in interactions between excitable tissue and electromagnetic fields. Neurol Res 4: 115–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Lawrence AF, McDaniel JC, Chang DB, Birge RR (1987) The nature of phonons and solitary waves in alpha-helical proteins. Biophys J 51: 785–793PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lin-Liu S, Adey WR (1982) Low frequency, amplitude-modulated microwave fields change calcium efflux rates from synaptosomes. Bioelectromagnetics 3: 309–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Loewenstein WR (1968) Communication through cell junctions. Implications in growth and differentiation. Dev Biol 2: 151–157Google Scholar
  58. Loewenstein WR (1979) Junctional intercellular communication and the control of growth. Biochim Biophys Acta 560: 1–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Loewenstein WR (1981) Junctional intercellular communication: the cell-to-cell membrane channel. Physiol Rev 61: 829–913PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Loewenstein WR, Kanno Y (1966) Intercellular communication and the control of tissue growth. Nature 209: 1248–1250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Luben RA, Cain CD (1984) Use of bone cell hormone responses to investigate bioelectromag- netic effects on membranes in vitro. In: Adey WR, Lawrence AF (eds) Nonlinear electrodynamics in biological systems. Plenum, New York, p 23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Luben RA, Cain CD, Chen MY, Rosen DM, Adey WR (1982) Effects of electromagnetic stimuli on bone and bone cells in vitro: inhibition of responses to parathyroid hormone by low-energy, low-frequency fields. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 4180–4183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lyle DB, Schechter P, Adey WR, Lundak RL (1983) Suppression of T lymphocyte cytotoxicity following exposure to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated fields. Bioelectromagnetics 4: 281–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Maddox J (1986) Physicists about to hijack DNA? Nature 324: 11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Milham S (1985) Mortality in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields. Environ Health Perspect 62: 297–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Moolenaar WH, Aerts RJ, Tertoolen LGJ, DeLast SW (1986) The epidermal growth factor-induced calcium signal in A431 cells. J Biol Chem 261: 279–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Newmark P (1987) Oncogenes and cell growth. Nature 327: 101–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nishizuka Y (1983) Calcium, phospholipid and transmembrane signalling. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B302: 101–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nishizuka Y (1984) The role of protein kinase C in cell surface transduction and tumor promotion. Nature 308: 693–696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pasti G, Lacal JC, Warren BS, Aaronson SA, Blumberg PM (1986) Loss of mouse fibroblast response to phorbol esters restored by microinjected protein kinase C. Nature 324: 375–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pitts JD, Finbow ME (1986) The gap junction. J Cell Sci [Suppl] 4: 239–266Google Scholar
  72. Radeke MJ, Misko TP, Hsu C, Herzenberger LA, Shooter EM (1987) Gene transfer and molecular cloning of the rat nerve growth factor receptor. Nature 325: 393–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Revel JP, Karnovsky MJ (1967) Hexagonal arrays of subunits in intercellular junctions of the mouse heart and liver. J Cell Biol 33: C7–C12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Riedel H, Schlessinger J, Ullrich A (1986) A chimeric ligand binding verb B/EGF receptor retains transforming potential. Science 236: 197–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Robertson JD (1963) The occurrence of a subunit pattern in the unit membranes of club endings in Mauthner cell synapses in goldfish brains. J Cell Biol 19: 201–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Savitz DA, Wachtel H, Barnes F (1986) National contractor’s review. US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Storage and Distribution, Washington DC, and Electric Power Research Institute Health Studies Program Proceedings, Palo Alto, NovemberGoogle Scholar
  77. Semm P (1983) Neurobiological investigations on the magnetic sensitivity of the pineal gland in rodents and pigeons. Comp Biol Physiol 76A: 683–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Semm P, Demaine C (1986) Neurophysiological properties of magnetic cells in the pigeon’s visual system. J Comp Physiol 159: 619–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Singer SJ, Nicolson GL (1972) The fluid mosaic model of the structure of cell membranes. Science 175: 720–731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Trosko JE, Chang CC (1986) Oncogene and chemical inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication: implications for teratogenesis and carcinogenesis. In: Genetic toxicology of environmental chemicals, part B: Genetic effects and applied mutagenesis. Liss, New York, P21Google Scholar
  81. Ullrich A, Coussens L, Hayflick JS, Dull TJ, Gray Tam AW, Lee J, Yarden Y, Libermann TA, Schlessinger J, Downard J, Mayes ELV, Whittle N, Waterfield MD, Seeburg PH (1985) Human epidermal growth factor receptor cDNA sequence and aberrant expression of the amplified gene in A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. Nature 309: 428–431Google Scholar
  82. Unwin PMT, Ennis PD (1984) Two configurations of a channel-forming membrane protein. Nature 307: 609 - 613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Van der Kloot WG, Cohen I (1979) Membrane surface potential changes may alter drug interactions: an example, acetyl choline and curare. Science 203: 1351–1352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Warner AE, Guthrie SC, Gilula NB (1984) Antibodies to gap-junctional protein selectively disrupt junctional communication in the early amphibian embryo. Nature 311: 127–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Welker HA, Semm P, Willig RP, Wiltschko W, Vollrath L (1983) Effects of an artificial magnetic field on serotonin-TV-acetyltransferase activity and melatonin content of the rat pineal gland. Ex Brain Res 50: 426–531Google Scholar
  86. Wertheimer N, Leeper E (1979) Electrical wiring configurations and childhood cancer. Am, J Epidemiol 109: 273–284Google Scholar
  87. Yotti LP, Chang CC, Trosko JE (1979) Elimination of metabolic cooperation in Chinese hamster cells by a tumor promoter. Science 206: 1089–1091PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. R. Adey

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations