Transforming Growth Factor-β
Transforming growth factor, type β (TGF-β) was first described by its ability to stimulate mouse embryo-derived AKR-2B cells (Moses et al. 1981) and rat NRK cells to grow in soft agar (Roberts et al. 1981). (The latter cells also required the addition of epidermal growth factor, EGF.) Subsequent studies have shown that TGF-β functions as a growth stimulator only for certain fibroblastic cells, possibly through an indirect mechanism involving the induction of endogenous growth-factor synthesis resulting in autocrine growth (Leof et al. 1986). In fact, TGF-β is a growth inhibitor for most cell types tested (Moses et al. 1985a and unpublished observations). Its growth-inhibitory properties, or those of a closely related molecule, were described by Holley and co-workers several years before its growth-stimulatory effects were discovered (Holley et al. 1978; Tucker et al. 1984a). This review discusses the possible mechanism of growth stimulation and growth inhibition by TGF-β and the possible role of this factor in neoplastic transformation.
KeywordsTransform Growth Factor Soft Agar Chicken Embryo Fibroblast Autocrine Stimulation Human Foreskin Keratinocytes
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