ZAK Zürich pp 306-311 | Cite as

The Use of D-Phenylalanine in the Treatment of Chronic Pain

Conference paper
Part of the Anaesthesiologie und Intensivmedizin / Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine book series (A+I, volume 188)


In the spinal cord, there appears to be a relationship between the enkephalins and the control of pain. The enkephalins appear to act as inhibitory transmitters, and the anatomical evidence which finds enkephalin-like immunoreactive material in terminals making normal synaptic contacts supports this observation [4], Similarly, the opioid neurons that appear to be the most intimately involved in the regulation of nociceptive information are those containing the enkephalin peptides [13]. Immunochemical studies have revealed many enkephalin-containing neurons and nerve terminals concentrated in laminae I and II of the dorsal horn in the spinal cord [10]. Autoradiographic mapping studies have shown that the spinal distribution of opiate receptors, which is the subclass most closely linked with pain pathways, parallels that of the enkephalins [11]. Consequently, there is now general agreement that the enkephalins have a pain-modulating role and are involved in a major proportion of the opioid activity found in the brain and spinal cord.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Budd

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