Advertisement

Neural Control of the Heartbeat and Skeletal Muscle in Spiders and Scorpions

  • R. G. Sherman

Abstract

Neural control of muscle systems in arachnids is poorly understood in comparison to the other large classes of arthropods, namely the crustaceans and insects. The vast majority of arachnid studies have involved spiders and scorpions, and they have been directed primarily to the muscles of the heart and leg. In this report, the existing information on the neural control of these muscles will be summarized.

Keywords

Myocardial Cell Horseshoe Crab Sarcomere Length Ventral Nerve Cord Motor Axon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Atwood HL, Luff AR, Morin WA, Sherman RG (1971) Dense-cored vesicles at neuromuscular synapses of arthropods and vertebrates. Experientia 27:816–817CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Auber-Thomay M (1963) Remarques sur Pultrastructure des myofíbrilles chez des scorpions. J Microsc 2:233–236Google Scholar
  3. Bowerman RF, Burrows M (1980) The morphology and physiology of some walking leg motor neurons in a scorpion. J Comp Physiol 140:31–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bowerman RF, Root TM (1978) External anatomy and muscle morphology of the walking legs of the scorpion Hadrurus arizonensis. Comp Biochem Physiol 59:57–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brenner HR (1972) Evidence for peripheral inhibition in an arachnid muscle. J Comp Physiol 80:227–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brenner HR, Rathmayer W (1973) The quantal nature of synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction of a spider. J Gen Physiol 62:224–236CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Bursey CR, Sherman RG (1970) Spider cardiac physiology. I. Structure and function of the cardiac ganglion. Comp Gen Pharmacol 1:160–170CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Carlson AJ (1905) Comparative physiology of the invertebrate heart. IV. The physiology of the cardiac nerves in the arthropods. Am J Physiol 15:127–135Google Scholar
  9. Foelix RF (1982) Biology of spiders. Harvard Univ Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  10. Fountain RL (1970) Neuromuscular properties of scorpion walking leg muscles. M S Thesis, Univ Miami, Coral Gables, FlaGoogle Scholar
  11. Franzini-Armstrong C (1974) Freeze fracture of skeletal muscle from the tarantula spider. J Cell Biol 61:501–513CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Gilai A, Parnas I (1970) Neuromuscular physiology of the closer muscles in the pedipalp of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus. J Exp Biol 52:325–344Google Scholar
  13. Gilai A, Parnas J (1972) Electromechanical coupling in tubular muscle fibers. I. The organization of tubular muscle fibers in the scorpion, Leiurus quinquestriatus. J Cell Biol 52:626–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gonzalez-Femandez F, Sherman RG (1979) Cardioregulatory nerves in a spider. Neurosci Abstr 5:246Google Scholar
  15. Gonzalez-Femandez F, Sherman RG (1984) Cardioregulatory nerves in the spider Eurypelma marxi Simon. J Exp Zool 231:27–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jahromi SS, Atwood HL (1969) Correlation of structure, speed of contraction, and total tension in fast and slow abdominal muscle fibers of the lobster (Homarus americanus). J Exp Zool 171:25–37CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kanungo MS (1957) Cardiac physiology of the scorpion Palamnaeus bengalensis C. Koch. Biol Bull Woods Hole 113:135–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kawaguti S, Kamishima Y (1969) Electron microscopy on the long-sarcomere muscle of the spider leg. Biol J Okayama Univ 15:73–86Google Scholar
  19. Land MF (1969) Movements of the retinae of the jumping spiders (Salticidae: Dendryphantinae) in response to visual stimuli. J Exp Biol 51:471–493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Legendre R (1968) Sur la présence d’un nerf cardiaque chez les Araignées Orthognathes. C R Acad Sci 267:84–86Google Scholar
  21. Melamed J, Trujillo-Cenóz O (1971) Innervation of the retinal muscles in wolf spiders (Araneae-Lycosidae). J Ultrastruct Res 35:359–369CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Naidu VD (1974) On the point of origin of heart beat in the scorpion, Heterometrus fulvipes C. Koch. Curr Sci 20:643–645Google Scholar
  23. Naidu VD, Padmanabhanaidu B (1975) Physiology of the scorpion heart: Part I - Experimental analysis of neurogenic nature of the heart beat in the scorpion Heterometrus fulvipes C. Koch. Indian J Exp Biol 13:22–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Police G (1902) Il nervo del cuore nello Scorpione. Boll Soc Nat Napoli 15:146–147Google Scholar
  25. Prosser CL (1973) Comparative animal physiology, 3rd edn. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  26. Randall WC (1966) Microanatomy of the heart and associated structures of two scorpions, Centruroides sculpturatus Ewing and Uroctonus mordax Thorell. J Morphol 119:161–180CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Rathmayer W (1965) Neuromuscular transmission in a spider and the effect of calcium. Comp Biochem Physiol 14:673–687CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Rathmayer W (1966) Die Innervation der Beinmuskeln einer Spinne, Eurypelma hentzi Chamb. (Orthognata, Avicularidae). Verh Dtsch Zool Ges Jena Zool Anz Suppl 29:505–511Google Scholar
  29. Root TM, Bowerman RF (1979) Neuromuscular physiology of scorpion leg muscles. Am Zool 19:993Google Scholar
  30. Root TM, Bowerman RF (1981) The scorpion walking leg motor system: muscle fine structure. Comp Biochem Physiol 69:73–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ruhland M (1976) Untersuchungen zur neuromuskulären Organisation eines Muskels aus Laufbeinregeneraten einer Vogelspinne (Dugesiella hentzi Ch.). Verh Dtsch Zool Ges 1976:238Google Scholar
  32. Ruhland M, Rathmayer W (1978) Die Beinmuskulatur und ihre Innervation bei der Vogelspinne Dugesiella hentzi (Ch.) (Araneae, Aviculariidae). Zoomorphologie 89:33–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sherman RG (1973a) Ultrastructural features of cardiac muscle cells in a tarantula spider. J Morphol 140:215–242CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Sherman RG (1973b) Unique arrangement of glial membranes between adjacent neuromuscular synapses in a spider muscle. J Cell Biol 59:234–238CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Sherman RG (1978) Insensitivity of the spider heart to solitary wasp venom. Comp Biochem Physiol 61 A:611–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sherman RG, Bursey CR, Fourtner CR, Pax RA (1969) Cardiac ganglia in spiders (Arachnida: Araneae). Experientia 25:438–439CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Sherman RG, Luff AR (1971) Structural features of the tarsal claw muscles of the spider Eurypelma marxi Simon. Can J Zool 49:1549–1556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sherman RG, Pax RA (1967) A physiological and morphological study of a spider heart. Am Zool 7:190–191Google Scholar
  39. Sherman RG, Pax RA (1968) The heartbeat of the spider Geolycosa missouriensis. Comp Biochem Physiol 26:529–536CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Sherman RG, Pax RA (1970a) Spider cardiac physiology. II. Responses of a tarantula heart to cholinergic compounds. Comp Gen Pharmacol 1:171–184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Sherman RG, Pax RA (1970b) Spider cardiac physiology. III. Responses of a tarantula heart to certain catecholamines, amino acids, and 5-hydroxytryptamine. Comp Gen Pharmacol 1:185–195CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Smith DS (1971) On the significance of cross-bridges between microtubules and synaptic vesicles. Philos Trans R Soc London Ser B 261:395–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ude J, Richter K (1974) The submicroscopic morphology of the heart ganglion of the spider Tegenaria atrica (C. L. Koch) and its neuroendocrine relations to the myocard. Comp Biochem Physiol 48 A:301–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Venkatachari SAT, Naidu VD (1969) Choline esterase activity in the nervous system and the innervated organs of the scorpion, Heterometrus fulvipes. Experientia 25:821–822CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Wilson RS (1967) The heartbeat of the spider Heteropoda venatoria. J Insect Physiol 13:1309–1326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zebe E, Rathmayer W (1968) Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen an Spinnenmuskeln. Z Zellforsch 92:377–387CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Zwicky KT (1968) Innervation and pharmacology of the heart of Urodacus, a scorpion. Comp Biochem Physiol 24:799–808CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Zwicky KT, Hodgson SM (1965) Occurrence of myogenic hearts in arthropods. Nature (London) 207:778–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. G. Sherman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyMiami UniversityOxfordUSA

Personalised recommendations