Clinical Pathology

  • V. Boonpucknavig
  • T. Srichaikul
  • S. Punyagupta
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 68 / 1)


Malaria has always been considered as one of the most important and deadly diseases of man. In 1955 a short-lived hope of malaria eradication was created when a global programme was initiated by the World Health Organization (WHO 1955, 1956). Twenty years later, because of the development of resistance to DDT by the mosquitoes and to chloroquine by Plasmodium falciparum, as well as financial problems, the programme was declared a failure (WHO 1975).


Disseminate Intravascular Coagulation Falciparum Malaria Cerebral Malaria Clinical Pathology G6PD Deficiency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abdalla S, Weatherall DJ, Wickramasinghe SN, Hughes M (1980) The anaemia in P. falciparum malaria. Br J Haematol 46:171–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aikawa M (1971) Parasitological review: Plasmodium: the fine structure of malarial parasites. Exp Parasitol 30:284–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aikawa M, Miller LH, Rabbege JR (1975) Caveola-vesicle complexes in the plasmalemma of erythrocytes infected by Plasmodium vivax and P. cynomolgi. Am J Pathol 79:285–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aikawa M, Suzuki M, Gutierrez Y (1980) Pathology of malaria. In: Kreier JP (ed) Malaria, vol 2. Academic, New York, pp 47–102Google Scholar
  5. Al-Ibrahim MS, Holzman RS (1975) Bilateral pleural effusions with Plasmodium falciparum infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 24:910–912PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Allison AC, Houba V (1976) Immunopathology due to complexes of antigen and antibody (Type III reactions), in parasitic infections. In: Cohen S, Sadun E (ed) Immunology of parasitic infections. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp 436–447Google Scholar
  7. Allison AC, Houba V, Hendrickse RG, de Petris S, Edington GM, Adeniyi A (1969) Immune complexes in the nephrotic syndrome of African children. Lancet I:1232–1238Google Scholar
  8. Anderson WAD, Morrison DB (1942) Role of parasite pigment (ferrihemic acid) in the production of lesions in malaria. Arch Pathol 33:677–686Google Scholar
  9. Applebaum IL, Shrager J (1944) Pneumonitis associated with malaria. Arch Intern Med 74:155–162Google Scholar
  10. Areekul S (1973) Rigidity of red cell during malarial infection. J Med Assoc Thai 56:163–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Balcerzak SP, Arnold JD, Martin DC (1972) Anatomy of red cell damage by Plasmodium falciparum in man. Blood 40:98–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Beale PJ, Cormack JD, Oldrey TBN (1972) Thrombocytopenia in malaria with immunoglobulin (IgM) changes. Br Med J 1:345–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Benjapongsh W (1966) Clinical studies of blackwater fever with erythrocyte glucose-6-phos-phate dehydrogenase deficiency. J Dep Med Serv 17:128–133Google Scholar
  14. Berger M, Birch LM, Conte NF (1967) The nephrotic syndrome secondary to acute glomerulonephritis during falciparum malaria. Ann Intern Med 67:1163–1171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bergin J (1967) Malaria and the lung. Milit Med 132:522–526Google Scholar
  16. Bhamarapravati N, Boonpucknavig S, Boonpucknavig V, Yaemboonruang (1973) Glomerular changes in acute Plasmodium falciparum infection: An immunopathologic study. Arch Pathol 96:289–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bienzle U, Ayeni O, Lucas AO, Luzzatto L (1972) Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malaria, greater resistance of females heterozygous to enzyme deficiency and of males with non-deficient variant. Lancet I:107–110Google Scholar
  18. Boonpucknavig S, Boonpucknavig V, Bhamarapravati N (1972) Immunopathological studies of Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Immune complex nephritis. Arch Pathol 94:322–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Boonpucknavig S, Benchachai P, Boonpucknavig V, Bhamarapravati N (1973) Plasmodium berghei: Detection in organs of infected mice by means of immunofluorescence. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 67:410–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Boonpucknavig S, Wongsawang S, Boonpucknavig V, Bhamarapravati N (1976) Serumsoluble malarial antigens and immune complex nephritis in Plasmodium berghei berghei infected mice. J Trop Med Hyg 79:116–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Boonpucknavig S, Bandaso R, Boonpucknavig V, Bhamarapravati N (1979) Immunopathological studies of Plasmodium berghei infected mice (effect of carbon particles). J Trop Med Hyg 82:79–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Boonpucknavig V, Sitprija V (1979) Renal disease in acute Plasmodium falciparum infection in man. Kidney Int 16:44–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Boonpucknavig V, Boonpucknavig S, Bhamarapravati N (1973) Plasmodium berghei infection in mice: An ultrastructural study of immune complex nephritis. Am J Pathol 70:89–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Boonpucknavig V, Boonpucknavig S, Bhamarapravati N (1979) Plasmodium berghei-infected mice: Focal glomerulonephritis in hyperimmune state. Arch Pathol Lab Med 103:567–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Borochovitz D, Crosley AL, Metz J (1970) Disseminated intravascular coagulation with fatal haemorrhage in cerebral malaria. Br Med J 2:710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Brooks MH, Kiel FW, Sheehy TW, Barry KG (1968) Acute pulmonary edema in falciparum malaria: A clinicopathological correlation. N Engl J Med 279:732–737Google Scholar
  27. Brooks MH, Barry KG, Cirksena WJ, Malloy JP, Bruton J, Gilliland PF (1969) Pituitaryadrenal function in acute falciparum malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 18:872–877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bruce-Chwatt (1978) Introduction. In: Killick-Kendrick R, Peters W (ed) Rodent malaria. Academic, London, pp. XI–XXVGoogle Scholar
  29. Butler T, Weber DM (1973) On the nature of orthostatic hypotension in acute malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 22:439–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Canfield CJ (1969) Renal and hematologic complications of acute falciparum malaria in Vietnam. Bull NY Acad Med 45:1043–1057Google Scholar
  31. Canfield CJ, Miller LH, Batelloni PH, Eichler P, Barry KG (1968) Acute renal failure in Plasmodium falciparum malaria: Treatment by peritoneal dialysis. Arch Intern Med 122:199–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Chongsuphajaisiddhi T, Kasemsuth R, Tejavanija S, Harinasuta T (1971) Changes in blood volume in falciparum malaria. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2:344–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Coatney GR, Collins WE, Warren McW, Contacos PG (1971) The primate malarias. U.S. Dept of Health, Education and Welfare, NIH, NIAID, Bethesda, MarylandGoogle Scholar
  34. Cohen S, Butcher GA (1972) The immunologic response to Plasmodium. Am J Trop Med Hyg 21:713–721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Conrad ME (1969) Pathophysiology of malaria: Hematologic observations in human and animal studies. Ann Intern Med 70:134–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Conrad ME (1971) Hematologic manifestations of parasitic infections. Semin Hematol 8:267–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cross JH, Hsu-Kuo M, Lien JC (1973) Accidental human infection with Plasmodium cynomolgi bastianellii. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 4:481–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Dale DG, Wolff SM (1973) Studies of the neutropenia of acute malaria. Blood 41:197–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Daroff RB, Deller JJ Jr, Kastl AJ, Blocker WW Jr (1967) Cerebral malaria. JAMA 202:119–122Google Scholar
  40. Deaton JG (1970) Fatal pulmonary edema as a complication of acute falciparum malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 19:196–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Deller JJ Jr, Cifarelli PS, Berque S, Buchanan R (1967) Malaria hepatitis. Milit Med 132:614–620Google Scholar
  42. Dennis LH, Conrad ME (1968) Anticoagulant and antimalarial action of heparin in simian malaria. Lancet I:769–771Google Scholar
  43. Dennis LH, Eichelberger JW, Inman MM, Conrad ME (1967) Depletion of coagulation factors in drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Blood 29:713–721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Devakul K, Harinasuta T, Reid HA (1966) 125I-labelled fibrinogen in cerebral malaria. Lancet II:886–888Google Scholar
  45. Dhayagude RG, Purandare NM (1943) Autopsy study of cerebral malaria with special reference to malarial granuloma. Arch Pathol 36:550–558Google Scholar
  46. Dukes DC, Sealey BJ, Forbes JI (1968) Oliguric renal failure in blackwater fever. Am J Med 45:899–903PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Eaton JW, Eckman JR, Berger E, Jacob HS (1976) Suppression of malaria infection by oxidant-sensitive host erythrocytes. Nature 264:758–760PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Editorial (1970) Burkitt lymphoma and malaria. Lancet II:300–301Google Scholar
  49. Endardjo S, Boonpucknavig S, Boonpucknavig V, Bhamarapravati N (1978) Immunopathological studies of Plasmodium berghei berghei-infected mice: Effect of cyclophosphamide. J Trop Med Hyg 81:25–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Facer C, Bray RS, Brown J (1979) Direct Coombs antiglobulin reaction in Gambian children with P. falciparum malaria, I. Incidence and classes specificity. Clin Expt Immunol 35:119–127Google Scholar
  51. Fajardo LF, Rao S (1971) Platelet enlargement in malaria. 136:463–464Google Scholar
  52. Fein A, Rackow EC, Shapiro L (1978) Acute pulmonary edema in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Am Rev Respir Dis 118:425–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Feldman HA, Murphy FD (1945) The effect of alterations in blood volume on the anemia and hypoproteinemia of human malaria. J Clin Invest 24:780–792Google Scholar
  54. Feorino PM, Mathews HM (1974) Malarial antibody levels in patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. Am J Trop Med Hyg 23:574–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Field JW (1949) Blood examination and prognosis in acute falciparum malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 43:33–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Fletcher A, Maegraith B (1972) The metabolism of the malarial parasite and its host. Adv Parasitol 10:31–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Friedman MJ (1978) Erythrocyte mechanism of sickle cell resistance to malaria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75:1994–1997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Friedman MJ, Roth EF, Nagel RL, Trager W (1979) The role of hemoglobin C, S, and N Balt in the inhibition of malarial parasite development in vitro. Am J Trop Med Hyg 28:777–780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Futrakul P, Boonpucknavig V, Boonpucknavig S, Mitrakul C, Bhamarapravati N (1974) Acute glomerulonephritis complicating Plasmodium falciparum infection. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 13:281–283Google Scholar
  60. George CRP, Parbtani A, Cameron JS (1976) Mouse malaria nephropathy. J Pathol 120:235–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Gilbreath MT, Pavanand K, Phisphumvidhi P, Kongchareon S, Wimonwattrawatee T (1978–1979) Partial characterization of mitogenesis inhibiting factor in malarial serum. AFRIMS Annual Progress Report, pp 367–369. Available from Armed Forces Research Institute of the Medial Sciences, Bangkok, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  62. Gilles HM, Hendrickse RG (1960) Possible aetiological role of Plasmodium malariae in “nephrotic syndrome” in Nigerian children. Lancet I:806–807Google Scholar
  63. Gilles HM, Hendrickse RG (1963) Nephrosis in Nigerian children: Role of Plasmodium malariae, and effect of antimalarial treatment. Br Med J 2:27–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Godard JE, Hansen RA (1971) Interstitial pulmonary edema in acute malaria: Report of a case. Radiology 101:523–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Goodall HB (1973) Giant nuclear masses in the lungs and blood in malignant malaria. Lancet II:1124–1126Google Scholar
  66. Hall AP (1976) The treatment of malaria. Br Med J 1:323–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hartenbower DL, Kantor GL, Rosen VJ (1972) Renal failure due to acute glomerulonephritis during falciparum malaria: case report. Milit Med 137:74–76Google Scholar
  68. Heineman HS (1972) The clinical syndrome of malaria in the United States. A current review of diagnosis and treatment for American physicians. Arch Intern Med 129:607–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Hendrickse RG, Adeniyi A (1979) Quartan malarial nephrotic syndrome in children. Kidney Int 16:64–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Hendrickse RG, Adeniyi A, Edington GM, Glasgow EF, White RHR, Houba V (1972) Quartan malarial nephrotic syndrome: collaborative clinico-pathologic study in Nigerian children. Lancet I:1143–1148Google Scholar
  71. Hill GJ II, Knight V, Jeffery GM (1964) Thrombocytopenia in vivax malaria. Lancet I:240–241Google Scholar
  72. Houba V (1975) Immunopathology of nephropathies associated with malaria. Bull WHO 52:199–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Houba V (1979) Immunologic aspects of renal lesions associated with malaria. Kidney Int 16:3–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Houba V, Allison AC, Hendrickse RG, de Petris S, Edington GM, Adeniyi A (1970) Immune complex in the nephrotic syndrome of Nigerian children. In: Bonomo L, Turk JL (eds) Proceedings of the international symposium of immune complex diseases, pp 23–35. Available from Carlo Erba Foundation MilanGoogle Scholar
  75. Houba V, Allison AC, Adeniyi A, Houba JE (1971) Immunoglobulin classes and complement in biopsies of Nigerian children with the nephrotic syndrome. Clin Exp Immunol 8:761–774PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Houba V, Lambert PH, Voller A, Soyanwo MAO (1976) Clinical and experimental investigation of immune complexes in malaria. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 6:1–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Howard WA, Collins WE (1972) Heparin therapy in simian Plasmodium knowlesi malaria. Lancet II:738–739Google Scholar
  78. Hutt MRS, Davies DR, Voller A (1975) Malarial infections in Aotus trivirgatus with special reference to renal pathology: II P. falciparum and mixed malaria infections. Br J Exp Pathol 56:429–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Jaroonvesama N (1972) Intravascular coagulation in falciparum malaria. Lancet I:221–223Google Scholar
  80. Jaroonvesama N, Harinasuta T, Muangmanee L, Asawapokee N (1975) Coagulation studies in falciparum and vivax malaria. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 6:419–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Johnson RC, de Ford JW, Carlton PK (1977) Pancreatitis complicating falciparum malaria. Case report. Postgrad Med 61:181–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Karney WW, Tong MJ (1972) Malabsorption in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 21:1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Kean BH, Taylor CE (1946) Medical shock in the pathogenesis of algid malaria. Am J Trop Med 26:209–219Google Scholar
  84. Kibukamusoke JW (1968) Malaria prophylaxis and immunosuppressant therapy in management of nephrotic syndrome associated with quartan malaria. Arch Dis Child 43:598–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Kibukamusoke JW, Hutt MSR (1967) Histological features of the nephrotic syndrome associated with quartan malaria. J Clin Pathol 20:117–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Kibukamusoke JW, Hutt MSR, Wilks NE (1967) The nephrotic syndrome in Uganda and its association with quartan malaria. Q J Med 36:393–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Kiel FW (1968) Malaria in Vietnam. In: Sommers SC (ed) Pathology annual, vol III. Ap-pleton-Century-Crofts, New York, pp 1–27Google Scholar
  88. Luse SA, Miller LH (1971) Plasmodium falciparum malaria: Ultrastructure of parasitized erythrocytes in cardiac vessels. Am J Trop Med Hyg 20:655–660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Maegraith BG (1944) Blackwater fever anuria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 38:1–23Google Scholar
  90. Maegraith BG (1948) Pathological processes in malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 41:687–699,PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Maegraith BG (1948) Pathological processes in malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 41: 702–704Google Scholar
  92. Maegraith BG (1969) Complication of falciparum malaria. Bull NY Acad Med 45:1061–1064Google Scholar
  93. Maegraith BG (1974) Other pathological processes in malaria. Bull WHO 50:187–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Maegraith BG, Fletcher A (1972) The pathogenesis of mammalian malaria. Adv Parasitol 10:49–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Maegraith BG, Onabanjo AO (1970) The effects of histamine in malaria. Br J Pharmacol 39:755–764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Malloy JP, Brooks MH, Barry KG (1967) Pathophysiology of acute falciparum malaria. II. Fluid compartmentalization. Am J Med 43:745–750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Marks SM, Holland S, Gelfand M (1977) Malarial lung: Report of a case from Africa successfully treated with intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Am J Trop Med Hyg 26:179–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Martell RW, Kallenbach J, Zwi S (1979) Pulmonary oedema in falciparum malaria. Br Med J 1:1763–1764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. McCabe ME (1966) Malaria-A military medical problem yet with us. Med Serv J Can 22:313–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. McGregor IA, Turner MW, Williams K, Hall P (1968) Soluble antigens in the blood of African patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Lancet I:881–884Google Scholar
  101. McMahon AE, Kelsey JE, Derauf DE (1954) Hepatitis of malarial origin: clinical and pathologic study of fifty four Korean veterans. Arch Intern Med 93:379–386Google Scholar
  102. McKay DG, Linder MM, Cruse VK (1971) Mechanisms of thrombosis in the microcirculation. Am J Pathol 63:231–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Merkel WC (1946) Plasmodium falciparum malaria: the coronary and myocardial lesions observed at autopsy in two cases of acute fulminating P. falciparum infection. Arch Pathol 41:290–298Google Scholar
  104. Miller HL, Makaranond P, Sitprija V, Suebsanguan C, Canfield CJ (1967) Hyponatraemia in malaria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 61:265–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Miller LH, Usami S, Chien S (1971) Alteration in the rheologic properties of Plasmodium knowlesi-infected red cells. A possible mechanism for capillary obstruction. J Clin Invest 50:1451–1455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Miller LH, Chien S, Usami S (1972) Decreased deformability of Plasmodium coatneyi-infected red cells and its possible relation to cerebral malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 21:133–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Miller LH, Shiroishi T, Dvorak JA, Durocher JR, Schrier BK (1975) Enzymatic modification of the erythrocyte membrane surface and its effect on malarial merozoite invasion. J Mol Med 1:55–63Google Scholar
  108. Miller LH, Mason SJ, Clyde DF, McGinniss (1976) The resistance factor to Plasmodium vivax in blacks. The Duffy-blood-group genotype, Fy Fy. N Engl J Med 295:302–304Google Scholar
  109. Miller LH, Haynes JD, Mc Auliffe FM, Shiroishi T, Durocher JR, Mc Ginniss MH (1977) Evidence for differences in erythrocyte surface receptors for the malarial parasites, P. falciparum and P. knowlesi. J Exp Med 146:277–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Most H (1972) Plasmodium cynomolgi malaria: Accidental human infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 22:157–158Google Scholar
  111. Mukherjee AP, White JC, Lau KS (1971) Falciparum malaria associated with jaundice, renal failure, and anaemia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 65:808–814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Myrhe-Jensen O (1971) Localization of fibrinolytic activity in the kidney and urinary tract of rats and rabbits. Lab Invest 25:403–411Google Scholar
  113. Neva FA, Sheagren JN, Shulman NR, Canfield CJ (1970) NIH conference, malaria: Host-defense mechanisms and complications. Ann Intern Med 73:295–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. O’Holohan DR (1976) Clinical and laboratory presentation of malaria: An analysis of one thousand subjects with malaria parasitemia. J Trop Med 79:191–196Google Scholar
  115. Olsson RA, Johnston EH (1969) Histopathologic changes and small-bowel absorption in falciparum malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 18:355–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Onabanjo AO, Maegraith BG (1971) Circulating plasma kinins in malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 65:5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Osunkoya BO, Williams AO, Reddy S (1972) Spontaneous lymphocyte transformation in leukocyte culture of children with falciparum malaria. Trop Geogr Med 25:157–161Google Scholar
  118. Parbtani A, Cameron JS (1979) Experimental nephritis associated with Plasmodium infection in mice. Kidney Int 16:53–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Pasvol G, Weatherall DJ (1980) The red cell and the malarial parasite. Br J Haematol 46:165–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Pasvol G, Weatherall DJ, Wilson RJM, Smith DH, Gilles HM (1976) Fetal hemoglobin and malaria. Lancet I:1269–1272Google Scholar
  121. Pasvol G, Weatherall DJ, Wilson RJM (1977) Effects of fetal hemoglobin on susceptibility of red cells to Plasmodium falciparum. Nature 270:171–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Pasvol G, Weatherall DJ, Wilson RJM (1978) Cellular mechanism for the protective effect of hemoglobin S against P. falciparum malaria. Nature 274:701–703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Petchclai B, Chutanonh R, Hiranras S, Benjapongs W (1977) Activation of classical and alternative complement pathways in acute falciparum malaria. J Med Assoc Thai 60:172–176Google Scholar
  124. Punyagupta S, Srichaikul T, Akarawong K (1972) The use of heparin in fatal pulmonary edema. J Med Assoc Thai 55:121–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Punyagupta S, Srichaikul T, Nitiyanant P, Petchclai B (1974) Acute pulmonary insufficiency in falciparum malaria: Summary of 12 cases with evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Am J Trop Med Hyg 23:551–559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Ramachandran S, Perera MVF (1976) Jaundice and hepatomegaly in primary malaria. J Trop Med Hyg 79:207–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Ray AP, Sharma GK (1958) Experimental studies on liver injury in malaria. II. Pathogenesis. Indian J Med Res 46:367–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Reid HA, Nkrumah FK (1972) Fibrin degradation products in cerebral malaria. Lancet I:218–221Google Scholar
  129. Reid HA, Sucharit P (1972) Ancrod, heparin, and ε-aminocaproic acid in simian knowlesi malaria. Lancet II:1110–1112Google Scholar
  130. Reiley CG, O’Neil B Jr (1971) Leukocyte response in acute malaria. Am J Med Sci 262:153–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Rigdon RH (1944 a) A consideration of the mechanism of splenic infarcts in malaria. Am J Trop Med 24:349–354Google Scholar
  132. Rigdon RH (1944 b) A pathological study of the acute lesions produced by Plasmodium lophurae in young white Pekin ducks. Am J Trop Med 24:371–377Google Scholar
  133. Rigdon RH, Fletcher DE (1945) Lesions in the brain associated with malaria. Pathology in man and on experimental animals. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 53:191–198Google Scholar
  134. Rosen S, Roycroft DW, Hano JE, Barry KG (1967) The liver in malaria: Electron microscopic observations on a hepatic biopsy obtained 15 minutes post mortem. Arch Pathol 83:271–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Rosen S, Hano JE, Inman MM, Gilliland PF, Barry KG (1968) The kidney in blackwater fever: Light and electron microscopic observation. Am J Clin Pathol 49:358–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Rosenberg EB, Strickland GT, Yang S, Whalen GE (1973) IgM antibodies to red cells and autoimmune anemia in patients with malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 22:146–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Schnitzer B, Sodeman T, Mead ML, Contacos PG (1972) Pitting function of the spleen in malaria; ultrastructural observations. Science 177:175–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Schnitzer B, Sodeman TM, Mead ML, Contacos PG (1973) An ultrastructural study of the red pulp of the spleen in malaria. Blood 41:207–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Sheagren JM, Tobie JE, Fox LM, Wolff SM (1970) Reticuloendothelial system phagocytic function in naturally acquired human malaria. J Lab Clin Med 75:481–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Sheehy TW (1975) Disseminated intravascular coagulation and severe falciparum malaria. Lancet I:516Google Scholar
  141. Sheehy TW, Reba RC (1967) Complications of falciparum malaria and their treatment. Ann Intern Med 66:807–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Shortt HE, Garnham PCC, Covell G, Shute PG (1948) The preerythrocytic stage of human malaria, Plasmodium vivax. Br Med J:547Google Scholar
  143. Sitprija V, Indraprasit S, Pochanugool C, Benyajati C, Piyarath P (1967) Renal failure in malaria. Lancet I:185–188Google Scholar
  144. Skirrow MB, Chongsuphajaisiddhi T, Maegraith BG (1964) The circulation in malaria: II. Portal angiography in monkeys (Macaca mulatto) infected with Plasmodium knowlesi and in shock following manipulation of the gut. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 58:502–510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Skudowitz RB, Katz J, Lurie A, Levin J, Metz J (1973) Mechanisms of thrombocytopenia in malignant tertian malaria. Br Med J 2:515–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Soothill JF, Hendrickse RG (1967) Some immunological studies of nephrotic syndrome of Nigerian children. Lancet I:629–632Google Scholar
  147. Spitz S (1946) The pathology of acute falciparum malaria. Milit Surg 99:555–572Google Scholar
  148. Sraer JD, Boelaert J, Mimoune O, Morel-Maroger L, Hornych H (1973) Quantitative assessment of fibrinolysis on isolated glomeruli. Kidney Int 4:350–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Srichaikul T (1959) A study of pigmentation and other changes in the liver in malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 8:110–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Srichaikul T (1967) The significance of plasmocytosis in bone marrow of human malaria in correlation with gamma globulin. Annual Report of SEATO Laboratory Medical Research Center, Rajvithi Road, Bangkok, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  151. Srichaikul T (1973) Hematologic changes in human malaria. J Med Assoc Thai 56:658–663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Srichaikul T, Panikbutr N, Jeumtrakul P (1967) Bone marrow change in human malaria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 8:40–50Google Scholar
  153. Srichaikul T, Wasanasomsithi M, Poshyachinda V, Panikbutr N, Rabieb T (1969) Ferrokinetic studies and erythropoiesis in malaria. Arch Intern Med 124:623–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Srichaikul T, Siriasawakul T, Poshyachinda M, Poshyachinda V (1973) Ferrokinetics in patients with malaria: Normoblasts and iron incorporation in vitro. Am J Clin Pathol 59:166–174Google Scholar
  155. Srichaikul T, Puwasatien P, Karnjanajetanee J, Bokisch VA (1975) Complement changes and disseminated intravascular coagulation in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Lancet I:770–772Google Scholar
  156. Srichaikul T, Archararit N, Siriasawakul T, Viriyapanich Y (1976 a) Histarnine changes in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 70:36–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Srichaikul T, Siriasawakul T, Poshyachinda M (1976 b) Ferrokinetics in patients with malaria: Haemoglobin synthesis and normoblasts in vitro. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 70:244–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Srichaikul T, Noyes W, Chaisiripaumkeeree W, Choawanakul V (1979) Serum ferritin and iron binding capacity in malaria. Mahidol University Annual Research Abstract, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, p 265Google Scholar
  159. Stewart AM (1970) Burkitt lymphoma and malaria. Lancet I:771Google Scholar
  160. Stone WJ, Hanchett JE, Knepshield JH (1972) Acute renal insufficiency due to falciparum malaria. Arch Intern Med 129:620–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Strickland GT, Kostivas JE (1970) Folic acid deficiency complicating malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 19:910–915PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Sullivan LW (1969) Of men, malaria, and megaloblasts. N Engl J Med 280:1354–1355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Suzuki M (1974) Plasmodium berghei: Experimental rodent model for malarial renal immunopathology. Exp Parasitol 35:187–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Taliaferro WH, Mulligan HW (1937) The histopathology of malaria with special reference to the function and origin of the macrophages in defense. Indian Med Res Mem 29:1–138Google Scholar
  165. Thomas JD (1971) Clinical and histopathological correlation of cerebral malaria. Trop Geogr Med 23:232–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Thompson GR (1963) Malaria and stress in relation to haemoglobins S and C. Br Med J 2:976–978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Tong MJ, Ballantine TVN, Youel DB (1972) Pulmonary function studies in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Am Rev Respir Dis 106:23–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Varavithya W, Chongsuphajaisiddhi T (1972) Erythrocyte composition in P. falciparum infection in man. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 3:175–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Voller A, Draper CC, Shwe T, Hutt MSR (1971) Nephrotic syndrome in monkey infected with human quartan malaria. Br Med J 4:208–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Voller A, Davies DR, Hutt MSR (1973) Quartan malarial infections in Aotus trivirgatus with special reference to renal pathology. Br J Exp Pathol 54:457–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Vreeken J, Cremer-Groote TLM (1978) Hemostatic effect in non-immune patients with falciparum malaria: No evidence of diffuse intravascular coagulation. Br Med J 2:532–534Google Scholar
  172. Ward PA, Conran PB (1966) Immunopathologic studies of simian malaria. Milit Med 131:1225–1232Google Scholar
  173. Ward PA, Conran PB (1969) Immunopathology of renal complications in simian malaria and human quartan malaria. Milit Med 134:1228–1236Google Scholar
  174. Wedderburn N (1970) Effect of concurrent malarial infection on development of virus-induced lymphoma in Balb-c mice. Lancet II:1114–1116Google Scholar
  175. Wells RA, Pavanand K, Zolyom S, Permpanich B, MacDermott RP (1979) Loss of circulating T lymphocytes with normal levels and B and null lymphocytes in Thai adults with malaria. Clin Exp Immunol 35:202–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Wernsdorfer WH (1980) The importance of malaria in the world. In: Kreier JP (ed) Malaria, vol 1. Academic, New York, p 68–69Google Scholar
  177. White LG, Doerner AA (1954) Functional and needle biopsy study of the liver in malaria. JAMA 155:637–639Google Scholar
  178. Wilson RJM, Mc Gregor IA, Hall P, Williams K, Bartholomew R (1969) Antigens associated with Plasmodium falciparum infections in man. Lancet I:201–205Google Scholar
  179. Wilson RJM, Mc Gregor IA, Williams K, (1975 a) Occurrence of S-antigens in serum of Plasmodium falciparum infections in man. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 69:453–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Wilson RJM, Mc Gregor IA, Hall PJ (1975 b) Persistence and reoccurrence of S-antigens in Plasmodium falciparum infections in man. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 69:460–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Winslow DJ, Conner DH, Sprinz H (1975) Malaria. In: Marcial-Rojas RA (ed) Pathology of protozoal and helminthic disease. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 195–224Google Scholar
  182. Woodruff AW, Ansdell VE, Pettitt LE (1979) Cause of anaemia in malaria. Lancet I:1055–1057Google Scholar
  183. World Health Organization (1955) Resolution WHA 8.30. Off Rec WHO 63:31Google Scholar
  184. World Health Organization (1956) Resolution WHA 9.61. Off Red WHO 71:43Google Scholar
  185. World Health Organization (1969) Parasitology of malaria. WHO Tech Rep Ser 433:5–35Google Scholar
  186. World Health Organization (1972) Immunopathology of nephritis in Africa (Memorandum). Bull WHO 46:387–396Google Scholar
  187. World Health Organization (1975) The malaria situation in 1974. WHO Chron 29:474–481Google Scholar
  188. Wright DH (1968) The effect of neonatal thymectomy on the survival of golden hamsters infected with Plasmodium berghei. Br J Exp Pathol 46:379–384Google Scholar
  189. Wright DH, Masembe RM, Bazier ER (1971) The effect of antithymocyte serum on golden hamsters and rats infected with Plasmodium berghei. Br J Exp Pathol 52:465–477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Ziegler JL, Bluming AZ, Morrow RH Jr (1972) Burkitt’s lymphoma and malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 66:285–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Ziessman HA (1976) Lung uptake of 99MTc-sulfur colloid in falciparum malaria: Case report. J Nucl Med 17:794–796PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Boonpucknavig
  • T. Srichaikul
  • S. Punyagupta

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations