Modelling of Photosynthetic Response to Environmental Conditions

  • G. D. Farquhar
  • S. von Caemmerer
Part of the Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology book series (PLANT, volume 12 / B)


Photosynthesis is the incorporation of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and other substances into plant tissue using light energy from the sun. Most of this energy is used for the reduction of carbon dioxide and, consequently, there is a large body of biochemical and biophysical information about photo synthetic carbon assimilation. In an ecophysiological context, we believe that most of today’s biochemical knowledge can be summarized in a few simple equations. These equations represent the rate of ribulose bisphosphate (RuP2)-saturated carboxylation, the ratio of photorespiration to carboxylation, and the rates of electron transport/photophosphorylation and of “dark” respiration in the light. There are many other processes that could potentially limit CO2 assimilation, but probably do so rarely in practice. Fundamentally this may be due to the expense, in terms of invested nitrogen, of the carboxylase and of thylakoid functioning. To reach our final simple equations we must first discuss the biochemical and biophysical structures — as they are understood at present — that finally reduce the vast number of potentially rate-limiting processes to the four or five listed above. A diagrammatic representation of these processes is given in Fig. 16.1.


Compensation Point Photosynthetic Response Leaf Photosynthesis Cyclic Electron Transport Intact Chloroplast 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Angus JF, Wilson JH (1976) Photosynthesis of barley and wheat leaves in relation to canopy models. Photosynthetica 10: 367–377Google Scholar
  2. Armond PA, Schreiber U, Björkmann O (1978) Photosynthetic acclimation to temperature in the desert shrub, Larrea divaricata. II. Light harvesting efficiency and electron transport. Plant Physiol 61: 411–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnon DI (1977) Photosynthesis 1950–75: Changing concepts and perspectives. In: Trebst A, Avron M (eds) Photosynthesis I. Photosynthetic electron transport and photophos-phorylation. Encyclopedia of plant physiology New Ser Vol V. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 7–56Google Scholar
  4. Azcon-Bieto J, Farquhar GD, Caballero A (1981) Effects of temperature, oxygen concentration, leaf age and seasonal variations on the CO2 compensation point of Lolium perenne L: Comparison with a mathematical model including non photorespiratory CO2 production in the light. Planta 152: 497–504Google Scholar
  5. Badger MR, Andrews TJ (1974) Effects of CO2, O2 and temperature on a higg-affmity form of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase from spinach. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 60: 204–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Badger MR, Collatz GJ (1977) Studies on the kinetic mechanism of ribulose-1,5-bisphos-phate carboxylase and oxygenase reactions, with particular reference to the effect of temperature on kinetic parameters. Carnegie Inst Washington Yearb 76: 355–361Google Scholar
  7. Badger MR, Kaplan A, Berry JA (1980) Internal inorganic carbon pool of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Evidence for a carbon dioxide-concentrating mechanism. Plant Physiol 66: 407–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bassham JA (1979) The reductive pentose phosphate cycle. In: Gibbs M, Latzko E (eds) Photosynthesis II. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism and related processes. Encyclopedia of plant physiology New Ser Vol VI. Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 9–30Google Scholar
  9. Bauwe H, Apel P, Peisker M (1980) Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and CO2 exchange characteristics in C3 and C3-C4 intermediate species checking mathematical models of carbon metabolism. Photosynthetica 14: 550–556Google Scholar
  10. Berry JA, Björkman O (1980) Photosynthetic response and adaptation to temperature in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 31: 491–543Google Scholar
  11. Berry JA, Farquhar GD (1978) The CO2 concentrating function of C4 photosynthesis. A biochemical model. In: Hall D, Coombs J, Goodwin T (eds) Proc 4th Int Congr Photosynthes. Biochem Soc London, pp 119–131Google Scholar
  12. Berzborn RJ, Müller D (1977) Correlation of grana in chloroplasts with the variability in the size of ‘photophosphorylation unit’. In: Coombs J (ed) Read Abstr, pp 30–31Google Scholar
  13. Berzborn RJ, Müller D, Roos P, Andersson B (1981) Significance of different quantitative determinations of photosynthetic ATP-synthase CF1 for heterogeneous CF1 distribution and grana formation. In: Akoyunoglou G (ed) Proc Fifth Int Congr Photosynthesis Vol. III. Balaban Philadelphia, pp 107–120Google Scholar
  14. Björkman O (1981) Ecological adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus. In: Akoyunoglou G (ed) Proc Fifth Int Congr Photosynthesis Vol. VI. Balaban Philadelphia, pp 191–202Google Scholar
  15. Björkman O, Badger MR, Armond PA (1980) Response and adaptation of photosynthesis to high temperatures. In: Turner NC, Kramer PJ (eds) Adaptation of plants to water and high temperature stress. Wiley and Sons, New York, pp 233–249Google Scholar
  16. Björkman O, Boardman NK, Anderson JM, Thorne SW, Goodchild DJ, Pyliotis NA (1972) Effect of light intensity during growth of Atriplex patula on the capacity of photosynthetic reactions, chloroplast components and structure. Carnegie Inst Washington Yearb 71: 115–135Google Scholar
  17. Boysen Jensen P (1932) Die Stoffproduktion der Pflanzen. Fischer, Jena 108 ppGoogle Scholar
  18. Boysen Jensen P (1949) The production of matter in agricultural plants and its limitation. Biol Med 21: 1–28Google Scholar
  19. Caemmerer von S, Farquhar GD (1981) Some relationships between the biochemistry of photosynthesis and the gas exchange of leaves. Planta 153: 376–387Google Scholar
  20. Čatský J, Tichá I (1979) CO2 compensation concentration in bean leaves: Effect of photon flux density and leaf age. Biol Plant 21: 361–364Google Scholar
  21. Charles-Edwards DA (1978) Leaf carbon dioxide compensation points at high light flux densities. Ann Bot (London) 42: 733–739Google Scholar
  22. Chartier P, Prioul JL (1976) The effects of irradiance, carbon dioxide and oxygen on the net photosynthetic rate of the leaf: A mechanistic model. Photosynthetica 10: 20–24Google Scholar
  23. Collatz GJ (1978) The interaction between photosynthesis and ribulose-P2 concentration — effects of light, CO2 and O2. Carnegie Inst Washington Yearb 77: 248–251Google Scholar
  24. Cooke JR, Rand RH (1980) Diffusion resistance models. In: Hesketh JD, Jones JW (eds) Predicting photosynthesis for ecosystem models Vol I. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 93–122Google Scholar
  25. Cramer WA, Whitmarsh J, Widger W (1981) On the properties and function of cytochromes b-559 and f in chloroplast electron transport. In: Akoyunoglou G (ed) Proc Fifth Int Congr Photosynthesis Vol. II. Balaban Philadelphia, pp 509–522Google Scholar
  26. Ehleringer J, Björkman O (1977) Quantum yields for CO2 uptake in C3 and C4 plants. Dependence on temperature, CO2 and O2 concentrations. Plant Physiol 59: 86–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Enoch HZ, Sacks JM (1978) An empirical model of CO2 exchange of a C3 plant in relation to light, CO2 concentration and temperature. Photosynthetica 12: 150–157Google Scholar
  28. Farquhar GD (1979) Models describing the kinetics of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase. Arch Biochem Biophys 193: 456–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Farquhar GD, Caemmerer von S (1981) Electron transport limitations on the CO2 assimilation rate of leaves: a model and some observations in Phaseolus vulgaris L. In: Akoyunoglou G (ed) Proc Fifth Int Congr Photosynthesis Vol. IV. Balaban Philadelphia, pp 163–175Google Scholar
  30. Farquhar GD, Raschke K (1978) On the resistance to transpiration of the sites of evaporation within the leaf. Plant Physiol 61: 1000–1005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Farquhar GD, Caemmerer von S, Berry JA (1980) A biochemical model of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation in leaves of C3 species. Planta 149: 78–90Google Scholar
  32. Farquhar GD, O’Leary MH, Berry JA (1982) On the relationship between carbon isotope discrimination and the intercellular carbon dioxide concentration in leaves. Aust J Plant Physiol 9: 121–137Google Scholar
  33. Farron F (1970) Isolation and properties of a chloroplast coupling factor and heat-activated adenosine triphosphatase. Biochemistry 9: 3823–3828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Giersch Ch, Heber U, Kobayashi Y, Inoue Y, Shibata K, Heldt HW (1980a) Energy charge, photophosphorylation potential and proton motive force in chloroplasts. Biochim Biophys Acta 590: 59–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Giersch Ch, Heber U, Krause GH (1980 b) ATP transfer from chloroplasts to the cytosol of leaf cells during photosynthesis and its effect on leaf metabolism. In: Spanswick RM, Lucas WJ, Dainty J (eds) Plant membrane transport: current conceptual issues. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam New York, pp 65–79Google Scholar
  36. Goudriaan J, Laar van HH (1978) Relations between leaf resistance CO2-concentration and CO2-assimilation in maize, bean, lalang grass and sunflower. Photosynthetica 12: 241–249Google Scholar
  37. Graham D, Chapman EA (1979) Interactions between photosynthesis and respiration in higher plants. In: Gibbs M, Latzko E (eds) Photosynthesis II: Photosynthetic carbon metabolism and related processes. Encyclopedia of plant physiology New Ser Vol VI. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 150–162Google Scholar
  38. Hall A (1971) A model of leaf photosynthesis and respiration. Carnegie Inst Washington Yearb 70: 530–540Google Scholar
  39. Hall A (1979) A model of leaf photosynthesis and respiration for predicting carbon dioxide assimilation in different environments. Oecologia 143: 299–316Google Scholar
  40. Hall A, Björkman O (1975) A model of leaf photosynthesis and respiration. In: Gates D, Schmerl R (eds) Perspectives of biophysical ecology. Ecol Stud Vol 12. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 55–72Google Scholar
  41. Heber Uh, Hank EU, Jensen M, Koster S (1978) Regulation of photosynthetic electron transport in intact chloroplasts and leaves of Spinacia oleraceae L. Planta 143: 41–49Google Scholar
  42. Heber U, Santarius KA (1970) Direct and indirect transfer of ATP and ADP across the chloroplast envelope. Z Naturforsch 25b: 718–728Google Scholar
  43. Heldt HW, Sauer F (1971) The inner membrane of the chloroplast envelope as the site of specific metabolite transport. Biochim Biophys Acta 234: 83–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hesketh JD (1980) Predicting canopy photosynthesis from gas exchange studies in controlled environments. In: Hesketh JD, Jones JW (eds) Predicting photosynthesis for ecosystem model Vol I. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 37–50Google Scholar
  45. Hochman Y, Carmeli C (1981) Binding of manganese ions to CF1 and their effect on the kinetics of ATPase activity. In: Akoyunoglou G (ed) Proc Fifth Int Congr Photosynthesis Vol. II. Balaban Philadelphia, pp 821–827Google Scholar
  46. Jassby AD, Platt T (1976) Mathematical formulation of the relationship between photosynthesis and light for phytoplankton. Limnol Oceanogr 21: 540–547Google Scholar
  47. Jensen RG, Bahr JT (1977) Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 28: 379–400Google Scholar
  48. Johnson F, Eyring H, Williams R (1942) The nature of enzyme inhibitions in bacterial luminescence: Sulfanilamide, urethane, temperature, and pressure. J Cell Comp Physiol 20: 247–268Google Scholar
  49. Jolliffe PA, Tregunna EB (1968) Effect of temperature, CO2 concentration, and light intensity on oxygen inhibition of photosynthesis in wheat leaves. Plant Physiol 43: 902 906Google Scholar
  50. Jordan DB, Ogren WL (1981) A sensitive assay procedure for simultaneous determinations of ribulose-1-5, bisphosphate carboxylase and oxygenase activities. Plant Physiol 67: 237–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Junge W (1977) Physical aspects of light harvesting, electron transport and electrochemical potential generation in photosynthesis of green plants. In: Trebst A, Avron M (eds) Photosynthesis I. Photosynthetic electron transport and photophosphorylation. Encyclopedia of plant physiology new Ser Vol V. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 59–93Google Scholar
  52. Keys AJ, Bird IF, Cornelius MJ, Lea PJ, Wallsgrove RM, Miflin BJ (1978) Photorespiratory nitrogen cycle. Nature (London) 275: 741–743Google Scholar
  53. Kirk JTO, Tilney-Bassett RAE (1978) The plastids, 2nd edn. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam New York 960 ppGoogle Scholar
  54. Krause GH, Heber U (1976) Energetics of intact chloroplasts. In: Barber J (ed) The intact chloroplast. Academic Press, London New York, pp 171–214Google Scholar
  55. Ku S, Edwards G (1977a) Oxygen inhibition of photosynthesis. I. Temperature dependence and relation to O2/CO2 solubility ratio. Plant Physiol 59: 986–990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Ku S, Edwards G (1977b) Oxygen inhibition of photosynthesis. II. Kinetic characteristics as affected by temperature. Plant Physiol 59: 991–999PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Ku S, Edwards G (1978) Oxygen inhibition of photosynthesis. III. Temperature dependence of quantum yield and its relation to O2/CO2 solubility ratio. Planta 140: 1–6Google Scholar
  58. Laing WA, Christeller JT (1976) A model for the kinetics of activation and catalysis of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase. Biochem J 159: 563–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Laing WA, Ogren W, Hageman R (1974) Regulation of soybean net photosynthetic CO2 fixation by the interaction of CO2, O2 and ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase. Plant Physiol 54: 678–685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Laisk A (1970) A model of leaf photosynthesis and photorespiration. In: Prediction and measurement of photosynthetic productivity. Proc IBP/PP Tech Meet Třeboň 1969. PUDOC, Wageningen, pp 295–306Google Scholar
  61. Laisk A (1977) Modelling of the closed Calvin cycle. In: Unger K (ed) Biophysikalische Analyse pflanzlicher Systeme. Fischer, Jena, pp 175–182Google Scholar
  62. Lange OL, Geiger IL, Schulze E-D (1977) Ecophysiological investigations on lichens of the Negev Desert. V. A model to simulate net photosynthesis and respiration of Ramalina maciformis. Oecologia 28: 247–259Google Scholar
  63. Leegood RC, Walker DA (1980) Autocatalysis and light activation of enzymes in relation to photosynthetic induction in wheat chloroplasts. Arch Biochem Biophys 200: 575–582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Lendzian K, Bassham JA (1976) NADPH/NADP+ ratios in photosynthesising reconstituted chloroplasts. Biochim Biophys Acta 430: 478–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lilley RMcC, Chon CJ, Mosbach A, Heldt HW (1977) The distribution of metabolites between spinach chloroplasts and medium during photosynthesis in vitro. Biochim Biophys Acta 460: 259–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lilley RMcC, Walker DA (1979) Studies with the reconstituted chloroplast system. In: Gibbs M, Latzko E (eds) Photosynthesis II: Photosynthetic carbon metabolism and related processes. Encyclopedia of plant physiology New Ser vol VI. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 41–53Google Scholar
  67. Longstreth DJ, Nobel PS (1980) Nutrient influences on leaf photosynthesis. Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium for Gossypium hirsutum L. Plant Physiol 65: 541–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lorimer GH, Badger MR, Andrews TJ (1976) The activation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase by carbon dioxide and magnesium ions. Equilibria, kinetics, a suggested mechanism, and physiological implications. Biochemistry 15: 529–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lorimer GH, Woo KC, Berry JA, Osmond CB (1978) The C2 photorespiratory carbon oxidation cycle in leaves of higher plants: Paths and consequences. In: Hall DO, Coombs J, Goodwin TW (eds) Photosynthesis 77. Biochem Soc London, pp 311–322Google Scholar
  70. Mangat BS, Levin WB, Bidwell RGS (1974) The extent of dark respiration in illuminated leaves and its control by ATP levels. Can J Bot 52: 673–681Google Scholar
  71. Marsho TV, Behrens PW, Radmer RJ (1979) Photosynthetic oxygen reduction in isolated intact chloroplasts and cells from spinach. Plant Physiol 64: 656–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. McCarty RE (1979) Roles of a coupling factor for photo-phosphorylation in chloroplasts. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 30: 79–104Google Scholar
  73. Medina E (1971) Relationships between nitrogen level, photosynthetic capacity and carboxydismutase activity in Atriplexpatula leaves. Carnegie Inst Washington Yearb 69: 655–662Google Scholar
  74. Mehler AH (1951) Studies on reactions of illuminated chloroplasts. I. Mechanism of the reduction of oxygen and other Hill reagents. Arch Biochem Biophys 33: 65–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Meidner H (1970) Precise measurements of carbon dioxide exchange by illuminated leaves near the compensation point. J Exp Bot 21: 1067–1075Google Scholar
  76. Melis A, Brown JS (1980) Stoichiometry of System I and System II reaction centres and of plastoquinone in different photosynthetic membranes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 4712–4716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Monsi M, Uchijima Z, Oikawa T (1973) Structure of foliage canopies and photosynthesis. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 4: 301–327Google Scholar
  78. Morot-Gaudry JF, Farineau J, Huet JC (1980) Oxygen effect on photosynthetic and glycolate pathways in young maize leaves. Plant Physiol 66: 1079–1084PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Nobel PS, Zaragoza LJ, Smith WK (1975) Relation between mesophyll surface area, photosynthetic rate and illumination level during development for leaves of Plectranthus parviflorus Henckel. Plant Physiol 55: 1067–1070PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Nolan WG, Smillie RM (1976) Multi-temperature effects on Hill reaction activity of barley chloroplasts. Biochim Biophys Acta 440: 461–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Parkhurst DF (1977) A three-dimensional model for CO2 uptake by continuously distributed mesophyll in leaves. J Theor Biol 67: 471–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Peisker M (1974) A model describing the influence of oxygen on photosynthetic carboxylation. Photosynthetica 8: 47–50Google Scholar
  83. Peisker M (1976) Ein Modell der Sauerstoffabhängigkeit des photosynthetischen CO2-Gaswechsels von C3-Pflanzen. Kulturpflanze 24: 221–235Google Scholar
  84. Peisker M (1978a) Der Einfluß von Sauerstoff auf die CO2-Kompensationskonzentration von C3- und C4-Pflanzen und von Intermediärformen. Kulturpflanze 26: 81–98Google Scholar
  85. Peisker M (1978b) A comment on the effects of carbon dioxide, oxygen and temperature on photosynthetic quantum yield in C3 plants. Acta Physiol Plant 1: 23–26Google Scholar
  86. Peisker M, Apel P (1971) Untersuchungen zum Einfluß von Sauerstoff auf den CO2-Gaswechsel assimilierender Blätter. Biochem Physiol Pflanz 162: 165–176Google Scholar
  87. Peisker M, Tichá I, Apel P (1979) Variations in the effect of temperature on oxygen dependence of CO2 gas exchange in wheat leaves. Biochem Physiol Pflanz 174: 391–397Google Scholar
  88. Peisker M, Tichá I, Cătský J (1981) Ontogenetic changes in the internal limitations to bean-leaf photosynthesis. 7. Interpretations of the linear correlation between CO2 compensation concentration and CO2 evolution in darkness. Photosynthetica 15: 161–168Google Scholar
  89. Pike CS, Berry JA (1979) Phase separation temperatures of phospholipids from warm and cool climate plants. Carnegie Inst Washington Yearb 78: 163–168Google Scholar
  90. Powles SB, Critchley C (1980) Effect of light intensity during growth on photoinhibition of intact attached bean leaflets. Plant Physiol 65: 1181–1187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Preiss J, Kosuge T (1976) Regulation of enzyme activity in metabolic pathways. In: Bonner J, Varner JE (eds) Plant biochemistry, 3rd edn. Academic Press, London New York, pp 277–336Google Scholar
  92. Radmer R, Kok B, Ollinger O (1978) Kinetics and apparent KM of oxygen cycle under conditions of limiting carbon dioxide fixation. Plant Physiol 61: 915–917PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Raison JK, Berry JA (1979) Viscotropic denaturation of chloroplast membranes and acclimation to temperature by adjustment of lipid viscosity. Carnegie Inst Washington Yearb 78: 149–152Google Scholar
  94. Rand RH (1977) Gaseous diffusion in the leaf interior. Trans Am Soc Agric Eng 20: 701–704Google Scholar
  95. Rand RH (1978) A theoretical analysis of CO2 absorption in sun versus shade leaves. J Biomech Eng 100: 20–24Google Scholar
  96. Rathnam CKM, Chollet R (1980) Photosynthetic carbon metabolism in C4 plants and C3-C4 intermediate species. Prog Phytochem 6: 1–48Google Scholar
  97. Raven JA (1972) Endogenous inorganic carbon sources in plant photosynthesis. I. Occurrence of the dark respiratory pathway in illuminated green cells. New Phytol 71: 227–247Google Scholar
  98. Raven JA, Glidewell SM (1981) Processes limiting carboxylation efficiency. In: Johnson CB (ed) Processes limiting plant productivity. Butterworth, London, pp 109–136Google Scholar
  99. Robinson RP, Walker DA (1980) The significance of light activation of enzymes during the induction phase of photosynthesis in isolated chloroplasts. Arch Biochem Biophys 202: 617–623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Sharpe PSH, De Michelle DW (1977) Reaction kinetics of Poikilothermic development. J Theor Biol 64: 649–670PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Shavit N (1980) Energy transduction in chloroplasts: Structure and function of the ATPase complex. Annu Rev Biochem 49: 111–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Shin M (1971) Ferredoxin-NADP reductase from spinach. In: San Pietro A (ed) Methods in enzymology Vol 23. Academic Press, London New York, pp 440–447Google Scholar
  103. Shin M, Oshino R (1978) Ferredoxin-sepharose 4 B as a tool for the purification of ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase. J Biochem (Tokyo) 83: 357–361Google Scholar
  104. Shin M, Wakita R, Yamasaki Y, Oshino R (1981) Interrelation of two forms of ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase with different molecular weights. Plant Cell Physiol 22: 461–464Google Scholar
  105. Siggel U (1976) The function of plastoquinone as electron and proton carrier in photosynthesis. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 3: 302–318Google Scholar
  106. Sinclair TR, Goudriaan J, Wit de CT (1977) Mesophyll resistance and CO2 compensation concentration in leaf photosynthesis models. Photosynthetica 11: 56–65Google Scholar
  107. Sinclair TR, Rand RH (1979) Mathematical analysis of cell CO2 exchange under high CO2 concentrations. Photosynthetica 13: 279–244Google Scholar
  108. Sommerville CR, Ogren WL (1979) A phosphoglycolate phosphatase-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis. Nature (London) 280: 833–835Google Scholar
  109. Stitt M, Wirtz W, Heldt HW (1980) Metabolite levels during induction in the chloroplast and extra chloroplast compartments of spinach protoplasts. Biochim Biophys Acta 593: 85–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Strotmann H, Hesse H, Edelmann K (1973) Quantitative determination of coupling factor CF1 of chloroplasts. Biochim Biophys Acta 314: 202–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Tenhunen JD, Weber J, Filipek L, Gates D (1977) Development of a photosynthesis model with an emphasis on ecological applications. III. Carbon dioxide and oxygen dependencies. Oecologia 30: 189–207Google Scholar
  112. Tenhunen JD, Hesketh JD, Gates DM (1980a) Leaf photosynthesis models. In: Hesketh JD, Jones JW (eds) Predicting photosynthesis for ecosystem models Vol I. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 123–182Google Scholar
  113. Tenhunen JD, Hesketh JD, Harley PC (1980b) Modelling C3 respiration in the light. In: Hesketh JD, Jones JW (eds) Predicting photosynthesis for ecosystem models Vol II. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 17–47Google Scholar
  114. Tenhunen JD, Yocum CS, Gates DM (1976) Development of a photosynthesis model with an emphasis on ecological applications. I. Theory. Oecologia 26: 89–100Google Scholar
  115. Terry N (1980) Limiting factors in photosynthesis. I. Use of iron stress to control photochemical capacity in vivo. Plant Physiol 65: 114–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Thornley J (1976) Mathematical models in plant physiology — a quantitative approach to problems in plant and crop physiology. Academic Press, London New York 318 ppGoogle Scholar
  117. Viil J, Laisk A, Oja V, Pärnik T (1977) Enhancement of photosynthesis caused by oxygen under saturating irradiance and high CO2 concentrations. Photosynthetica 11: 251–259Google Scholar
  118. Walker DA (1976) CO2 fixation by intact chloroplasts: Photosynthetic induction and its relation to transport phenomena and control mechanisms. In: Barber J (ed) The intact chloroplast. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam New York, pp 235–278Google Scholar
  119. Walker DA, Robinson SP (1978) Regulation of photosynthetic carbon carbon assimilation. In: Siegelman HW, Hind G (eds) Photosynthetic carbon assimilation. Plenum, New York London, pp 43–59Google Scholar
  120. Wareing PF, Khalifa MM, Treharne KJ (1968) Rate-limiting processes in photosynthesis at saturating light intensities. Nature (London) 220: 453–457Google Scholar
  121. Weis E (1981) Reversible heat inactivation of the Calvin cycle: A possible mechanism of the temperature regulation of photosynthesis. Planta 151: 33–39Google Scholar
  122. West KR, Wiskich JT (1968) Photosynthetic control by isolated pea chloroplasts. Biochem J 109: 527–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Wirtz W, Stitt M, Heldt HW (1980) Enzymic determination of metabolites in the subcellular compartments of spinach chloroplasts. Plant Physiol 66: 187–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Wit de CT (1965) Photosynthesis of leaf canopies. Agric Res Rep 663: 1–57Google Scholar
  125. Wong SC (1979) Elevated atmospheric partial pressure of CO2 and plant growth. I. Interactions of nitrogen and photosynthetic capacity in C3 and C4 plants. Oecologia 44: 68–74Google Scholar
  126. Wong SC, Cowan IR, Farquhar GD (1979) Stomatal conductance correlates with photosynthetic capacity. Nature (London) 282: 424–426Google Scholar
  127. Woo KC, Berry JA, Turner GL (1978) Release and refixation of ammonia during photorespiration. Carnegie Inst Washington Yearb 77: 240–245Google Scholar
  128. Woodrow IE, Walker DA (1980) Light-mediated activation of stromal sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate. Biochem J 191: 845–849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Yeoh H-H, Badger MR, Watson L (1981) Variations in kinetic properties of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylases among plants. Plant Physiol 67: 1151–1155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Yocum CS, Lommen PW (1975) Mesophyll resistances. In: Gates DM, Schmerl RD (eds) Perspectives of biophysical ecology. Ecol Stud Vol 12. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 45–54Google Scholar
  131. Younis HM, Winget GD, Racker E (1977) Requirement of the δ subunit of chloroplast coupling factor 1 for photophosphorylation. J Biol Chem 252: 1814–1818PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. D. Farquhar
  • S. von Caemmerer

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations