Comparative Anatomy of the Middle Ear

  • O. W. HensonJr.
Part of the Handbook of Sensory Physiology book series (SENSORY, volume 5 / 1)


All vertebrates have sensory organs that are stimulated by the movement of fluid surrounding delicate hair cell systems. The most simple organs of this type are the lateral lines of fishes and aquatic amphibians; these are located on the external body surface; they are stimulated by water rushing past the animal, by the animal’s moving through the water, or by localized water displacements (acoustic near field) in the vicinity of a sound source. Lateral lines are not effectively stimulated by the minute oscillations in pressure (acoustic far field) which accompany displacements and which constitute sound in the usual sense (van Bergeijk, 1966).


Tympanic Membrane Eustachian Tube Round Window Comparative Anatomy Otic Capsule 
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© Springer-Verlag, Berlin · Heidelberg 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. W. HensonJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.New HavenUSA

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